26.11.2015

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And you remember all you did last night, which includes sending messages like the following that are now making you now want to crawl under the bedcover and never come out again!
You are not drunk enough unless you say "Bhai hai tu mera, tere liye jaan qurbaan" a record 17 times.
Above, a fascinating 1867 map by William Hughes featuring the world according to ancient Greek astronomers, poets, historians and geographers.
So far, maps were mainly based on an aggregation of facts, without any scientific treatment of geography. Ptolemy, the Greek mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer, gathered new information and corrected old errors and gave ancient geography its final shape, until the explorations of Columbus and Vasco De Gama. The city of Cattigara, located here in the bottom right corner of the map, is cited by Ptolemy as the southernmost known point. The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has generally assigned to the Greek Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B.
We are not definitely informed as to just the course of improvement or advancement in early scientific map making among the Greeks, yet not a few names are known to us of those who made it a matter of special endeavor, as they specifically stated, to improve the work of their predecessors. The Greeks developed another idea: the distinction between civilized people and barbarians.
Until the late sixth century BCE, the Greeks conceptualized the world as a series of concentric circles.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge. It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps.
It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the eartha€™s landmass with data from ancient texts.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and we have 2 teachers that are professional in Traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramics workshop. 2 Hours Turkish Tile & Ceramic Workshop ( Per Student ) 2 - 5 Guest ,55 Euro ,6 - more ,40 Euro ,1 Guest 65 Euro,Tour Includes. Mimar Sinan University,The Anatolian Seljuks were of course influenced by the cultural heritage they encountered in their new homeland, adapting them to the techniques that they had brought with them from the Iranian plateau. A type of architectural decoration used in conjunction with glazed brick was hexagonal, triangular, square, and rectangular monochrome tiles. Excavations carried out in 1965-66 at Kalehisar near Alacahoyuk have revealed important evidence of the Seljuks' ceramics industry in the 13th century. Sgraffito and slip-decorated wares continuing Seljuk techniques and styles were also produced during the Emirate period. The earliest example of the new styles that emerged in the early Ottoman period are the 'blue-and-white' Iznik ceramics. Another blue-and-white group from Iznik is erroneously called 'Golden Horn ware' because the first examples of it were discovered at a site on the Golden Horn in Istanbul. Iznik is also where another misnamed group of ceramics known as Damascus ware was manufactured. Yet another group of polychrome underglaze Iznik ceramics to be erroneously attributed to another place is the one misleadingly known as Rhodos wares, so-called because of the numerous examples of them purchased from the island of Rhodes and taken into the Cluny Museum.
As late as the middle of the 16 century, the Ottoman ceramic industry was producing more utensils than architectural tiles. During the first half of the 19th century, Kutahya's ceramics industry suffered a downturn from which it slowly recovered during the second half and into the early part of this century. There is a third important group of Turkish ceramics that are quite different from both the sublime products of Iznik and the humbler wares of Kutahya. To summarize, the art of Turkish tile and ceramic-making developed over the centuries incorporating many different techniques and styles. The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics have a very important in the history of Islamic art. There is a widely held but quite erroneous belief that figurative painting, is not found in Islamic art due to prohibition by the Koran.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and we have 2 teachers that are professional in Traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramics workshop.
Please send us an e-mail if you are interested in participating our classes as individual or a student group. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. 2 - 5 Guest ,65 Euro ,6 - more ,45 Euro ,1 Guest ,80 Euro ,Lesson Includes.,These are private events and runs upon request. Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .hakan hacibekiroglu,Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries.
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics . Marbled paper, called ebru in Turkish, was used extensively in the binding of books and within the calligraphic panels in Turkey. Ebru technique consists of sprinkling colours containing a few drops of ox-gall on to the surface of the bath sized with kitre (gum tragacanth) in a trough.
After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’. 2) Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935) - From what is now Lebanon, wanted to rejuvenate the Ottoman caliphate. He made no statements opposing Islamic supremacism, but he is called a Reformera„? for denying the way things are like so many today.
3) Muhammad a€?Inayat Allah Khan (1888- 1963) - Born in Punjab, founded the Khaksar Movement, a Muslim separatist group. The astonishing similaritiesa€”or shall we say the unintentional similarity between two great mindsa€”between Hitlera€™s great book and the teachings of my Tazkirah and Isharat embolden me, because the fifteen years of a€?strugglea€? of the author of a€?My Strugglea€? [Mein Kampf] have now actually led his nation back to success.
Mashriqi emphasized repeatedly in his pamphlets and published articles that the verity of Islam could be gauged by the rate of the earliest Muslim conquests in the glorious first decades after Muhammada€™s death - Mashriqia€™s estimate is a€?36,000 castles in 9 years, or 12 per daya€?. 4) Hajj Amin al-Husseini (~1896 - 1974) - Studied Islamic law briefly at Al-Azhar University in Cairo and at the Dar al-Da'wa wa-l-Irshad under Rashid Rida, who remained his mentor till Ridaa€™s death in 1935.2 3 Perhaps more a politician than a sharia scholar, he is on this page because of his authority and longtime influence as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem beginning in 1921. 5) Sheikh Muhammad Mahawif - was Grand Mufti of Egypt, in 1948 issued a fatwa declaring jihad in Palestine obligatory for all Muslims. 6) Sheikh Hasan Maa€™moun - Grand Mufti of Egypt in 1956 issued a fatwa, signed by the leading members of the Fatwa Committee of Al Azhar, and the major representatives of all four Sunni schools of jurisprudence.
There are hundreds of other [Koranic] psalms and hadith urging Muslims to value war and to fight.
10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010. BBC said Tantawi a€?is acknowledged as the highest spiritual authority for nearly a billion Sunni Muslimsa€?.
He devotes a chapter to the various ways Allah punished the Jews, among them changing their form. 1996 - 30 years later was appointed Grand Imam at Al-Azhar U., then met in Cairo with the Chief Rabbi of Israel. President of many influential orgs, founder and president of the International Association of Muslim Scholars which issues many fatwas.
During the Arab Springa„? in February 2011, after Mubarak's fall his return to Egypt for the 1st time since he was banned 30 years before drew the largest crowd since the uprising began - over 2 million. He said he worked with and was influenced by Hasan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, where he is a longtime spiritual advisor, and in 1976 and 2004 turned down offers to be the Brotherhooda€™s highest-ranking General Leader. Report on Goma€™a: a€?A fatwa issued by Egypta€™s top religious authority, which forbids the display of statues has art-lovers fearing it could be used by Islamic extremists as an excuse to destroy Egypta€™s historical heritage. 15) Sheikh Gamal Qutb - The one-time Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar on K- 4:24, and sex with slave girls. 19) Sheikh 'Ali Abu Al-Hassan - Al-Azhar University Fatwa Committee Chairman on suicide bombing in 2003. 21) Sheikh Hassan Khalid (1921 - 1989) - Sunni jurist, elected Grand Mufti of Lebanon in 1966 where he presided over Islamic courts for 23 years.
Tibi said, "First, both sides should acknowledge candidly that although they might use identical terms these mean different things to each of them.
Muslims frequently claim that a€?Islam means peace.a€? The word Islam comes from the same three-letter Arabic root as the word a€?salaam,a€? peace.
23) Majid Khaduri (1909-2007) - Iraqi jurist, Ph.D International law University of Chicago in 1938, member of the Iraqi delegation to the founding of the United Nations in 1945. 25) Hatem al-Haj - Egyptian, leading American Muslim jurist, MD, PhD, fellow at the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the author of this revealing 2008 Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America paper, which says the duty of Muslims is not to respect the laws of the country where they live, but rather do everything in their power to make the laws of Allah supreme. Warraq says the main arguments of his book are few, since more than fifty percent of it is taken up by quotations from the Koran, from scholars like Ibn Taymiyya, from the Hadith, from Koranic commentators like Ibn Kathir, and from the four main Sunni schools of Law. Defensive Jihad: This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and compulsory for all individuals. 28) Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (1939 - ) - Shiite jurist, Supreme Leader of Iran, he was #2 in a 2009 book co authored by Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims.
30) Sheikh Ahmed Kuftaro (1912-2004) - Grand Mufti of Syria, after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, yes to suicide attacks against Americans there.
Grand Ayatollah Sistani (1930 -) - Shiite jurist and marja, the a€?highest authority for 17-20 million Iraqi Shia€™a, also as a moral and religious authority to Usuli Twelver Shia€™a worldwidea€?. 32) Saudi Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh (1940- ) - Saudi Grand Mufti, the leading religious figure of Saudi-based Salafi Muslims.
33) Saudi Sheikh Saleh Al-Lehadan, Chief Justice of the Saudi Supreme Judiciary Council, and a member of Council of Senior Clerics, the highest religious body in the country, appointed by the King. 34) Saudi Sheikh Wajdi Hamza Al-Ghazawi - preacher started a popular new website "Al Minbar.
35) Saudi Sheik Muhammad al-Munajjid (1962 - ) - well-known Islamic scholar, lecturer, author, Wahhabi cleric. 36) Saudi Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Sudayyis - imam of Islam's most holy mosque, Al-Haram in Mecca, holds one of the most prestigious posts in Sunni Islam. The Saudis boasted of having spent $74 billion a€?educatinga€? the West that Islam is a Peaceful Tolerant Religiona„?. 43) Mazen al-Sarsawi - popular Egyptian TV cleric comments in 2011 on what Muhammad said about IS&J.
46) Sheik Taj Din Al-Hilali - Sunni, Imam of the Lakemba Mosque, former Grand Mufti of Australia & New Zealand, Ia€™m not sure of his education but he is on this page because he was the highest religious authority there for almost 20 years. 47) Imam Anwar al-Awlaki - American imam, became a leading figure in Al Qaedaa€™s affiliate in Yemen. Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi (1971- ) - First Caliph of the new Islamic State (ISIS, ISIL) created in 2014. If youa€™ve been through this site then you dona€™t need Raymond Ibrahima€™s explanation why the a€?religious defamationa€? laws being called for internationally in 2012 would ban Islam itself and its core texts (One & Two) if they were applied with the same standard to all religions. If Islamic doctrines are inherently violent, why isna€™t every single Muslim in the world violent?
10) Sheik Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi (1928 - 2010) - Grand Sheik Al-Azhar University, Cairo 1996 - 2010.A  Grand Mufti of Egypt 1986 - 1996.
This map includes nine maps on a single sheet, each illustrating the geographical views entertained at different periods and as expressed by prominent authorities of the time. No snow is there, nor heavy storm, nor ever rain, but ever does Ocean send up blasts of the shrill-blowing West Wind that they may give cooling to men.
Here we see that the world is divided into three continents, Europe, Asia and Libya [Africa], and that the western countries of the Mediterranean have gained some form and proportion. It is worth noting the superiority of the Ptolemaic system which would come to dominate European cartographic presentation until the discovery of America.
There has been considerable debate about the true location of Cattigara, certainly Magellan and the other great navigators failed to identify it, with some attaching the name to Hanoi or South China and others placing it on the shores of South America.
Originally, barbaros simply meant a€?babblera€™ and was used to indicate everybody who did not speak Greek. Greece was surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea (with large islands like Sicily, Italy, and Cyprus); the Mediterranean was surrounded by the three continents, and behind the continents was the Ocean, which surrounded the world disk. Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time.
In our place, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramic painting lessons.
This resulted in a distinctively Anatolian style of Seljuk architecture that was in full bloom by the 13th century. Unlike brick, these were preferred for indoor applications and were suitable for a multiplicity of geometrical arrangements. Two kilns were unearthed along with a substantial quantity of kiln material and incomplete and spoiled examples of ceramics decorated with the sgraffito and slip techniques.In the sgraffito technique, the object is allowed to dry to leather-hardness after which the design, usually plant and floral motifs, is incised into the surface, which may or may not be given a coat of slip beforehand.
During early Ottoman times, they appear among Iznik wares reflecting the tastes of folk art.In the course of excavations at the site of ancient Miletus, the archaeologist and art historian F.
The techniques involved in their manufacture are quite advanced as compared with anything previously done. Dr Oktay Aslanapa's excavations at Iznik have demonstrated incontrovertibly that these wares were manufactured there.
Thereafter however production shifted heavily in favor of the latter as there was a strong surge in the demand for tiles as decorations in the extensive building programs undertaken by Suleyman I (1520-1566) and his successors when the Ottoman Empire was politically, economically, and culturally at its peak.
Thus do we find examples of Kutahya-made tiles decorating a number of late-Ottoman buildings. Canakkale ceramics have begun attracting the interest and attention of researchers and collectors more and more in recent years.The earliest examples of these ceramics can be dated to the end of the 17th century. Enriched by the arrival of the Seljuks, the ceramic industry in Anatolia achieved a deservedly worldwide reputation with the support of the Ottoman court. Its roots can be traced at least as far back as the Uighurs of the 8th and 9th centuries. Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century. Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces . The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print.
Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. We shook hands and Hitler said, pointing to a book that was lying on the table: a€?I had a chance to read your al-Tazkirah.a€? Little did I understand at that time, what should have been clear to me when he said these words! But only after leading his nation to the intended goal, has he disclosed his movementa€™s rules and obligations to the world; only after fifteen years has he made the means of success widely known. In 1922 he became President of the Supreme Muslim Council where he had the power to appoint personally loyal preachers in all of Palestinea€™s mosques, making him indisputably the most powerful Muslim leader in the country.2 Exiled, eventually to Germany from 1937 - 1945 where he was Hitlera€™s close associate. He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977. 90-91), Irana€™s Ayatollah Khomeini himself married a ten-year-old girl when he was twenty-eight. English translation in Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp.
The 2 largest standing Buddha carvings in the world from the 6th century were blown up by the Taliban in 2001.
Ahmad AlA­Tayyeb - Grand Sheik of Al-Azhar University, was President of Al Azhar for 7 years, was Grand Mufti of Egypt. Career spanned more than 65 years, joined SAIS faculty in 1949, then created the first graduate program in the U.S on the modern Middle East. Islamic Education, Darul Uloom, Karachi, now hadith and Islamic economics instructor, sat for 20 years on Pakistani Supreme Court, he is one of the most respected Deobandi scholars in the world who authored over 60 books, an expert in Islamic finance who was quietly terminated or resigned in 2008 from the Sharia Supervisory Board of the Iman Fund, formerly the Dow Jones Islamic Index Fund (sharia finance). Al-Azhar University in The Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Shariah degree Damascus University, influenced by Sayyid Qutb and knew his family while in Egypt, lectured for years at Saudi Arabiaa€™s King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah until 1979.
Although acquitted by an Egyptian court for complicity in the 1981 slaying of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, he has bragged about issuing the fatwa that approved the killing. He meets frequently with Crown Prince Abdullah and other senior members of the ruling family.


But if the standard is how violent a reaction it provokes from the offended people, then only a€?defaminga€™ Islam will be banned. Including all his references, they amount to a mountain of evidence that shows the consensus on IS&J in all 5 schools since the 7th century, especially in the absence of any book full of contrary opinions from authorities with the stature of the examples you have seen.
If they had, it would be easy to demonstrate with the kind of evidence you see here, from whatever era that was. He founded the political party Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1952 as an alternative to the MB, and remained its leader until he died in 1977.A  Its stated goal is jihad a€?in clearly defined stagesa€? against existing political regimes, and their replacement with a caliphate.
That question revolves around the manner of Christ's coming back to this earth at the end of the world. First, He will come secretly to take the church to heaven, and then, seven years later, He will come in an open demonstration of power and glory. According to the two-stage teaching of His coming, both groups would not grow together until the end of the world.
And how could the "last trump" sound if it really wasn't the very last moment of time?
In an attempt to uphold their contrived theory, the rapturists quote Matthew 24:40, 41 out of context. Those who entered the ark in Noah's day were saved, and those who refused to enter the ark were left outside. But, actually, instead of teaching two separate events, the Greek terms are used interchangeably in the Bible. But they have been repeated so often that millions have assumed that they must be soundly biblical. Whatever else may be taught in Revelation 3: 10, it is evident that no extra coming of Christ is indicated.
In Daniel 9:24-27 God made a daring prophecy concerning the probation of the nation of Israel. They do this by stating that it is Antichrist that causes the sacrifice and oblation to cease after three and one-half years.
Paul settles the entire matter for us in the first few verses of 2 Thessalonians chapter 2.
Revelation 20:4 assures us that some of those who are raised in the first resurrection will be those who refused to worship the beast and receive his mark! At the time of the Reformation, most of the reformers understood the prophecy of the Antichrist to refer to the great apostate system of Romanism that developed during the Middle Ages. The teaching spread to the United States in the 1850s and 1860s, where it was to receive its biggest boost when Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, a strong believer in Darby's teachings, incorporated it into the notes of his Scofield Reference Bible, which was published in 1909. As we have noticed, the Bible clearly teaches that Jesus Christ will come the second time in glorious majesty to take His redeemed home with Him. Of course, the world of the ancient Greeks centered in the Mediterranean and the Americas were yet to be discovered.
Beyond Oceanus in the north, are the Cimmerii, an ancient people of the far north of Europe, described by Homer as the people living in perpetual darkness. The three important seas, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Black Sea divide the three continents and the Caspian Sea is noted. He determined latitudes and longitudes based on astronomical observations and developed trigonometry.
His map of the World in about AD 160, as well as his two maps of Asia and Europe may be somewhat difficult to understand at first glance, but upon closer examination, correspond to many actual locations and yield some of their secrets.
Be as it may, the Ptolemaic model retained a great deal of influence well into the 16th century until Portuguese and Dutch navigators more fully explored the region.
While there is not a detailed description extant of the maps he is reputed to have made, we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that the earth has the form of a circular disc, and is surrounded by the Ocean Stream, an idea generally approved by the Ionic School of Philosophers. After the Greek victory in the Persian wars (492-479), the word became pejorative: a barbarian was not only unable to speak Greek, but was inferior as well.
Here, one could encounter strange monsters: Homera€™s Odyssey mentions a great variety of them. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Usually lessons are 2 hours based and by the end of 2 hours, you will be able to finish one item like a tile, plate or a figure. Seljuk mosques, medreses (theological academies), tombs, and palaces were lavishly decorated with exquisite tiles. The resulting design is then covered with a transparent glaze of a different color and then the piece is fired. Sarre came across a type of polychrome pottery that erroneously became known as 'Miletus ware'. Raby has proposed calling them the 'Tugrakes spiral style' instead.5 The motifs of tiny leaves and flowers on spirals are executed in shades of cobalt blue, turquoise, and black. The forerunner of the style is said to be a lamp in the Dome of the Rock that is dated 1549 and bears the signature 'Musli'. These ceramics have an extensive palette and are generally decorated with naturalistic flowers. Countless examples of mosques and tombs not only in Istanbul but all over the empire were adorned with the products of the Iznik potters' skill.These underglaze-decorated ceramics and tiles were decorated with a rich palette of shades of cobalt blue, turquoise, green, black, brown, and the famous 'coral' or tomato red, the last of which appears in a slight relief resembling sealing-wax. The tiles on the Tomb of Sultan Mehmed Resad V in Eyup (Istanbul, 1918) for example were made at the manufactory of Hafiz Emin Usta, which was then operating in Kutahya. Fairly good-quality wares continued to be produced up until the beginning of the 19th century. Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Figural art is especially rich in tiles as well as stone and stucco reliefs of the Seljuk period, adorning both secular and religious reliefs monuments. She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling.Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul. In bru art, you can draw flower figures that are traditional from the Ottoman period BUT the things that you can capable of by using Ebru art is unlimited.
To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water.
After the war he was wanted for crimes against humanity, but returned as a war hero to the Middle East, and remained Grand Mufti at least 10 years after WWII.
Hizb reportedly now has secret cells in 40 countries, outlawed in Russia, Germany, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and many others, but not in the USA where they hold an annual conference, and ita€™s still a legal political party in UK. Extremely influential Sunni jurist, sharia scholar based in Qatar, memorized the Koran by age ten. Chairman of the board of trustees atA Michigan-based Islamic American University, a subsidiary of the Muslim American Society, which was claimed by the Muslim Brotherhood as theirs in 1987.
Goma€™a was #7 in the book co-authored by John Esposito featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims, and he is widely hailed as a Moderatea„?. He was the program's director until his retirement in 1980 and University Distinguished Research Professor until his death at 98 years old.
Deputy Chairman of the Jeddah based Islamic Fiqh Council of the OIC, and is a member of ECFR, whose President is Sheik Qaradawi.
OBL was enrolled there from 76-81 where they probably first met; Azzam eventually became his mentor. In fact 3 times Pulitzer Prize winner and Middle East Experta„? Thomas Friedman wants to give a Nobel prize to him even though he is an Islamic supremacist. There is much more than those 2 books, here are reading lists with books full of more evidence from Muslim and non-Muslim accounts of institutionalized IS&J for over 1300 years. University Dogma takes for granted that a majority of jurists and ulama scholars, past and present, taught against IS&J, but no one says who and where these people are, and exactly what they said about relations between Muslims and non-Muslims.
In between those two events, the Antichrist is supposed to come into power and the great tribulation period takes place. Now why would Jesus promise to be with the church until the end of the world if He intended to come seven years before the end to take them out of the world?
Only as we accept all that the Bible says can we be safe from such deceptive teachings that are confusing millions of sincere Christians today concerning this most glorious event of all ages, the second coming of Jesus Christ. Why would Christians be exhorted to keep hoping to the very end of the world for the grace brought through the revelation of Christ if their real hope was a secret rapture seven years before the revelation? Let's take a look at some of the texts that have been used to support the doctrine of a two-phase coming of Christ.
Jesus completely clarified the meaning by something He said in John 17:6, 15 which sounds very similar. There is not one single scriptural reference that ties the seven years to the end of the world or the coming of Christ. But Daniel states that it is Jesus who caused the sacrificial system of the Jews to cease when He died on the cross. How completely this demolishes the futuristic school of prophetic interpretation is evident, for they claim that the emergence of the Antichrist and the imposition of his mark are to be looked for after the first resurrection and what they call the secret rapture. In the Scottish church pastored by Edward Irving, a Miss Margaret McDonald gave what was believed at the time to be an inspired utterance. Since that time, this view has been widely accepted - often by people who are completely unaware that this was not the belief held by Christians over the centuries. It will be a personal, visible, and earthshaking event that everyone alive will know about.
Europe Asia and Africa (Libya) however were known, leading prominent geographers of the ancient world to adopt the three-part world model a€“ a system that would remain in use until the era of Martin WaldseemA?ller in the early 16th century (Book IV, #310).
It is not improbable that we have an allusion to the work of Anaximander in the History of Herodotus (484-400? At that moment, the two ideas had already been combined: the center of the world was inhabited by civilized Greeks, the periphery by barbarians. The edges of the continents were inhabited by savage, monstrous barbarians, the opposites of the civilized Greeks in the middle of the earth. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation.
With the Seljuks' victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071, the art followed them into Anatolia and embarked upon a new period of strong development fostered by the Anatolian Seljuk sultanate.There is a widely held but quite erroneous belief that figurative painting, is not found in Islamic art due to prohibition by the Koran. Examples of such tile-clad structures can still be seen in the Seljuks' capital city of Konya as well as in the cities of Sivas, Tokat, Beysehir, Kayseri, Erzurum, Malatya, and Alanya.The most frequently-encountered type of architectural decoration during the Anatolian Seljuk period involved the use of glazed brick in which glazed (and also unglazed) bricks were arranged to produce a variety of patterns, mostly on the facades of buildings. In the slip technique, the design is painted onto a red-paste surface using diluted white slip to produce a slightly molded effect.
We now know, as a result of recent excavations, that these wares were actually made in Iznik.
In this object we find a new palette of colors incorporating, in addition to the traditional cobalt blue and turquoise, eggplant violet and a cumin green. Many examples of Kutahya ceramics from this period are to be found in museum and private collections in Turkey.The difficult straits into which the Iznik industry had fallen in the 18th century inspired some in Istanbul to establish a reliable source of tiles that was closer to home and easier to control. In addition, efforts are also being made in private workshops and educational institutions in Iznik, Istanbul, and Bursa to keep the art of traditional Turkish tiles and ceramics alive and develop it so that it can address the demands of modern-day life.Felt Making Workshops in Istanbul,Traditional Turkish Felt Making,Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres.
With the Seljuks' victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071, the art followed them into Anatolia and embarked upon a new period of strong development fostered by the Anatolian Seljuk sultanate.
The subjects included nobility as well as servants, hunters and hunting animals, trees, birds, sphinxes, lions, sirens, dragons and double-headed eagles. MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. He is remembered as the godfather of Palestinian terrorism nationalism - Professor Edward Said praised him as a€?the voice of the Palestinian people.a€? The History Channel made a film about him.
Former Hizb-ut-Tahrir member Ed Husain, in his 2007 book The Islamist, says: The difference between Hizb ut-Tahrir and jihadists, is tactics, not goals. Qaradawi was #6 in the book co authored by Esposito in 2009 featuring the world's 500 most influential Muslims.
Similarly, when Muslims and the Western heirs of the Enlightenment speak of tolerance they have different things in mind. Internationally recognized as one of the world's leading authorities on Islamic law and jurisprudence, modern Arab and Iraqi history, and politics.
Even though he is not a sharia scholar, he is on this page because that is mostly what his The Calcutta Qur'an Petition (1986) is - quotes of Koranic commentaries by famous sharia scholars, in an attempt to ban the Koran in India.
If you have any examples, please send documentary evidence so I can add it to the Tiny Minority of Extremists page, coming up next. This shows that the coming (parousia) of Christ and the revelation (apokalupsis) of Christ are the same event. The fact is that there are many Scriptures that admonish Christians to wait and watch for the coming of the Lord. Most rapturist literature mentions the seven-year tribulation period without offering any Bible proof or explanation. A misinterpretation that confuses something Christ has done, and applies it to the devil instead, is certainly a tragic occurrence.
C.), was the first to attempt a representation of the curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with geometrical rules. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions.
Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century. We also have the Tile owen to finish the process.Group lessons for High Schools and Universities can be provided all year long. Turquoise was the most frequently-used color for glaze although cobalt blue, eggplant violet, and sometimes black were also popular. There are rare examples with traces of gilding.A third technique in which the Anatolian Seljuks were skilled was that of mosaic tile. The surface is then given a coating of transparent glaze colored blue, green, or light or dark brown and then fired. The styles, designs, decorations, and techniques of these ceramics are quite distinct from Seljuk traditions. During this period, naturalistic such as tulips, roses, pomegranates and hyacinths begin to enrich the repertoire of stylized plant motifs and arabesques. Although the traditional designs of stylized plant motifs, arabesques, and Chinese clouds appear in the compositions, there is a shift towards a more naturalistic style in which tulips, carnations, hyacinths, roses, spring blossoms, lilies, cypress trees, and clusters of grapes and vine leaves appear. Ibrahim Pasa, a grand vizier during the reign of Ahmed III (1703-1730), had a tile-making factory set up at Tekfur Sarayi in Istanbul. Designs consist of underglaze spots, simply-drawn ships, flowers, fish, birds, and buildings that are applied free-hand. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye. They simply deny that it is a principle of Islam that jihad may include wars of aggression. Mashriqia€™s book Tazkirah (a commentary of the Quran) was nominated for the 1925 Nobel Prize in Literature. What is the good of us (the mullahs) asking for the hand of a thief to be severed or an adulteress to be stoned to death when all we can do is recommend such punishments, having no power to implement them?
Because of his huge influence, and to understand the significance of his connections with Moderatea„? American Muslim leaders that you will see in the Muslim Brotherhood page, you must understand what believes.
These texts clearly describe the coming (parousia) of Christ as taking place after the reign of the man of sin, not as an escape rapture before the reign of the Antichrist begins.
In fact, it is only after a person has already assumed that Christ will return in two separate comings that these verses could even suggest the idea.
Let us carefully study our Bibles that we will not be deceived concerning this most important and wonderful hope, the second coming of Jesus.
Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, Vol 2, Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1950, pp.
This mapa€™s most intriguing element is the southward extension of land running along the eastern edge of the map and extending beyond the border.
Sherman, for issued as plate 26 in Sheldon and Companya€™s An Atlas of Classical Geography in 1867.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.


Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world. There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world. Figural art is especially rich in tiles as well as stone and stucco reliefs of the Seljuk period, adorning both secular and religious reliefs monuments. This was also employed in interiors, especially in mihrab niches, the interiors of domes, transitions to domes, vaults, and walls. During the firing, the areas decorated with slip assume a lighter shade of the glaze color, which appears darker in the ground. They are decorated with motifs executed in tones of blue, turquoise, and violet under a colorless or colored glaze.
These changes in the Iznik potters' production habits are attributed to attempts to imitate the 15th-century Ming porcelains that were reaching the Ottoman court in various ways. Compositions are relaxed and free, offering greater scope for experimentation with new and richer arrangements.
The output unfortunately was incomparably inferior to that of Iznik: designs were poor copies of Iznik originals, glazes had a blue cast and were flawed, and colors were dull and lifeless.
Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking.
It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Fouad Ajami said "Professor Khadduri was one of the pioneers of Middle Eastern studies in the United States. The heavens and earth could not pass away seven years before the world ends - that is the end! Please notice that God was going to allow Daniel's people seventy weeks to see what they would do with the Messiah when He appeared. Daniel 9:25 says that the Messiah would be anointed after sixty-nine of those prophetic weeks had passed by. They agree that the sixty-nine weeks of Daniel 9:25 refer to the period before Christ's first advent, but then they insert a 2,000-year gap before the seventieth week is fulfilled. 484-510.)a€?a€?2Dave MacPherson, The Incredible Cover-Up, Logos International, 1975, Omega Publications, Medford, OR.
484-510.)2Dave MacPherson, The Incredible Cover-Up, Logos International, 1975, Omega Publications, Medford, OR. This landmass reflects speculation, inspired by Ptolemy, that the Indian Ocean was landlocked.
Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. Examples in which the motifs have black contours are also known, as are pieces with black decorations under a turquoise glaze. Tile manufacturing at Tekfur Sarayi lasted thirty years or so and the enterprise was generally regarded as a failure. The most common forms are dishes, plates, and jars.During the 19th century, quality dropped off sharply. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.hakan hacibekiroglu,Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul?
It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . Interestingly, several variations developed in time, giving us types such as gelgit, tarakli, hatip, bulbul yuvasi, cicekli (respectively come-and-go, combed, preacher, nightingale's nest, flowered, etc.) An attempt has been made here to show some of its principal patterns, with samples by the master marblers of this century chosen from our collection. In 1930 I sent him my Isharat concerning the Khaksar movement with a picture of a spade-bearer Khaksar at the end of that book.
According to prosecutors, the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center (WTC), which killed six people, was part of the conspiracy. Yet Paul declares that the saints are caught up to meet the Lord at the same time the dead in Christ are raised. The seventy weeks are prophetic time, and each day represents a literal year (Ezekiel 4:6). Another three and a half years would lead up to the end of the seventy weeks and the end of Jewish probation. Eratosthenes also calculated the circumference of the Earth using simple geometric relationships.
It was believed that this landmass extended far southwards before turning westward and connecting with eastern Africa. In a few words I shall declare the size of each division and of what nature it is as regards outline.a€? It is, however, interesting to observe that the father of historical geography and of history nowhere records his idea of a properly constructed map, and further that the circular form, which he condemned, is one that found wide acceptance even to the close of the middle ages.
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Different styles of calligraphy adorn the tile friezes on monuments; on utensils we find images of ships, 'rock-and-wave' motifs, triple-spots, animal figures, and fish-scale patterns.
Nevertheless some of its output was used in buildings in Istanbul such as the Hekimoglu Ali Pasa Mosque (1734), the Yeni Valide Mosque (Uskudar, 1708), the Cezeri Kasim Pasa Mosque (Eyup, a restoration done in 1726 of a mosque originally built in 1515), and Kandilli Mosque (1751).
Forms from this period consist of jars, ewers, jugs, vases, flower-pots, and candle-holders as well as animal and human figurines.
The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Betul !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul?
EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs. The intention of Mohammed, in what he said of jihad, may have been misunderstood and misrepresented. So the seventy weeks would be a literal period of 490 years, after which the Israelites would no longer be God's people. Though the exploits of Vasco de Gama and Magellan had proven that the Indian Ocean was not fully land locked, it was believed that a large tract of land, possibly even America, attached to Asia west of Malaya. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
The pieces were arranged glazed-side down after which a whitish mortar was poured over them.
A feature of most 'Miletus' ware is that the interiors are given a coating of slip but part of the exteriors and the bases are not.
There is also a proliferation in vessel forms of which deep and footed bowls, vases, ewers, dishes, lamps, candle-holders, and mugs are but a few.Around the middle of the 17th century, the quality of the Iznik potteries began to feel the impact of the economic distress and political upheavals from which the Ottoman Empire had begun to suffer.
There is also a hearth, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, whose tiles were made at Tekfur Saray. Only a single-color glaze was used in these ceramics and there are instances in which black, white, blue, red, yellow, or gilded designs were applied over the glaze.10 Ceramic manufacturing at Canakkale was still being carried out as late as the middle of the 20th century. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made.
Islam says: Whatever good there it exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! Founded the Shaybani Society of International Law, and was a founder of the Middle East Institute, and the University of Libya, where he became dean in 1957. The text that is used to prove the rapture is seen actually to forbid the saints being taken out of this world during the time of trouble.
Thus the Great Promontory or Dragona€™s Tail that appeared on many maps of this region well into the 16th century. Designs tend to be plant motifs and geometrical arrangements but animal figures are also encountered. The decorations include stylized foliage, arabesques, and Chinese clouds alone or in skillfully-executed compositions.Iznik blue-and-whites can be classified in a number of subgroups on the basis of their motifs and styles.
Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers.
Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. 27, the very year that Jesus was baptized by John and the Holy Spirit anointed Him for His ministry.
Strabo based his map on the knowledge of the Roman expeditions in many parts of the known world. Mosaic-tile compositions are generally geometrical but floral motifs and Kufic or Thuluth calligraphy are also found. The contours of the designs are picked out with a mixture of beeswax or vegetable fat and manganese oxide.
One group, with motifs consisting of stylized lobed leaves with curling tips is attributed to a 'Baba Nakkas', a chief designer at the Ottoman court studios in the 15th century, and is therefore known as the Baba Nakkas style .4 Cobalt blue in various tones is the principal color.
In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. Until the newer conceptions, as to what the Koran teaches as to the duty of the believer towards non-believers, have spread further.. The Jews had rejected the gospel message and were no longer God's people - just as Daniel had predicted. During the firing, the wax or fat burns away producing contours of red or black that also prevent the differently-colored glazes from running into one another.The cuerda seca technique permits extremely complex and detailed designs to be applied to ceramic surfaces.
One, a composition of thick motifs radiating around a central motif, is identical to the grooved designs on metal bath-bowls.2,The late 15th and early 16th century marks the beginning of a new period in Ottoman tile and ceramic-making. Henceforth they could be saved only as individuals, in exactly the same way as the Gentiles. In addition to plant motifs, examples decorated with calligraphy and (less commonly) geometric patterns that are a continuation of Seljuk traditions are to be found. During this period the Iznik manufactories apparently turned their attentions more and more to the demands of customers who were less finicky than the Istanbul court and its circles. In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable. A rich and subtle palette of colors was available with colors such as turquoise, cobalt blue, lilac, yellow, black, and pistachio. Designs prepared by artists who were employed in the studios of the Ottoman court were sent to Iznik to be executed in wares ordered for use at the palace. There is even evidence, in the form of written complaints, that orders placed by the court in Istanbul were being delayed.8 By the 18th century, the ceramic industry in Iznik had died out completely and Kutahya replaced it as the leading center in western Anatolia. In the lesson you will make the whole stages of a Felt making process and by the evening, you will be able to finish 1 item like a hat, bag, shoe, a scarf or a design that you choose.. Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. The only place in Anatolia were tiles of this type have been found is Alaeddin Kiosk in Konya.
The court's patronage stimulated and supported the development of an artistically and technically advanced ceramic industry in Iznik.
Indeed, Kutahya had been in operation as a secondary center along with Iznik since the 14th century 9 but its production always paled in Iznik's brilliance.
The palette of colors that this technique offers is much greater and one finds shades of violet, blue, turquoise, green, red, brown, black, and white as well as gilding. Fine examples of cuerda seca tiles are to be found at the Bursa Green Mosque (1419-1420) and Tomb (1421-1422) the Mosque of Murad II (Edirne, 1436), the Tiled Kiosk (Istanbul), and the Tomb of Prince Mehmed (Istanbul, 1548). But where production at Iznik was discontinued, Kutahya plodded on.For a while, the Kutahya potters produced inferior copies of Iznik blue-and-whites but they also began producing ceramics whose forms, colors, and techniques are quite distinct. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . Some colors were applied under the glaze and then fired; others were applied over the glaze which then received a secondary opaque white, transparent, or turquoise glaze and was fired again.
Among them are a group of Christian liturgical utensils and tiles with religious themes that were made by Armenian potters for their churches.
In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. The designs of minai tiles are lively and reminiscent of miniatures with themes taken from palace and court life.In underglaze tiles, the designs are painted onto the surface, which is then glazed before the tile is fired. 18th-century Kutahya ceramics are made with a white paste and are usually decorated with underglaze-applied designs in yellow, red, green, cobalt blue, turquoise, black, and violet.
She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling.
When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”.
Forms, which can be elegant, include thin-walled small cups, saucers, bowls, ewers, pitchers, flasks, incense-burners, lemon-squeezers, and ornamental eggs. In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”. Fine examples of these tiles have been discovered at the excavations of the Kubadabad Palace in Beysehir, where the tiles are decorated with plant motifs as well as with figures of human beings and animals.The luster technique first appeared in Abbasid Iraq. If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors.
Later developed to a high level by the Fatimids in Egypt, it was successfully employed by the Iranian Seljuks. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu). For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out. The tiles discovered at the excavations of the palace are now on display at the Karatay Medrese Museum in Konya. Luster tiles are decorated in an overglaze technique in which the design is painted with lusterA?a mixture of metallic oxides incorporating silver and copperA?onto a previously glazed and fired surface. The tiles are then given a second firing at a lower temperature producing a range of lustrous, mostly brownish and yellowish tones. The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. Seljuk palace luster tiles are decorated with plant motifs as well as with human and animal figures.Anatolian Seljuks sometimes used square, rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular tiles to cover interior walls.
Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues. These tiles are plain, with turquoise, violet, or cobalt blue being the chief colors applied in the underglaze technique.
Sometimes the traces of overglaze gilding are to be found; however because the gilding was fired at a low temperature (or not fired at all), it was not durable and has mostly disappeared. By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any).
To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water.
Patience and a good knowledge of traditional culture are characteristic of ebru masters.After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’.
Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. Also, early texts dealing with ebru, such as “Discourse on decorating paper in the Turkish manner”, published in 1664 by Athanasius Kircher in Rome, helped to disseminate the knowledge of this kind of marbling art.
There is agreement amongst scholars that the so-called Turkish Papers played a colourful influence on the book arts in Europe.MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLING Gum tragacath – Dye – Paintbrush – Basin – Water – Paper - Gall Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”.
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms.
For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3.



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