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Description: During a naval campaign against Venice in 1501, a Turkish fleet captured a Spanish ship in the western Mediterranean. The map found its way to Suleiman the Magnificenta€™s Topkapi Palace where it remained undetected for four centuries. A long passage describes Columbusa€™ first voyage experiences, from initial difficulties in obtaining sponsorship to encounters with the natives. The Piri Reis map is drawn on gazelle hide, with a web of lines criss-crossing the Atlantic called a€?rhumb linesa€?, typical of the late medieval marinersa€™ charts. Among the mapa€™s illustrations are two lozenges, which give the scale, and beautifully drawn ships, some accompanied by inscriptions which record important discoveries. The Iberian Peninsula and the coast of west Africa are carefully drawn, in a manner suggesting the style of the practical marinersa€™ charts called portolanos. Another immediately striking feature of the map is the number of islands, most of them legendary, and some of them adorned with parrots.
The most striking topographical detail, and the one that has caused the most discussion, is the chain of mountains running through South America - the mountains which Charles Hapgood (Maps of the Ancient sea Kings) identified as the Andes. The coastline of northeastern South America indicates that information came from Ojeda, Vespucci, or one of their companions. In 1511 Piri Reis began to draw a new map of the world which was to incorporate all of the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries.
In Gallipoli, where he temporarily retired, Piri Reis reduced his source maps to a single scale - a difficult task in those days - and spent three years producing his map. As for the northern part of the map, we see here how Piri Reis benefited by the new Portuguese maps and recorded on it the discoveries made before 1508 on the North American coast by Amerigo Vespucci, Pinzon and Juan de Solis. All the principal rivers in South America are marked on the map, though the names are not written, it is remarkable that he should have shown the river La Plate on the map, when Pinzo and Juan de Solis passed by it and from all accounts, never even noticed it. An even more important argument for the Columbian origin of this part of the map is the fact that the real Cuba, as an island, is missing.
Close studies of the Caribbean portion of the map confirm the idea that the map possesses all the important information that was on the map of Columbus drawn and sent to Europe in 1498 and also on the map of Toscanelli that Columbus had in hand when he first ventured out on his voyages (Book III, #252). The real Antilles are shown on the map not as islands, but as Columbus believed it to be, as a continent. Piri Reis calls the eleven islands on the southeast of Haiti a€?Undizi Vergine,a€? which shows that the number of the islands is not expressed by the word a€?onzea€? which means eleven in Spanish but by its equivalent in Columbusa€™ mother tongue, Italian. Scattered about the map are some other entries that also enlighten us about various details in the discoveries.
By a picture near the island of Santiano is a note stating that the names of these places were found and given by a Genoese sailor brought up in Portugal.
Towards the north, on the map is a picture of a fish on which is drawn a woman and a man making a fire, nearby is another ship and three people in a boat.
The map in question is drawn on a gazelle skin by Piri Reis who had made a name for himself among the Western and Eastern Scholars through his detailed geographical book on the Mediterranean Sea entitled Bahriye [a€?On the Seaa€?] and which testifies to his capacity and knowledge in his profession. As the same thing will be noticed in the maps of ancient and mediaeval times, the map of Piri Reis contains important marginal notes regarding the history and the geographical conditions of some of the coasts and islands. The map in our possession is a fragment and it was cut of from a world chart on large scale. In one of these marginal notes the author states in detail the maps he had seen and studied in preparing his map. Piri Reis, in a special chapter in his book Bahriye mentions the fact that in drawing his map he has taken note of the cartographical traditions considered international at that time. The following entry-notes begin from the northwest corner, turn southward, then proceed along the perimeter, and finally continuing in a winding fashion towards the center.
There we find the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and the newly discovered regions of North and Central America. The pieces of land seen at the side are the peninsulas of Honduras and Yucatan, discovered in 1517 and 1519 respectively. In this second map the drawing of the coastlines shows greater improvement in technique and also close resemblance to the modern conception of these areas. On this map, as on the previous one, there are some explanatory notes, but they are recorded more briefly. Over the second set of scales further north he says again that the distance between two sections is 50 miles and between two dots 10. Beside place-names in the notes near Labrador he says a€?This is Baccalao, The Portuguese infidels discovered it.
Another interesting term used on the map is what he calls the tropics: a€?Daya€™s Lengtheninga€?.
The line drawn over Cuba should, of course have been drawn further north, and the peninsula of Yucatan should have been put entirely below it; but that much accuracy could not be expected of the cartographical technique of the period.
As it can be easily observed from this map, Piri Reis continued following the new discoveries with great interest.
In the capitals of Portugal, Marrakesh and Guinea, there are pictures of their respective sovereigns. IV.A A  This map was drawn by Piri Ibn Haji Mehmed, known as the nephew of Kemal Reis, in Gallipoli, in the month of muharrem of the year 919 (that is, between the 9th of March and the 7th of April of the year 1513).
Description: Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life. This globe, which is 18 cm in diameter, is presented on a separate hand-turned wooden base.
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was born to a minor Portuguese noble family in 1480 and by the age of 12 had become a pageboy to his Queen, at the Court of King John II.
On the Moluccan expedition of 1511, Magellana€™s friend, Francisco Serrao had been shipwrecked and had taken refuge on the island of Ternate where, despite later voyages there by the Portuguese, he had chosen to remain. The five ships, San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago were all small, (none above 130 tons), old and somewhat the worse for wear.
Also on board was a Venetian, Antonio Pigafetta, a Papal Ambassador at the court of King Charles.
On September 20, 1519 the flotilla of five ships finally sailed off into the Atlantic heading first for the Canaries and then onto South America. The threat of mutiny by his Spanish captains was also a constant source of concern and he was forced to arrest de Coca for conspiring to release Cartagena from his confinement on the Victoria.
By March 31st 1520 they had reached 49 degrees 15a€™ South, but the ships were taking such a heavy battering in the worsening climate that Magellan put into a sheltered bay named St Julian to wait out the rest of the Southern winter and to make good all the vital repairs that the different ships needed. However Magellan could not afford to lose such a large number of his company and so he pardoned the lot; they were put to work, chained by the feet, working the pumps, clearing the putrid bilges and undertaking other menial hard labor. The winter in Patagonia was extremely hard and life very uncomfortable for the crew who had to refit the ships for the voyage ahead. After a two-month stay and unknowingly within 300 miles of it, on 18th October they set off in search of the passage. The San Antonio, was carrying the bulk of the fleeta€™s provisions, had a Portuguese pilot Gomes who was both jealous and disaffected with Magellana€™s command and together with the fleeta€™s treasurer Guerra they took control of the ship from the Captain Mesquita.
It is interesting to note that whilst Magellan had always made every attempt to save or rescue his crew when abandoned, the San Antonio made no effort to retrieve the marooned Cartagena at St Julian. Pigafetta describes, a€?We ate biscuit that was no longer biscuit but powder of biscuits swarming with worms that had eaten the good. On February 28th they had reached 13A? North and sailing west arrived at the island of Guam (having passed by unnoticed the Marshall Islands).
Although the crew were refreshed by new supplies of water, fruit and fish a longer rest was needed before any possible encounter with the Portuguese and so sailing southwest the four ships arrived a week later at the island of Samur in the Philippines. However there was provision in the Treaty of Tordesillias for discovered unclaimed territory in either half to belong to the discoverer if he could establish trading ports and conclude alliances with the local rulers. Striking up another friendship with the local native Chief, Magellana€™s fleet was taken on to the larger island of Cebu, where once again Magellan not only became the local rulera€™s (Humabon) blood brother and established trading agreements but also converted him and two thousand of his people to Christianity.
Learning that Humabon had several rivals to the rulership of Cebu, Magellan forced other local chiefs to accept Humabona€™s authority. Albo who had been keeping his navigational log since first crossing the Atlantic was able to confirm that the Moluccas were placed in the Portuguese hemisphere. The two ships laden with their cargoes prepared to leave for Spain on December 18th, but almost immediately the Trinidad sprung such a bad leak that she was forced to remain to carry out extensive repairs.
It is interesting to note that while on the Cape Verde Islands they had discovered that although all the logs on the boat showed that it was a Wednesday, the calendars on land all showed it to be a Thursday. Cano was received as a hero and, at an enquiry set up into the voyage, condemned Magellana€™s unfairness, thereby lending weight to the arguments of the deserters of the San Antonio.
Meanwhile the crew of the Trinidad under Espinosa had embarked on an equally hazardous and grueling voyage trying to re-cross the Pacific from west to east. The work Magellan had done in the Philippines eventually paid off, as the islands became Spaina€™s largest Pacific colony lasting almost until the 20th Century. Description:A  Magellana€™s ship returned to Spain after a grueling sea voyage that claimed his life. DESCRIPTION: This large circular planisphere (6 feet 4 inches in diameter), drawn on parchment and mounted on wood in a square frame, is preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice.
Fra Mauro, a Camaldulian monk from the island of Murano near Venice, was active in about the middle of the 15th century.
Fra Mauroa€™s map was in many ways a more up-to-date map than the printed versions of Ptolemy which succeeded it two decades later.
I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy. Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available. In my time I have striven to verify the writings by experience, through many yearsa€™ investigation, and intercourse with persons worthy of credence, who have seen with their own eyes what is faithfully set out above.
Therefore, Mauro did not use Ptolemya€™s framework of longitude and latitude and he also opened up the Sea of India, which in editions of Ptolemy is traditionally landlocked, but was generally left open to the circumfluent ocean by Mauroa€™s contemporaries.
Jerusalem is indeed the center of the inhabited world latitudinally, though longitudinally it is somewhat to the west, but since the western portion is more thickly populated by reason of Europe, therefore Jerusalem is also the center longitudinally if we regard not empty space but the density of population. Like the Greek geographers before Ptolemy and like the Arab cartographers, Fra Mauro shows all of the continents as being surrounded on all sides by the great ocean. Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them. Fra Mauro, therefore, did not have a very accurate conception of exactly what proportion of the earth that he was portraying in his map. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the south is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to north-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes.
AFRICA: Putting aside for the moment questions of interpretation, it is impossible not to be struck by the illusion of accuracy which the general shape of the continent produces here, especially when compared with most of the previous medieval European representations. Since very little of the coastline beyond Cape Roxo shows a linear correspondence with the actual coastline, these charts may have been worthless counterfeits, the latest official Portuguese findings having been suppressed even at this early stage of exploration to protect the competitive advantage that such knowledge bestowed.
The lack of tangible examples displaying the latest information on the map has been criticized, especially as Mauroa€™s assistant, Bianco, was employed in its production, but it is scarcely justifiable to argue from this that information was deliberately withheld from the cartographer by the Portuguese authorities. It is, however, evident that Fra Mauroa€™s map depicts the coasts of Africa as far as Senegal and Cape Verde, which were explored by the Portuguese expeditions of 1441, as well as giving evidence of that countrya€™s penetration as far as the Congo. About the year of Our Lord 1420 a ship, what is called an Indian junk [Zoncho de India], on a crossing of the Sea of India towards the Isle of Men and Women, was driven by a storm beyond the Cape of Diab, through the Green Isles, out into the Sea of Darkness on their way west and southwest, in the direction of Algarve.
The large island at the extreme southern end of Africa, named Diab, is probably based upon reports of the existence of the great island of Madagascar. Some authors state of the Sea of India that it is enclosed like a lake, and that the ocean sea does not enter it.
The detailed knowledge of the northeast African interior extends as far as the river Zebe [? It has been shown that two main causes of the confused representations of northeast Africa are the ignorance of the cartographer about the existence of the eastern Sudan, so that he telescoped Egypt and Abyssinia together, and the failure to realize that much of the hydrographic detail available applied to one river only, the Abbai, and not to a number of distinct streams. The Coptic Church of Abyssinia was in touch with Cairo and Jerusalem, and it was doubtless from emissaries of this Church that Fra Mauro obtained some of his information. The suggestion is partly retained of a a€?western Nilea€™ flowing from a great marsh, no doubt Lake Chad; beyond this marsh a river flows westwards to enter the ocean by two branches to the north of Cape Verde, no doubt the Senegal and perhaps the Gambia. The draftsman places the legendary and fabulously wealthy Christian ruler, Prester John and his kingdom of Abassia at the source of the Nile. ASIA: Fra Mauroa€™s map was called by Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485a€“1557, an Italian geographer and travel writer), who saw the original, a€?an improved copy of the one brought from Cathay by Marco Poloa€?.
An inscription appears near Chambalec [Beijing], and is very close to Marco Poloa€™s description of the seasona€™s hunting undertaken by Cubilai and his court. To the east, there is a more or less recognizable Bay of Bengal, confined on the further side by the great island of Sumatra. In the southeast, close to the border of the map, is an island with the inscription Isola Colombo, which has abundance of gold and much merchandise, and produces pepper in quantity . To the east of the Bay of Bengal is a very large island, Sumatra [Taprobana over Siometra], the first time that name appears unequivocally on a map.
Giava minor, a very fertile island, in which there are eight kingdoms, is surrounded by eight islands in which grow the a€?sotil speciea€™. Giava Major, a very noble island, placed in the east in the furthest part of the world in the direction of Cin, belonging to Cathay, and of the gulf or port of Zaiton, is 3,000 miles in circumference and has 1,111 kingdoms; the people are idolatrous, sorcerers, and evil.
The islands south of Giava minor doubtless represent the Moluccas, as on the 1457 Genoese map (#248). For the representation of China, a great deal has been extracted from Marco Poloa€™s narrative, as for the Catalan Atlas (#235).
The towns, and the numerous annotations, are taken directly it would appear, from Poloa€™s narrative. With respect to the infamous Gog and Magog, Fra Mauro provides the following long legend on his map. Some write that on the slopes of Mount Caspian, or not far from there, live those peoples who, as one reads, were shut in by Alexander the Macedonian. Here Fra Mauro is opposing the literary and cartographical tradition that took Mount Caspian [the Caucasus mountains] as defining the territories occupied by the eastern-most populations of the world - in particular, such legendary figures as the giants Gog and Magog, whom Alexander the Great was said to have enclosed within the valley of the Eurus.
In the western regions, the picture is confused owing again to the inadequate space allotted to them. EUROPE: Of particular interest here is Mauroa€™s delineation of the extreme northern regions. This note brings together information gleaned from various writers, including Paolo Diacono, Pietro Querini, etc.
Note that in ancient times Anglia was inhabited by giants, but some Trojans who had survived the slaughter of Troy came to this island, fought its inhabitants and defeated them; after their prince, Brutus, it was named Britannia.
As it is shown, Scotia appears contiguous to Anglia, but in its southern part it is divided from it by water and mountains. The tradition in nautical cartography was often to depict Scotland as separated from England by water - perhaps a simple river; it is this error that Fra Mauro refers to in his note.
Fra Mauroa€™s depiction of the Baltic-Russian regions is much richer and more innovative than that one finds in his contemporaries.
Fra Mauro goes against contemporary opinion in the following map legend in saying that the river Don arises not in the Riphei mountains, as Ptolemy claims, but in the heart of Russia. The Caspian Mountains shown above start at the Sea of Pontus and extend eastwards as far as the Sea of Hycanus, which is also called the Caspian because [sic] near those coasts there are the Gates of Iron, which are named thus because they are impregnable. According to authorities such as Leo Bagrow, the over-abundance of detail in Fra Mauroa€™s map is a blemish, since the important and accurately drawn geographical features are inextricably mixed with superficial data based upon hearsay.
According to Angelo Cattaneo a€?Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi is among the most relevant compendia of knowledge of the Earth and the Cosmos of the 15th century.
The comparison between two of my favorite maps, Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi and the Kangnido (#236) permits us also to reflect closely on the issue of the 15th century cosmographic representation of Europe. This contribution will also present the romanization of the 210 or so toponyms written in Chinese, constituting the most ancient description of Europe existing on a map made in Asia.
At first glance the circular form of Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi, the plentiful illustrations and the two thousand-odd inscriptions all around recall medieval world maps.
Though often acclaimed as representing the culmination of medieval mapmaking through its synthesis of the traditional, portolan and Ptolemaic, the Fra Mauro map in truth represents the first great map of a new tradition.
The most definitive discussion of this map, with translations of all of the place names, legends and notes is in Falchetta, P.
Facsimile manuscript by William Frazer for the East India Company, 1804, British Museum, Add. Almagia, R., a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martellus,a€? La Bibliofilia 42 (Florence, 1940), pp. Barber, Peter, a€?Visual Encyclopaedias the Hereford and other Mappae Mundi,a€? The Map Collector, Autumn 1989, No.
Cattaneo, Angelo, Fra Mauroa€™s Mappa Mundi and Fifteenth-Century Venice, Terrarum Orbis, Brepolis Publishers, 470pp. Cerulli, Enrico, a€?Fonti arabe del mappamondo di Fra Mauro,a€? Orientalia commentarii periodici Pontifici Instituti Biblici, Roma, nova series, IV (1935), pp.
Crone, Gerald Roe, Maps and their makers, an introduction to the history of cartography (London: Hutchinsona€™s University Library, 1953), pp.
NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp.
Omboni, T., a€?Ricerche sui mappamondi de Fra Mauro,a€? La€™Esploratore, Milano, IV (1879), pp. Sierakowski, JA?zef, Sul famoso mappamondo di Fra Mauro Camaldolese del secolo decimo quinto: lettera del Signor . Skelton, Raleigh A., Explorersa€™ Maps Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery, pp. Fra Mauroa€™s map was in many ways a more up-to-date map than the printed versions of Ptolemy which succeeded it two decades later.A  Ptolemya€™s Geographia was a€?rediscovereda€™ in Western Europe and had been circulating in Latin manuscript form since 1406, coming to Italy fresh from the Byzantine conquests. I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy.A  But principally in latitude, that is from south to north, he has much a€?terra incognitaa€™, because in his time it was unknown. Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available.A  He claimed for himself to have done his best to establish the truth.
Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them.A  It is said to be 22,500 or 24,000 miglia or more, or less according to various considerations and opinions, but they are not of much authenticity, since they have not been tested. Since very little of the coastline beyond Cape Roxo shows a linear correspondence with the actual coastline, these charts may have been worthless counterfeits, the latest official Portuguese findings having been suppressed even at this early stage of exploration to protect the competitive advantage that such knowledge bestowed.A A  Actually the only contemporary names that Mauro has included are C. Fra Mauroa€™s Indian must be taken to mean a€?Araba€™.A  The Arabs had established regular trade connections with places far to the south in East Africa, and it is not unlikely that a vessel may have rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed into the Atlantic, which the Arabs had long been calling the Sea of Darkness. One of the prisoners taken had earlier made three voyages to the West Indies with Columbus and carried with him a set of Columbusa€™ American charts. Piri also became an admiral and is remembered as a scholar of navigational science and an accomplished linguist. In 1929 this remaining fragment was discovered when the palace was being converted to a national museum.
Most scholars do not believe these lines were used to indicate latitude and longitude but were used as an aid in laying out a course. One is almost certainly an account of the expedition of Cabral in 1500; Cabral discovered Brazil when he was blown off course across the Atlantic while on his way to India.
Here many of the place names are given in Turkish, rather than being merely transliterated from Portuguese or Spanisha€”showing that the Ottomans had practical experience of their own along those coasts.
The accompanying inscription tells a tale from the life of the Irish Saint Brandon, a charming medieval legend. Maps showing islands scattered through the Atlantic were current ita€™s the later Middle Ages, and a globe made by Martin Behaim in 1492 (Book III, #258) - the same year Columbus first set off- shows a quantity of them; so does the Toscanelli map (Book III, #252), which we know Columbus used. The delineation of the coast of Brazil on the Piri Reis map is much more accurate than that of the Caribbean.
The rivers that issue from their base are obviously meant to be the Amazon, the Orinoco and the Rio Plata, and the animal with two horns standing on the mountains is Hapgooda€™s a€?llamaa€?.
In the map Piri Reis adopts and applies the rules of emblematic signs mentioned on page 28 in the Bahriye.
In the bibliography attached to the map he claims that his map is as sound and accurate for the seven seas as the map of the Mediterranean.
Some of the place names on the South American coast, like Santa Agostini, San Megali, San Francisco, Port Rali, Total Sante, Abrokiok, Cav Frio and Katenio show a close resemblance to their modern forms. Outside the parts relating to Columbusa€™ map, the scales in miles are astonishingly accurate. And so it should be on a Columbian map, for Columbus thought Cuba was part of the mainland of Asia, and drew it accordingly. Hence Piri Reis calls Central America a€?the County of Antiliaa€?, and the North American coast a€?the coast of Antiliaa€?. This is another indication of how faithful Piri Reis was to Columbusa€™ map, keeping close to the information of Columbusa€™ map which apparently possessed all that was on the earlier Toscanelli map, Piri Reis handed down to us the oldest map of America and informed us about various aspects of the most important phase in the history of the discoveries. Beside the picture of a ship near the Azores is written that this Genoese vessel came from Flanders, was shipwrecked, and that the survivors discovered these islands. In anther entry close to the picture of a ship drawn near the South American coast he summarizes all the information given in a map by Nikola di Juan who was shipwrecked there. This is the story of Santa Brandon which was very popular in the middle ages, and was recorded in the a€?thousand and one nighta€? stones. The Illustrated London News published a reproduction of it on 25th February 1932, which prompted a detailed letter by a prominent Turkish historian. Piri Reis is the son of the brother of the famous Kemal Reis who was the Turkish admiral in the Mediterranean Sea at the last quarter of the 15th century.
When the photographic copy of the map is carefully examined, it will be noticed that the lines of the marginal noted [sic] on the eastern edges have been cut half away.
In the marginal note describing the Antilles Islands, he states that he has used Christopher Columbusa€™ chart for the coasts and islands. The coasts (the names of the coasts) and the islands are taken from the chart of Columbusa€?. Therefore Piri Reis had made a study of some of the charts that represented the world, and according to his personal statement, he has studied and examined the maps prepared at the time of Alexander (the Great), the a€?Mappa Mundisa€™ and the eight maps in fragments prepared by the Muslims. Such a map is not owned by anybody at this time, I, personally, drawn [sic] and prepared this map. The cities and citadels are indicated in red lines, the deserted places in black lines, the rugged and rocky places in black dots, the shores and sandy places in red dots and the hidden rocks by crosses. Each of the roses is divided into 32 parts and the division lines are extended beyond the rose frames. Besides these, on Africa there are pictures of an elephant and of an ostrich, and on South America of lamas and pumas. It is related by the Portuguese infidel that in this spot night and day are at their shortest of two hours, at their longest of twenty two hours.
On the way to the village of Hind a Portuguese ship encountered a contrary wind [blowing] from the shore. And in this country it seems that there are white-haired monsters in this shape, and also six-horned oxen. It is said that in ancient times a priest by the name of Sanvolrandan (Santo Brandan) travelled on the Seven Seas, so they say. Unlike the first map, drawn under the influence of Columbus, the islands of Cuba, Haiti, the Bahamas and the Antilles are drawn quite accurately.


The note on the left-hand corner of the map, under the scales with the long and ornamental points, gives the signature of the author as well as the date 1528 (A. In his own words the explanation runs as follows: a€?Bu hat gun gayet uzadigi yere isarettira€? which means that these lines indicate the part of the world where the days grow longer. We should, therefore, acknowledge the greatness and value of the work among other maps of the period after pointing out briefly to its various merits and demerits.
It is remarkable that, by taking into account the results of the new discoveries, he should correct in this map the inaccuracies of the first in which he was misled through his unquestioning confidence in Columbusa€™ map.
As seen below, Hans Holbein used this globe as reference for the small terrestrial globe in his famous masterpiece painting entitled The Ambassadors.
Like many of the younger Portuguese nobility he received his education at Court and could look forward to a military command, a diplomatic post or an administrative position in Portugal or her colonies. He had sent letters back to Portugal extolling the riches of the islands and urging Magellan to visit him. They all needed extensive repairs and renovation to make them seaworthy for such a voyage much to the amusement of Alvarez the Portuguese agent in Spain. Whether he was on board out of a sense for adventure, or on behalf of the Pope should any dispute arise over whose half the Spice Islands were in, or as a spy for his native Venice is unclear. However, the course taken south went along the Coast of Africa until Sierra Leone and then went across the Atlantic was both extremely long and hazardous being susceptible to extreme changes in the wind and weather. Because they were technically moored in a Portuguese colony, albeit one that had not established a proper trading post, they sought to leave as soon as they had recuperated and by December 26th they were sailing out of Guanabara Bay and heading south.
In order to survive the winter and still have enough provisions to continue the search, Magellan cut the daily rations in half much to the annoyance of his crew. Capatins Quesada and Cartagena on the Concepcion, Captain Mendoza of the Victoria and the master of the Concepcion del Cano with other Officers plotted to overthrow Magellan and return to Spain.
Of the ringleaders, Mendoza had already been killed by Espinosa on the retaking of the Victoria, but was still taken ashore, decapitated and quartered. Their rations had been cut by half and there was little wild food locally apart from mussels. Three days later they had reached the Cape of the Virgins (named by Magellan) and Magellan instructed the Concepcion and the San Antonio to investigate a small inlet at the far side of the bay sided by high peaks.
Persuading the rest of the crew that Magellan was leading them all to certain doom and starvation they retraced their route to the South Atlantic and straight home to Spain, where, despite Mesquitaa€™s testimony, their tales of Magellana€™s injustice were believed.
It was now of paramount importance to Magellan that he succeeded in his mission, as he knew the consequences he must face if he returned to Spain unsuccessful after the San Antonio told her story. From the logs and journals available Magellana€™s course had taken him across the Pacific missing out every one of the large South Sea Island groups. They settled on the smaller island of Homonhon where they were visited by friendly natives who brought them fresh food, spices, and wine. Sailing on they arrived at the small island of Limosawa where to the delight of all parties concerned, Magellana€™s Malay slave Enrique was able not only to understand the natives but also to be understood himself. It was clear that Magellan had plans for Humabon and Cebu to become the central base for subsequent Spanish exploitation of the Philippines. However one, Lapulapu, refused and Magellan personally took charge of a force of both Spanish and natives to subjugate him. Carvalho assumed command, and owing to the loss of manpower to crew three ships, the Concepcion the least seaworthy of the three was scuttled and burnt. This did not deter the Spanish, however, because the local feeling was strongly anti-Portuguese and with the help of a disaffected Portuguese trader called Larosa, a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Rajah of Tidore. Thus the Victoria under the command of Cano finally left on her own on December 21st and by sailing southwest to Timor and through the Timor Sea into the Indian Ocean she took a fluctuating course due west two degrees either side of 40 degree parallel.
At first they puzzled over the mistake they thought they had made before eventually realizing that by traveling a 360-degree circumference of the globe they had lost a day.
It was not until much later when other crewmembers accounts, including Pigafettaa€™s, became known that Magellana€™s reputation was restored.
Departing Tidore on April 6, 1522 after having made the necessary repairs they sailed north east, but lacking knowledge of the northern Pacifica€™s wind system they struggled up to the 44 degree parallel just off the Japanese coast still hoping to get some westerly winds. Although he had died in the Philippines, it is to Magellan that the credit for the voyage belongs. Magellana€™s route, particularly through the straits named after him was attempted many times in expeditions that followed his but with little success. He seems to have been, to some extent, a a€?professional cartographera€?, substantiated by the monastic records that document expenditure on materials and colors for mapping, wages for draftsmen, and so on. Mauro did, however, take account of Ptolemya€™s geography and travelersa€™ reports concerning the great extent of the East, and as a result, moved Jerusalem away from the position as the worlda€™s center, a marked departure from medieval custom to its true position, west of center in the Eurasian continent. Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the east. Nothing but air and water was seen for forty days and by their reckoning they ran 2,000 miles and fortune deserted them. There would be no improbability in a vessel being driven down to the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, or of Arabs at Soffala having some inkling of the trend of the coast to the south. But Solinus holds that it is the ocean, and that its southern and southwestern parts are navigable. Fra Mauro tells us that he was supplied with Portuguese charts and had spoken with those who had navigated in these waters.
When he travels, he sits in a carriage of gold and ivory decorated with gemstones of inestimable price. To the north of it, and somewhat squeezed together by the limit of the map, are many islands.
The mythical figures of Gog and Magog are represented behind Alexandera€™s Wall in northeast Asia and Termes [Sarmatia] is shown as a town near Bokhara, on the Amu Dorya [Iaxartes].
Fra Mauro states that these regions are inhabited and travelled by numerous well-known peoples, and that if there were such extraordinary figures in the area of the Caucasus then we would certainly have heard of it. But certainly if they had seen with their own eyes, they would have laid it out differently and enlarged its borders, because one can say that within Sithia are most of the peoples who live between the North-East and the East, between the North-East and the North. The Alexandrinea€™s description and depiction of Central Asia showed Mount Imaus - the Himalayan range, in the widest sense of the term - in the center, with the territories of Scythia intra Imaum to the west, Scythia extra Imaum to the east. But later the Saxons and the Germans conquered it, and after one of their queens, Angela, called it Anglia. The people are of easy morals and are fierce and cruel against their enemies; and they prefer death to servitude. Such a division of the two was obviously a hang over from the Roman defenses (Hadriana€™s Wall) that had separated the two nations; it is clearly represented, for example, in the Tabula Peutingeriana (#120).
The name, which also appears in this very form in the report of the Zeno brothers (which was, however, only published in the middle of the 16th century), is certainly an indication of the time when Greenland was under the control of the kings of Norway. Though there are a number of imaginary, or, one might say, conjectural elements in this area of the map, and as observed by Leo Bagrow, it cannot be denied that a€?one is surprised at the wide scope of knowledge Fra Mauro possessed because his picture is unprecedented and would remain so for a considerable period of timea€?. He then describes its course, saying it runs to within 20 miles of the Volga (in effect, the distance between the two rivers at Volgograd is 25 miles) and then flows into the Sea of Azov (Palude Meotida). It is through them that one has to pass if one wants to go through these mountains, which are very high, extend in depth for the distance of twenty day's travelling, and spread for many more days in length. The composite networks of contemporary knowledge (scholasticism, humanism, monastic culture, as well as more technical skills such as marine cartography and mercantile practices) converge in the epistemological unity of the imago mundia€?. In these 15th century documents, Europe therefore emerges as the result of global networks, encompassing trade and knowledge, with the intervening agencies of several cultures. But where they relied on tradition, in his inscriptions Fra Mauro questioned it, on the basis of his own observations, reports received from abroad and from his contacts with contemporary merchants, mariners and visitors to Venice. The expanded depiction of Africa, showing Timbuctu and the rivers Senegal and Gambia, reveals knowledge of the ongoing Portuguese voyages which, with the help of Italian navigators (who had no scruples about passing on information to their compatriots in Venice), were rapidly revealing the true course of the African coast. Fra Mauroa€™s World Map with a Commentary and Translations of the Inscriptions, Brebols, 2006, Terrarum Orbis + CD ROM.
Breve historia del mundo y su imagen (Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1968), Figure 15. R., a€?Fra Mauroa€™s representation of the Indian Ocean and the Eastren Islands,a€? Comitato cittadino per la celebrazione Colombiane. It is clear from numerous legends on his map that Fra Mauro was very much aware of the great deference then paid to the cosmographical conceptions of Ptolemy, and the likelihood of severe criticism for any map which ignored them. Ethyopia extends to the west and south coasts of the continent.A  Thus Mauro weaves Marco Poloa€™s narrative into Arab theory and makes these fit together with the cartographic notions of Abyssinia which he had obtained from a€?first-hand sourcesa€™. To the north of it, and somewhat squeezed together by the limit of the map, are many islands.A A  As Fra Mauro states that in this region lack of space had compelled him to omit many islands, it no doubt also obliged him to alter their orientation drastically.
In this fortuitous manner Kemal Reis, the famous Turkish admiral, acquired maps of great importance showing a newly discovered part of the world. He produced charts, an important book on navigation, and a superb map of the world, which employed the Columbus maps taken by his unclea€™s sailors. Delineated in nine colors, the map shows the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining parts of South and Central America, the islands of the West Indies, and parts of southwestern Europe and West Africa.
He also refers to information from Portuguese and Arabic sources that proved important in developing his delineation of Africa and Asia. Faithfully copied by Piri Reis from one of his source maps, it is evidence that at least one of the mappaemundi mentioned as sources by Piri Reis was a medieval European production.
The relationship and distance between South America and the west African coast, for example, is much more correct than on most European maps of the time - and the place names along the coast, clearly transliterated from Italian and Spanish names, are taken from accounts of the voyages of Amerigo Vespucci and others.
Interestingly, though, the Piri Reis map is not the only early map - nor the first - to show mountains in the interior of South America. While Guadalupe and the islands immediately adjacent in the Lesser Antilles are remarkably accurate; the island of Hispaniola [Haiti] has quite a different form here from other contemporary maps, it is more reminiscent of the contemporary shape of the East Asian island, then called Cipangu [Japan]. Thus he indicates the rocky regions with black, the sandy and shallow waters with reddish dots, and the rocky parts in the sea that cannot be seen by sailors with crosses.
From the various Turkish names on these coasts like Babadagi, Akburun, Yesilburun, Kizilburun, Altin Irmagi, Guzel Karfcz, Kozluk Burnu, Iki Hurmalik Burnu, etc., we deduce that in his drawing he made use not only of the Portuguese maps in his possession, but also of the information supplied by various Turkish sailors faring along these coasts. Except for the two entries about the name and the date of the map, all the other entries are written by a calligrapher. In its northwest corner, for example, there is a large island labeled Hispaniola - today the home of Haiti and the Dominican Republic - which Columbus discovered on his first voyage and where he set up a colony, marked by the three towers on the map.
Most striking of all, it is almost identical to the conventional representations of Marco Poloa€™s Cipangu [Japan] on late medieval maps such as Behaima€™s and Toscanellia€™s. On Pirs Reisa€™ map, the wedge-shaped projection on the mainland opposite Hispaniola is almost certainly the eastern tip of Cuba; the southward-trending coast below is an attempt to draw Cuba as if it ran north and southa€”as Columbus believed it did. The island of Trinidad is written as Kalerot, which probably is derived from a cape on this island that Columbus called Galera. It is true that at a certain spot quite near the North American Coast there is marked an island called the Antilia, but evidently that stood for the legendary island popularly regarded as fabulously wealthy and prosperous at the time when Columbus first started on his voyages. By recording the explanations given by the Spaniard who had taken part in the three expeditions of Columbus and was later captured by Kemal Reis, he related the story of these discoveries from an original source free from the later legendary tales that have grown about them. From another entry we learn that the sea there is the Western Sea, but the Europeans call it the Spanish Sea, and after the discoveries of Columbus the name is changed to Ovasana, i.e. In one of the notes on the Atlantic Ocean he mentions the Treaty of Tordesillas 1599, and a certain line that divides the Spanish and the Portuguese possessions.
But Piri Reis does not neglect to add that the legend comes down not from the Portuguese but from the old Mappa Mundi. History records Piri Reis Beya€™s last official post as admiral of the Fleets in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Three lines only, which from the title and head lines of the map, were written in Arabic; and this is done to comply with the usual traditional way which is noticed on all the Ottoman Turkish monuments up to the very latest centuries.
He sets forth the narratives of the voyages made, by a Spaniard a slave in the hands of Kemal Reis, Pin Reisa€™ uncle, who under Christopher Columbus made three voyages to America. State Department, through their ambassador in Ankara, procured reproductions of the Piri Reis map for the Library of Congress. Each wind-rose is equal to one sea mile, as is shown in the measurements on the areas near the wind-roses.
But it is reported thus, that a Genoese infidel, his name was Colombo, he it was who discovered these places. Impelled by the storm it came upon these islands, and in this manner these islands became known. There is, however, a slight distortion in the map from the true position of the continent as we know it today. In this second map Piri Reis showed only the parts of the world that had been already discovered and left the unexplored areas blank, explaining this by the fact that they were as yet unknown. Delineated in nine colors, the map shows the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining parts of South and Central America, the islands of the West Indies, and parts of southwestern Europe and West Africa.A  Many lengthy notes in Turkish appear on the map, including geographical descriptions and detailed information on the sources of the delineation.
One of the items made to commemorate this feat was a small terrestrial globe; it is possibly an early example of a commemorative souvenir. Because the exact longitude of the Moluccas was uncertain, Magellan thought that their far easterly position might bring them into the Spanish hemisphere as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillias of 1494.
Alvarez did his utmost to sow seeds of doubt amongst Magellana€™s new backers, whilst gauging what potential threat they might pose to the Portuguese possessions overseas. Whatever his reasons Pigafetta kept a detailed journal of the voyage, describing the weather, wildlife and indigenous people as well as the conditions the crew were forced to endure. Already there was talk of mutiny amongst the Spanish Officers who had plenty of experience in crossing the Atlantic. After two weeks the ships had reached Cape St Mary where Magellan is reputed to have said of the large hill behind the Cape a€?I see a mountaina€? [Montem Video] thereby naming the place where Uruguaya€™s capital city now stands. His determination to find a southwestern passage was fuelled by the knowledge that should he fail he faced the choice between a return to Spain in disgrace and with little prospect of further backing, or risking sailing east, south of the Cape of Good Hope, away from the Portuguese shipping lines and onto the Spice Islands. To this end they boarded the San Antonio and took command, so that when Magellan awoke the following morning he found that only his own ship the Trinidad along with the smaller Santiago were still loyal to him.
After an anxious wait of five days the two ships returned with the news that the inlet was not a river but a strait leading into a bay followed by another Strait leading into an even larger bay.
On November 28, 1520 after spending 36 days in the a€?Magellana€™ Straits the three remaining ships entered what Magellan called the Mar Pacifico. Rats were sold for half a ducat each and even so we could not always get them.a€? Magellan realized that if they were approaching the Moluccas they had to find a place to harbor soon, so that the crew could recover before sailing too close to the dangers of Portuguese waters where he knew he might be challenged. Although Enrique was thought to have originally come from Sumatra it was quite possible that he was already a captured slave by then and it has been suggested that only someone from the Central Philippines could have understood the dialect. The crews were refreshed by the abundance of good food and water and were also able to indulge in their favorite pastime of rampant sexual liaisons with the women of Cebu. Whether his success as a great Christian warrior and leader had clouded his judgment or whether he just underestimated the opposition, the fact was the campaign was a disaster and brought about Magellana€™s death. There followed six months of meandering around the Philippines and Brunei, most of it spent searching out fresh supplies. In fact the Portuguese had apparently been awaiting Magellana€™s ships from the onset of the voyage with two squadrons of warships. The journey turned out to be a nightmare, probably worse than the crossing of the Pacific as the crew were forced to do arduous work on the pumps to combat the appalling leaks, all on rations of just rice and water as the meat and other fresh produce had spoilt through lack of salt or any other preservative.
But with inadequate provisions, a broken main mast and a crew succumbing to scurvy they were forced to retreat south, finally surrendering to a Portuguese force that had been sent to the Moluccas. He had found the western route to the east and had achieved what Columbus had tried and failed to do. Yet despite the overt goals of the expedition being a failure, Magellana€™s personal goal of finding a western route to the east and the knowledge of the globe resulting from that was one of mankinda€™s greatest successes.
The map was fully described and reproduced on vellum for the first time published by William Frazer in London and Venice, 1804 Manuscript on vellum, BL Add. But among the maps contemporary with that of Fra Mauro are the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappa mundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. When the stress of the weather had subsided they made the return to the said Cavo de Diab in seventy days and drawing near to the shore to supply their wants the sailors saw the egg of a bird called roc, the egg being as big as a seven gallon cask, and the size of the bird is such that from the point of one wing to another was sixty paces and it can quite easily lift an elephant or any other large animal. He then continues that the less well-known peoples must necessarily be located in the more distant regions, which are bound on three sides by high mountains and on the fourth by the ocean - hence at a great distance from Mount Caspian. In fact, Fra Mauro underlines, the name of Scythia applies to a much larger territory, which is inhabited by innumerable different peoples. The island is very fertile in pastures, rivers, springs and animals and all other things; and it is like Anglia. In fact, the large island was first colonized around the year 1000, but passed under the political control of Norway in 1261.
He also underlines how trustworthy his information is by stating that he had obtained it from persone degnissime che hano veduto ad ochio [persons most worthy of credit, who have seen with their own eyes]. Then, at Belciman, it turns and runs almost southwest into the Sea of Abache - that is, the Meotide Marshes.
The map is oriented with south and not east at the top (though Jerusalem does receive an especially large vignette).
Fra Mauro was the first mapmaker to make extensive use of the writings of Marco Polo and Niccolo de Conti for his portrayal of the Asian interior and the islands of the Indian Ocean.
However, it has also been pointed out by researchers such as Portuguese scholar Professor A. Crawford suggests that this was the origin of the legend about the source of the Nile, and that it was only later that the site was transferred to the Equator. Although fragmentary, this work and the Zorzi sketches (#304) are the only world maps with a direct Columbus delineation for part of America. The Nicold de Caveri map (#307), now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, and the WaldseemA?ller chart both show the east coast of South America, though schematically drawn, and a chain of mountains adorned with trees.
In his drawing of the coastline and in his marking of the sites of importance on it we again notice his remarkable accuracy. Evidently this part of the map is drawn in accordance with the Ptolemaic idea of the world. Immediately below Hispaniola is Puerto Rico, and to the northeast is a group of 11 islands labeled Undizi Vergine [The Eleven Virgins]. It is interesting that Behaima€™s globe and other maps influenced by Marco Poloa€™s description of Cathay show a very similar wedge-shaped projection opposite the island of Cipangu; if Columbus thought he was off the coast of Asia he may have drawn the mainland this way to correspond to its then conventional representation. Puerto Rico is named here San Juan Batichdo, and on its eastern coast is drawn the picture of a fortress. It is to be noted, however, that beside the island is a note that states that, contrary to the common fallacy, the island is not prosperous. This shows that the Turkish geographer made use of many sources and did not neglect the latest information nearest to his age, and that he was very careful about his bibliography. These three lines in Arabic testify that the author is the nephew of Kemal Reis, and that the work was written and compiled in Gelibolu in the year 1513. He also states, in his marginal notes regarding the South American coast that he saw the charts of four Portuguese discoverers. The Library of Congress was particularly anxious also to obtain a copy of Columbusa€™ maps upon which Piri Reis claimed in part to have based his own map.
On both the lands and the seas there are entries sometimes relevant, sometimes irrelevant of the pictures.
For instance, a book fell into the hands of the said Colombo, and he found it said in this book that at the end of the Western Sea [Atlantic] that is, on its western side, there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones.
For this reason the Portuguese infidels did not land on these shores and these are also said to be very hot.
They traveled from the western land to the point of Abyssinia [Habesh] in order to reach India. They thought it dry land and lit a fire upon this fish, when the fish's back began to burn it plunged into the sea, they re-embarked in their boats and fled to the ship.
On his map it is written that these rivers that can be seen have for the most part gold [in their beds]. They have made an agreement that [a line] two thousand miles to the western side of the Strait of Gibraltar should be taken as a boundary.
Up to now it was known by these names, but Colombo, who opened up this sea and made these islands known, and also the Portuguese, infidels who have opened up the region of Hind have agreed together to give this sea a new name. This error was committed, due to neglect in not taking into consideration the ten to thirteen degrees of difference in angle on the contemporary compass. Today we know that the Portuguese explorer, Gaspar Corte-Real, discovered Terra Nova in 1500, and his brother, Miguel Corte Real, a year later in 1501, discovered Labrador. Thus, Piri proved, once again, how he observed the principles of scientific methods in drawing this map. The people eat the flesh of parrots and their headdress is made entirely of parrots' feathers. After seven years of distinguished service in India, Malacca (Malaysian peninsula) and the Moluccas (Spice Islands) he returned to Portugal but received little recognition from his King, Manuel I, and no increase in his pension.
His plan was to sail west and like Columbus before him to try and find the western route to the east and the Spice Islands. Satisfied that they were as poorly armed as they were fitted, Alvarez thought Portuguese interests might be best served by an opportunist attack on them if they should stray anywhere near Portuguese colonial interests. Throughout the voyage his admiration for Magellan, for his command and character is displayed on every page. Magellan knew this route was well known for its unpredictable weather and that most ships tried to avoid it, but he was anxious to negate any Portuguese attempts to intercept and destroy his expedition and despite the misgivings of some of his Spanish officers refused to jeopardize his mission by altering his course.
They explored the estuary of the River Plate, ruling out any possible channel and then continued South with the weather growing increasingly colder, the terrain bleaker and the seas rougher before stopping briefly at Bahia de los Patos (literally Ducksa€™ Bay) named after the abundant penguins found there.
This latter option meant the possibility of being intercepted by the Portuguese that would have caused his sponsor the King of Spain great embarrassment and would have further damaged his reputation at both courts. The three mutineersa€™ ships gave them a firepower advantage of two to one and if they had moved with the same decisiveness as Magellan they would have without doubt succeeded. Cano was spared and put in chains in the bilges with the other mutineers and Cartagena who had been a perpetual thorn in Magellana€™s side for the whole expedition was also spared but later was left marooned along with a priest on the desolate coast when the ships finally departed. Pigafetta made copious notes of the region that Magellan had called Patagonia because the natives had such large feet encased in big leather boots (Patagonia means large foot in Spanish). Magellan with greatly diminished stores now made the almost fatal mistake of not seeking out new provisions for the journey across the Pacific. Unfortunately his knowledge of this part of the world was based on third hand travelersa€™ and merchantsa€™ tales and having come from an easterly direction he was not at all sure of the geography, believing that he was quite near the Japanese coast. Both crew and ships were barely functional by the time they reached Guam, but the crew was too ill or weak to consider mutiny and tended to optimism in Magellana€™s belief that they had reached the northern edge of the Molucca archipelago.
If this was so it means that Enrique, a humble Philippine slave was the first man to have circumnavigated the globe. Pigafettaa€™s journal interestingly notes that the men of Cebu pierced their penises with gold or tin bolts that often had small spurs attached to either end.
Unable to use the firepower of his ships because of an outlying reef, Magellana€™s men were overwhelmed by superior numbers, and although his own personal resolution and bravery ensured that the majority of his men were able to escape, he himself was cut down and killed on April 27, 1521. On September 21st after fleeing Brunei Carvallho who had never received the full confidence of his crew, and who stood accused of unnecessarily abandoning crew members in tricky situations was deposed as commander being replaced by Espinosa, with Cano the former mutineer, being made Captain of the Victoria.
One Squadron had been sent to the Cape of Good Hope should he strike east for the Moluccas, the other to the estuary of the River Plate should he attempt to find the western passage. With the crew on the verge of mutiny and in extremely harsh conditions the Cape of Good Hope was eventually rounded on May 19, 1522, but the Victoria was badly damaged and 21 of her Crew were to die from starvation, disease or exhaustion between the Cape and the Cape Verde Islands. Of the 54 Europeans who set off from Tidore only 21 survived, the rest were imprisoned, and only four of them, including Espinosa ever made it back to Spain.


Magellana€™s voyage had given the world its known dimensions, although it would take another three centuries to fill in all the gaps. A mendacious campaign was mounted that the whole route had been a sham, so difficult was it proving to replicate, that the true worth of his seamanship was recognized. MS 11267 and by Placido Zurla in II Mappamondo di Fra Mauro Camaldolese, 1806 in Venice (also now in the British Library), and later by Santarem in his facsimile Atlas of 1849. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the south. The four most noble kings of his dominions stand one at each corner of this carriage to escort it; and all the others walk ahead, with a large number of armed men both before and behind. Taking up information given by Marco Polo, he says such peoples are those of the kingdom of Tenduch and surrounding territories, which are inhabited by the legendary Gog and Magog.
The names for these populations are, however, not very useful because they change from language to language, from period to period and from interpreter to interpreter - as well as being subject to the mistakes made by copyists. Founder of the Brigittines (Ordo Sanctissimi Salvatoris) at Vasteras, she visited Rome and her Revelationes would be read widely throughout Europe. They live up in the mountains, where the inhabitants - or, at least, most of them - work iron and make weapons and all that is necessary for the military art.
When we look at the representations of Europe on these two world maps, the idea of an imagined European superiority and dominion over the rest of the world disappears.
He also tried as far as he could, for instance in his depiction of India which was not to be reached by the Portuguese until 1498, to include information from Claudius Ptolemya€™s Geographia. CortesA?o that, in pursuance of their ambition to hold a monopoly of the trade of West Africa, successive kings of Portugal decided on the suppression of all information calculated to excite the interest and jealousy of other powers.A  This Portuguese colonial policy in the a€?conspiracy of silencea€™, as it has been called,A  reached formality with John II (reigned 1481-1495), using his energies to prevent leakages of the news of discoveries at a time when foreigners were seeking by every means to acquire it.
In a footnote Mauro says that he drew the cities of Asia so large because there was simply more room on the map there than in Europe.A A  According to some critics, having enlarged Asia in relation to Europe, our cosmographer has not put the additional space to very good use. Presumably he referred to both the novelty of its delineation and the profuse depictions of people and animals that violated the customary Islamic prohibition against portraying living objects in artworks. The de Caveri map was drawn between 1502 and 1504, long before the eastern coast of South America had been explored.
This unusual chart with its complicated and fascinating history includes the only surviving delineation by Columbus of his discoveries.
Another reason for this may easily be the inadequacy of the Arabic script then in use, for expressing Turkish words. Eight years later, when he had finished the preface to the book he affirms that, further south it is not land but sea, which shows that he was following later discoveries with careful attention. The fact that this name is in a recognizable form of Italian, as opposed to Portuguese, is evidence, as Kahle pointed out, of its Columbian origin.
Probably because Columbus was convinced, on his first voyage at least, that he had found the fabled Cipangu, and he may have drawn Hispaniola in this shape to support his claim. There is, however, another island to the west of Trinidad, again with a picture of a parrot near which is written San Juan Batichdo.
From about twenty charts and Mappae Mundi, these are charts drawn in the days of Alexander, Lord of the Two Horns, which show the inhabited quarter of the world; the Arabs name these charts Jaferiyea€”from eight Jaferiyes of that kind and one Arabic map of Hind, and from the maps just drawn by four Portuguese which show the countries of Hind, Sind and China geometrically drawn, and also from a map drawn by Colombo in the western region I have extracted it. The Portuguese do not cross to that side but the Hind side and the southern side belongs to the Portuguese. From the notes beside them we gather that the distance between the divisions stand for 50 miles, and that between two dots for 10 miles. Beside the measurements there is a note indicating the mileage, where he says that the distance between two sections is 50 miles and between two dots 10 miles. Brendan, the legendary Irish monk who in the sixth century supposedly discovered an island in the North Atlantic called the a€?Promised Land of the Saints.a€? Long sought by sailors, St. None of the original globes have survived to the present day, and only one set of unmounted gores has survived. Worse still he had put all his savings into backing a scheme by a Portuguese trader to ship pepper from India to Portugal. This expedition he hoped would ensure his financial security as well as bringing him the fame and recognition he felt was long overdue. His interference in Magellana€™s preparations led to Spanish misgivings over the number of Portuguese members of the proposed crews and in the end only 37 of the 270 odd crew were Portuguese with three of the five captains of the individual ships being Spanish. Two other important members of the company were Albo, a Greek pilot who kept a detailed navigational log from the first sighting of the Brazilian Coast until the sighting of Cape Vincent on the return (November 29th 1519 to September 4, 1522) and San Martin an astrologer and astronomer who made calculations on the exact point of longitude the ships had reached; he was also the most accomplished pilot at celestial navigation amongst Magellana€™s crew. The Spanish Captains, Castilians of high birth considered themselves more knowledgeable and it wasna€™t long before there was open insubordin-ation resulting in the replacement of Cartogena as the Captain of the San Antonio with another Spaniard, Antonio de Coca. The penguins along with sea lions provided the necessary fresh food supplies and after sheltering from tremendous storms they continued southwards.
In a resolute speech to his men, he promised them the paradise of the Moluccas if they would honor their commitment, trust his leadership and behave accordingly.
However, the mutineers were unable to coordinate their efforts or win the total loyalty of their crews and as a result suffered the consequences. In fact two of the native men were captured to be taken back as presents for the King, but neither survived the journey.
Carefully sounding their way through the straits they reached Cape Valentine where Magellan sent the San Antonio to investigate the southeast channel whilst taking the other three ships southwest in what was proved to be the right direction.
He still believed that the distance to the Moluccas was not much more than the length of the Mediterranean and therefore it was prudent to push on as speedily as possible.
Magellan was able to re-supply the ships, but constant thieving by the natives including one of the longboats from the Trinidad forced him to use a raiding party that killed seven natives and wounded several others. From measurements made by both Albo and San Martin it became apparent that the expedition had passed beyond the Spanish hemisphere and had already entered the Portuguese domain. Females from the age of six upwards progressively had their vaginas opened and enlarged to accommodate these penis appendages. The invulnerability of the Spanish had been destroyed and with it Humabona€™s faith in them.
Finally on November 8, 1521 the two ships sailed into the harbor of Tidore to a warm welcome. When both failed to locate Magellan, the Indian fleet had been alerted and a small force had been sent to the Moluccas. Desperate to get fresh food and also slaves to man the pumps Cano was forced to take the huge risk of putting into the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. Larosa, the Portuguese trader who had opted to return with the Trinidad rather than the Victoria was beheaded as a traitor. First the Portuguese with established bases in Southern Africa, India and Malaya were in a far better position to exploit the Moluccas that were after all proven to be in their hemisphere. Lesser men would have failed and indeed did so, but Magellan was a genuine leader, he had a determined self-belief allied with a stubborn nature that belied his romantic notion of heroism and honor. Fra Mauro, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons. But given that those peoples are at the limit of the earth - something of which I have information that is certain - this explains why all the peoples I listed above know no more about them than we do. Such a note reveals Fra Mauroa€™s sharp awareness of problems relating to the communication - and communicability - of knowledge from one period to another or from one culture to another. Let it not seem strange that I have shown the mountains as both the Caspian and the Caucasus, because those who live there claim this is a single chain of mountains, which changes name because of the diversity of languages of the people who live up there. A conceptualization and representation of Europe in both mid-15th century European culture and Korean-Chinese culture emerges from, and is also based upon, the existence of channels of communication and trade at a global level; the gathering of global information and the world circulation of knowledge and technology were a relevant part of the circulation of material culture from the 13th to the late 17th centuries between Europe and Asia. However, as Fra Mauro noted, modern discoveries had shown some of Ptolemya€™s information to be incorrect and had uncovered important places completely unknown to him. In the reign of his successor, Manuel I, the vigilance of the government was even more intensified, especially after the return of Cabral from India. It is, for instance, extremely difficult to comprehend Mauroa€™s representation of southern Asia. The map was not only unusual in Turkey, but few people in any country, including Spain and Portugal, had access to a chart of the world incorporating the new discoveries.
As there is a striking similarity between this map and the Piri Reis map, it is therefore possible that one of Piri Reisa€™ source maps was based on that of de Caveri. And yet, from the point of view of the historical importance of these geographic discoveries, this map is particularly significant for Central America.
Drawing various islands on the South American coast opposite Trinidad shows the influence of Columbus, who believed this newly discovered continent to be a group of islands. So confident was Columbus in this that while he was near the coast of Cuba in 1494 he had his conviction recorded by the notary public on the boat, Fernand Perez de Luna, and asked all the crew to sign it, as we can now see from the document signed on the 12th June, 1494, which declares that, since it is quite evident that this is a continent, thereafter whoever attempts to contradict this statement shall be fined to 10.00 Maravedis pieces and also his tongue shall be cut out. It was not widely recognized fifty years ago that Columbus died in the belief that he had discovered Japan. Its vapor is full of darkness.a€? The above-mentioned Colombo saw that no help was forthcoming from the Genoese, he sped forth, went to the Bay of Spain [king], and told his tale in detail. Before this it was thought that the sea had no end or limit, that at its other end was darkness. Among the legible words are San Cilormi, Monte Krago, Detonos, Die Sagram, Ponte Sogon, Didas and Sare.
Brendana€™s island was widely believed to exist in Columbusa€™ time and appeared in some form and location on most early European maps.A  According to Piri Reis himself, the map was based upon eight Ptolemy maps, an Arabic map of India, four new Portuguese sea maps of Sind, Hind and China, and the map of America drawn by Columbus.
The merchant had subsequently died and his father had fled the country to escape his sona€™s creditors.
To this end he began to study all the maps, pilots logs, charts and journals he could obtain.
The remainder of the various crews comprised of Greeks, Italians, French, Flemings, Africans, Spanish, an Englishman and Malays including Enrique, a slave from Malacca who Magellan had brought back to Portugal on his previous expedition East. Most of the crew were probably won over by Magellana€™s stand but certainly not the Castilian Officers and Captains whose resentment of his single mindedness and inflexibility was still growing. The Santiago was the first ship to be repaired and Magellan, eager to find the Western passage as soon as possible, sent her on an exploratory probe along the coast.
He kept the South American coastline in sight whilst heading north to about 30A? South before heading northwest and crossing the equator on Feb 13, 1521 at about 160-165A? W longitude, missing both the Tahitian and Marquesas Island groups, where they could have amply replenished their supplies and the crew could have recovered.
Pigafetta recounts that when the natives were hit by crossbow bolts they were so astonished that they promptly pulled them out and as a result died from hemorrhaging. This was slightly awkward for Magellan as he had assured King Charles that the Moluccas lay just within the Spanish half. Pigafetta confirms a fact that is hardly surprising by noting that the women of Cebu seemed to prefer Magellana€™s men as lovers rather than the locals. At a subsequent banquet, Serrano and Barbosa, who had assumed joint command (along with a party of men that included San Martin), were ambushed and killed by Humabon. They had hoped and expected to be met by Magellana€™s shipwrecked friend Serrao but he had died from poison some eight months before as a result of becoming too involved in local native politics (compare with Magellan). This expedition had ended in disaster and death as they had antagonized the local Rajah with their treatment of the local women. By pretending to be part of a Spanish fleet that had been blown off course in a storm whilst returning from the Americas they were able to harbor and negotiate for new supplies.
The local rajah, with the arrival of the Portuguese force repudiated all the agreements and treaties he had made with the Spanish. Secondly, the Spanish American possessions that at first had seemed largely worthless were now, after Cortes Conquest of Mexico, proving to be abundant in gold and silver. Intensely proud of his nobility and his own worth, he could be tough when needed, humane and caring when circumstances warranted it and always courageous.
Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the Venetian maritime commercial focus of Fra Mauroa€™s time of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the south. Hence I conclude that these peoples are very far from Mount Caspian and are, as I said, at the extreme limit of the world, between the north-east and the north, and they are enclosed by craggy mountains and ocean on three sides. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved citya€?. It is worth underlining that it is the very logic of a€?moderna€™ cartography within which Fra Mauro is working that requires him to consult and compare sources, and thus develop a critical approach that was certainly not the norm in the mappaemundi produced before this date.
Alternate influences must have been absorbed through interaction along Asian routes of communication, such as the Silk Road and sea trade routes in the Indian Ocean, with the crucial intervening agency of Islamic traders. The Earthly Paradise, beautifully depicted by, perhaps, Leonardo Bellini, is exiled beyond the map to the bottom left where an inscription tries to establish its actual physical location. Undoubtedly the reason why Piri Reis, too, shows it as a continent was not because he was afraid for his tongue, but because he would not question the veracity of a piece of information given by such an authority as Columbus, who had been to those parts of the world several times. My map is as correct and dependable for the seven seas as are the charts that represent the seas of our countriesa€?.
Nor was it known in the 1930s that other maritime explorers from Europe had sailed the Atlantic centuries before Columbus. So that the present map is as correct and reliable for the Seven Seas as the map of these our countries is considered correct and reliable by seamen. After being driven by a storm in a southern direction they saw a shore opposite them they advanced towards it [illegible]. Now they have seen that this sea is girded by a coast, because it is like a lake, they have called it Ovo Sano.
It is quite possible that Piri meant by that Balboa who crossed Central America and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513. Magellan who had only a meager pension to live on was broke and so he volunteered for a Portuguese campaign against Morocco; where he again distinguished himself with his bravery.
He knew that Columbus had failed to find a passage around the Central American coastline, that Cabot had likewise failed in the North, that the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci had possibly reached as far South as the River Plate estuary and Patagonia without encountering a passage and that Balboa had crossed the Panamanian Isthmus and seen a great ocean that was different to the Atlantic. Taking advantage of the mutineersa€™ attempts at negotiation he sent Espinosa, the Trinidada€™s loyal master of arms along with a disguised boarding party and retook the Victoria that same evening. Unfortunately 70 miles south near the Santa Cruz estuary a sudden gale drove her aground and she broke up, leaving the crew stranded.
Both food and water were running out and what was left was rotten or putrid, so that the crew was suffering from malnutrition and scurvy. This trouble with the natives caused Magellan to rename the islands, Islas le los Lodrones [Islands of Thieves]. Having journeyed all this way across the Pacific, losing 19 men through scurvy and suffering all manners of deprivation to find themselves already within territory reserved for Portuguese exploitation was a sever blow. Enrique, who had been promised his freedom should Magellan die and then found that Serrano would not honor this was probably instrumental in helping set up the trap.
A few days before the two Spanish ships had arrived in Tidore, the survivors had fled back to Malacca without any knowledge of the Spanish ships imminent arrival.
Carelessly one of the crewmembers used some cloves (that could only have come from the Portuguese Moluccas) as part of the transactions and when their ruse was discovered Cano was forced to put to sea immediately, thereby abandoning 13 of his crew (including Pigafetta). In 1529 Charles signed away any claims for the Moluccas that Spain had in return for 350,000 ducats at the Treaty of Saragossa. He always tried to deal fairly with the natives and his expedition while under his command carried out none of the atrocities that previous and future Colonials seemed to revel in. Kimble makes it clear that they do not refer to a€?South Africaa€™, for the Mareb and Tagas Rivers with their affluents Mana, Lare and Abavi, can be none other than the Abyssinian rivers Mareb, Takkazye, Menna, Tellare and Abbai; while flumen Xebi and flumen Avasi are traced with such extraordinary fidelity that they can be readily identified with the Ghibie and Hawash Rivers of southern Abyssinia - a region not thoroughly explored until modern times, but such accuracy could have been the result of information received from an Ethiopian mission to Florence in 1441.
The upper course of the Quiam [the Yangtse Kiang], the greatest river in the world, is brought too far south; but the Hwang ho has its great upper bend clearly drawn.
They are to the north of the kingdom of Tenduch and are called the Ung and the Mongul, which people know as Gog and Magog and believe that they will emerge at the time of the Antichrist. This passage is also very clear on the importance of knowledge regarding the transformation of toponyms if one is to preserve and transmit correct geographical information; such an awareness would only find full expression more than a century later, when Giacomo Gastaldi drew up his concordance tables of place-names for his editions of Ptolemy and his three large maps of the different areas of the world.
No monstrous races are depicted in Africa since, Fra Mauro tells us, none have ever been seen, with the exception of the Dog Heads (Cynocephali). Beyond Tarna, India is broken into two very stumpy peninsulas, resulting in the confusion of relative positions in the interior, and in the placing of C. The notes attached to some of the islands, giving their direction in relation to others, as in the case of the Maldives already quoted, support this probability.A  Certainly the whole southern outline of the continent as depicted here could scarcely have been taken directly from a chart drawn by a practical navigator.
Cuba is shown as a continent also in the map of Columbus dated 1498, which formed the basis for Piri Reis later on; in the rough sketch drawn by Christopher Columbusa€™ brother, Bartholomew, in 1503 (#304), in the map of the world made by Ruysch in 1508 (#313), and even in the marine map by WaldeesmA?ller in 1507 (#310).
However he not only suffered a severe leg wound which caused him to limp for the rest of his life, he also, whilst in the position of Quartermaster suffered the unjust accusations of dishonesty, theft and treason. He became convinced that a southwestern route was there south of the River Plate, and the scientist, mapmaker and scholar Rui Faleiro, who thought that the likely passage was just below the 40 degree South latitude, shared this belief. They were also able to buy young native women from their fathers for the price of a hatchet or knife. Two members trekked for eleven days back to San Julian to alert Magellan and an overland rescue party was organized. Fortunately Pigafetta who relished banquets and parties was suffering from a head wound and did not attend.
Fortunately Espinosa managed to keep his own crew from their usual sexual indulgences and apart from signing treaties and purchasing a large cargo of cloves, he enjoyed an amicable relationship with the locals and their rulers. Caro sailed on to Spain with a crew of only 18, arriving September 6, 1522 at the harbor of San Lucar, a circumnavigation of the Earth that had taken just two weeks under three years to complete.
When the Spanish later continued their exploration of the Pacific it was from their base in Panama. From his voyage the new humanists in Europe, the philosophers, scholars, scientists and artists were able to gain a truer understanding of their world and with this information continue to challenge the dogma and medieval beliefs that were still prevalent. According to some accounts, the Portuguese are stated to have reached the meridian of Tunis (10 degrees East) and perhaps even that of Alexandria.
But certainly this mistake is due to the way some force the Sacred Scriptures to mean what they want them to mean. Augustine in De Civitate Dei: a€?For these nations which he names Gog and Magog are not to be understood of some barbarous nations in some part of the world, whether the Getae and Massagetae, as some conclude from the initial letters, or some other foreign nations not under the Roman government. Indeed figures of any sort are missing though the map does depict cities, buildings, ships and fish. To the south of Greenland two large pieces of land are shown; the one in the north is called Baccalao. Magellan found the charges against him contemptuous and he rashly abandoned his post to return to Lisbon and clear his name.
He also assured Magellan that the ocean Balboa had seen could not be more than a couple of thousand miles across and that the Spice Islands must therefore be in the Spanish half of the world as laid down by the Treaty of Tordesillias. Magellan allowed his crew some freedom and many of them set up a€?love nestsa€™ with their women on shore, but he still kept a firm discipline when it mattered - executing the shipa€™s master of the Victoria for sodomizing a young apprentice seaman. It is not known for certain whether Magellan was instrumental in cutting loose the anchors of the San Antonio but the ship did indeed break loose of its anchorage and drifted broadside of the Trinidad enabling Magellan to board and recapture her.
It was not until August 24th with Santiagoa€™s crew redistributed amongst the four remaining ships and Serrano the a€?Santiagoa€™sa€™ captain, now installed as the Captain of the Concepcion that Magellan finally left the bay. He had provided the answer to man's seemingly eternal quest to find the true shape and size of the Earth.
For John marks that they are spread over the whole earth, when he says, a€?The nations which are in the four corners of the earth,a€? and he added that these are Gog and Magoga€?, and by Nicholas of Lyra in his Postillae sive Commentaria brevia in omnia Biblia.
On the whole, however, a fair knowledge of China is displayed; the mid-19th century certainly knew less of the interior of Central Africa than 15th century Europe did of the interior of China. And it is also said there are many new kinds of animals, especially huge white bears and other savage animals. The above-mentioned slave said to Kemal Reis, he had been three times to that land with Colombo.
With his humiliation at the hands of the Portuguese King fresh in his mind, it was to Spain that Magellan now offered his knowledge and his services. The Concepcion had no choice now but to surrender, so that within 48 hours the mutiny had taken place and been extinguished.
They moved along the coast near to where the Santiago had been wrecked to a better winter anchorage in the estuary of the Santa Cruz where there were plenty of supplies of fish, seals and seabirds to replenish their stores. Augustine, who in his De Civitate Dei rejects all the opinions of those who claim that Gog and Magog are the peoples that will support the Antichrist.
He said: a€?First we reached the Strait of Gibraltar, then from there straight south and west between the two . In another note further down near Terra Nova he says that though these coasts were discovered by the Portuguese, all is not known as yet, and only the parts that have been discovered are shown on the map. Magellan returned to face trial and was cleared of all charges but his relationship with his King had deteriorated to such an extent that Manuel I refused all of Magellana€™s requests for financial recognition of his loyal service and told him that he could take his offers of service elsewhere.
This plan may have been encouraged by the news of Juan Diaz de Solisa€™ Spanish expedition of 1515 which had reached 35 degrees South before an exploratory landing party led by Solis himself had encountered death and disaster. From the Persian Gulf eastwards, he appears to have taken the Ptolemaic outline, but exaggerated the principal gulfs and capes, and to this outline he has fitted the contemporary nomenclature. And Nicholas of Lyra agrees with this claim, explaining the two names by their Hebrew origin. Further south still one can see the peninsula of Florida drawn very much as we know it today.
This was the principle reason why Magellan came to sail around the world under the Spanish flag.
They were attacked by hostile natives, slaughtered, butchered roasted and then eaten in view of the rest of the crew watching from the safety of their ships. Although many of the crew had participated in the mutiny, forty were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.
The expedition was aborted but the news from the survivors back in Spain seemed to indicate that with the coastline bearing west at that point, a likely passage through to Balboaa€™s Ocean lay just South of that latitude. Magellana€™s plan interested the young Spanish monarch Charles I (later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and a formal agreement was made between the two in March 1518, whereby Magellan was appointed Captain General of the proposed expedition, given five ships, and the prospective governorship of any new lands he might discover plus one fifth of the profits from the voyage. Michele at Murano we are told that Diab is a great province in parts of which there is an abundance of very good things, its principal town being called Mogadis, which can be none other than Magadoxo of the Somali coast. Having advanced straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea was becalmed and the North Stara€”the seamen on their compasses still say stara€”little by little was veiled and became invisible, and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged as here. They anchored at the island which they had seen earlier across the way, the population of the island came, shot arrows at them and did not allow them to land and ask for information.
Seeing that they could not land on that island; they crossed to the other side of the island, they saw a boat. It happened that these people were of that nation which went from island to island hunting men and eating them. They said Colombo saw yet another island, they neared it, they saw that on that island there were great snakes.
The people of this island saw that no harm came to them from this boat, they caught fish and brought it to them in their small ship's boat [filika].
It appears that he [Colombo] had reada€”in the book that in that region glass beads were valued. And also loading their ship with many logwood trees and taking two natives along, they carried them within that year to the Bey of Spain.
But the said Colombo, not knowing the language of these people, they traded by signs, and after this trip the Bey of Spain sent priests and barley, taught the natives how to sow and reap and converted them to his own religion. The names which mark the places on the said islands and coasts were given by Colombo, that these places may be known by them.



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