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Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity.
In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines.
In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest.
A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images.
Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised.
Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue. Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them. For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging.
Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. These [drawings of the surrounding mountains] was all taken from the shape of their tops as appeared from the camp on Tuesday 24 of November, 1846. We traveled from these hills the same direction as we had the day before, southwest, making 12 in the morning and 18 in the afternoon, making 30 miles. This morning marched 10 miles and came to these hills where we are now passing southwest direction to find a pass, if possible, for the wagons into another valley.
We continued our course, southeast, until we make 20 miles and camped on another plain between the mountains on a creek in the center of the flats. We have had some beautiful plains to pass over as we have come along, but a lack of water and timber.
This morning the whole guard has to go on extra duty because one man run his bayonet in a mule. We traveled until 10 oa€™clock and I got ahead of all the train and stopped and took a picture of the mountains around. There was in the evening, an Indian Chief come in and told us that we was on the right road and that last summer there was one wagon went down where we was calculating to go yesterday. Accordingly, on Sunday morning the 29th day, all hands was engaged in fixing for a pass to go into the valley. We left one wagon above and yesterday another as we was descending and we are not yet down and out of this hole that is here marked out. On the north is a hollow where water sometimes rises, putting down from the mountain into the river or creek.
The weather is rather cool and the clouds are in the west, hovering over the mountains as far as you can see. This chain of hills or mountains runs from 12 miles southwest from here to the northwest, out of sight running northwest.
On the sixth day, the camp traveled through the brush for about 12 miles and passed in among the hills and I found a beautiful grove of young timber of ash and a kind of walnut, a little like black walnut and a great variety of other wood or brush which grows on the mountains and in the valleys, good to burn. This place is where the camp passed through into a small valley, where we found an old yard that we understand from one of our guides was built by the man who owned the little town we passed through.
One of the Spanish drovers left and went to the Spanish settlement below here a short distance. This is a large valley and we are calculating to descend it northwest until we come to the river Saint Padra. I awoke and told my dream and went to sleep and dreamed that I was called up by the brethren to tell it which I did and told them I thought it was for not keeping the covenants, but use the name of the Lord, their God in vain and it had become common language to curse each other.


The bottom land here is about one mile wide, with now and then a scrape of bottom much wider. This day, some of our hunters informed me that they have seen a number of bear tracks and one was the width of his hand and length of his thumb.
I understand there is a plenty of wild oxen here among these hills, which is excellent beef.
These bottoms look like the best of soil in these valleys for about one mile wide, some places wider.
Where our camp is, a small town called a€?Barnadenoa€™, once owned by a rich man who built it for himself.
Last night I took a view of our camping ground and saw that it was like the one we had the night before. This is the mountains east are very high, running south until they come against this camp, then they turn east rounding corner and then turns north as I have laid down on another map down the St. As curious a thing as I have seen with thorns, is the large prickly pear or water plant or tree, which is often as high as 20 feet, 16 inches over.
On the morning of the 18 of December {LNa€™s note: This day was the 32nd birthday of Levia€™s wife, Clarissa Reed Hancock.
These mountains are from the left of the center line, running southeast to northwest and on the other side of the road is mountains that are as high as these on the left. This land that we have passed between here and town is baron, desolate waste and nothing grows here and it looks like the best of land, a plenty of wood here, fires.
North, half mile from the road to the foot on the right of this center line as I was facing the mountain, I took this map.
I then looked and I stood at the right hand of him and expected he would say something, but did not. I remembered a dream I had before, which was this: I saw him all alone and said I, a€?There is my fathera€? and got him by the hand and said, a€?Bless me, O my father.
These mountains are those that are on the right hand and is about the same distance and height of those on the left. Along our last days travel, which is the 21 day and I am now in camp, in the borders of the Pema town or on the east side of town. This, the 22 day of December, on Tuesday morning, we left our first camping ground on the Hely and went down this river 8 miles to the Pemo village and pitched our tents. On the 24th day, I got in conversation with one of our guides and showed him my map of Hely River and the Colorado, Salt and Francisco.
Marched at 10 oa€™clock from our camp and the maricopers and raveled southwest by west 8 miles, then by the end of the mountains four miles southwest then west, far enough to make 18 miles and camped on the desert on the left hand side of some hills. This is Christmas Day and yesterday there was watermelon brought in camp for sale and they was good melons, too.
I saw the Chief last night and he said that he knew who we was and some time he meant to go and see the Mormons in California.
In one hollow or gully, it is said that this valley is the best of any and that here is a good place for raising any kind of grain, also anything of the fruit kind, and by the looks of the land here, it seems that a nation might be fed here as in Egypt, by watering the land which might be easily done. Early in the morning, the old doctor came to one tent where some had been boiling beans and asked, a€?What is this?a€? a€?Beans and corn.a€? was the answer. This day I had a talk with Brother Dikes and traveled about 2 miles with him, in which time he told me that he had wanted some conversation for some time and would be glad if I would give him some council and then said that there was considerable feelings existing against him in the Battalion and he would like to do right and that he considered that I was the one to come to get council. I told him I already had that laid to me and I had had a put down for it when there never had been any cause for it and if I should give any council, it would be said again that I sought power and authority and I had concluded not to give any council to any officer, lest it should cause further jealousy.
And then he said that he could clear himself of the charges that was against him and that he had defied any man to prove either Eclyseastacle or Military Law against him, for he had kept them both and when he got to the Church things he thought would be differently represented and would not appear as bad as many suppose and then asked me if I did not think that he had better be independent and do the thing strictly according to law. This day we traveled ten miles and come to the river northwest, then turned west by north and went ten miles further and being 18 miles over the best kind of land. James Pace has now brought in a petrified bone which he wished was in the Church, which must have an enormous large animal, about 9 inches across one end, four inches the other way. We came to the top of the hill and the mountains presented a sight and I stopped and drew the shape of them.
This day made 7 miles over the hill, down on the flats near the bank of the river near a mountain which many ascended and viewed the country and I could see the winding Hely for a long distance. While passing along down the bottoms today, I saw another prickly body of the pear or appears to be a species of the same, in another form here.
I tell the brethren to wait until they can have a hearing before the authorities of he Church and to be as patient as possible. But, thank God we have served 6 months, save eleven days and we will try to heave it as good soldiers, although our shoes are worn out, our torn clothes are all almost gone, the skins of beavers are used for moccasins.
Took a northwest course for four miles and turned around a mountain and in two miles further west, I took the shape of the end of the long mountains seen a long way back. Here the river has a bend and the valleys are not so wide as they are above, and sometimes to be narrow down below here, which is a southwest course from here and looks like the worst of going.
These hills was seen west of northwest a long ways back and sometimes the peak that is above, was west. After we had turned around here, we had to pass through the bottoms, the thickest kind of brush and small cane and cottonwood or poplar, willow and many other kinds of small brush. I have now got in camp and the course we traveled from the bluffs was a northwest course for about two miles and began to bear a little around towards the west and now we are going west and I take some peaks that I can just see on the top of a hill or mountain as we are on the bottoms.


We traveled through sand and over gravel, course and fine, until we made 12 miles and camped on the bank of the Colorado. There is no chance for any landscape here, only on the other side and up stream is a mountain.
I thought I would go and see him myself not knowing it was against orders, as I afterwards heard it was. I am now about 8 miles from our last nighta€™s camp and while on my way here I sometimes discovered something on the ground that looked like a red clear stone.
Hah-yo-de-yah, is all he scrub that grows here on this desert and no grass and in the aroyohs, muskeet and a few other scrubs. This day traveled northwest by west course until we came to where men was digging a well and found water, but it was poor and but little of it and we was ordered to march on to the next, which was 20 miles ahead. This day made 18 miles over some hills of sand and the bottoms or flats was gravel and sand. In the hollow, when we got to the top of this hill, we saw that there was no outlet to this valley, nor inlet. Last night, one man catched up with us who had been sent back after a p low that had been left on Hely River by the commissary. Here is a vineyard that looks beautiful and I am told that there have been clusters of grapes that would weigh 14 pounds and that not uncommon.
We put up, making 20 miles this day, by a good creek that would make the best of mill seats, not more than two rods to dam in between the mountains of rocks and there might be a lake formed big enough to water all the country below, but lack of building timber here. It made me think of the storm when Joseph Smith was with us between the two Fishing Rivers, only here we had no thunder. Once I felt it in my heart and although our men, many of them had become basically wicked, He would spare them.
4 miles from last nights camp and in plain sight of the snow top mountain described here, which I took yesterday and soon after I took it, I ascended a hill and looked at the northwest and between the hills down a valley, I saw a wide extended plain and an arm of the big waters, putting up a point of land, running into the sea about northwest.
At the northeast mountains covered with snow and here it is hot and all things in bloom, birds singing and all around presents a beautiful sight. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines.
The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.
A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area.
The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate.
We passed over the best kind of land I ever saw and came to another creek, putting down from the west into this river large enough to carry a grist mill continually and might be brought onto a overshot wheel as clear as crystal. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated.
After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface.
Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film.
Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history.
The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource.
Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



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