Send texts over skype,i never want to get my period sooner,how to make your ex really jealous,ways to make your ex girlfriend regret leaving you - Step 3

As you can see, Option Three provides the only option in which you do not end up crying softly. You’re texting your ex for a very specific reason (ahem Step 1) so get on with it already. Getting to the point leave no room for uncertainty or grey area and prevents you from getting sucked in to an awful long texting conversation. Above, a fascinating 1867 map by William Hughes featuring the world according to ancient Greek astronomers, poets, historians and geographers.
So far, maps were mainly based on an aggregation of facts, without any scientific treatment of geography. Ptolemy, the Greek mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer, gathered new information and corrected old errors and gave ancient geography its final shape, until the explorations of Columbus and Vasco De Gama. The city of Cattigara, located here in the bottom right corner of the map, is cited by Ptolemy as the southernmost known point.
The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has generally assigned to the Greek Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B. We are not definitely informed as to just the course of improvement or advancement in early scientific map making among the Greeks, yet not a few names are known to us of those who made it a matter of special endeavor, as they specifically stated, to improve the work of their predecessors.
The Greeks developed another idea: the distinction between civilized people and barbarians.
Until the late sixth century BCE, the Greeks conceptualized the world as a series of concentric circles. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge.
It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the eartha€™s landmass with data from ancient texts. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name.
2 - 5 Guest ,65 Euro ,6 - more ,45 Euro ,1 Guest ,80 Euro ,Lesson Includes.,These are private events and runs upon request.
Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .hakan hacibekiroglu,Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms.
Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .
Marbled paper, called ebru in Turkish, was used extensively in the binding of books and within the calligraphic panels in Turkey. Ebru technique consists of sprinkling colours containing a few drops of ox-gall on to the surface of the bath sized with kitre (gum tragacanth) in a trough.
After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’. When you have confirmed your password, you will be able to log in through Facebook on both sites. DESCRIPTION: These images show 19th and 20th century reconstructions of the world-view of the Greek philosopher Strabo who wrote his famous geography at the beginning of the Christian era and compiled his map from travelersa€™ reports and the a€?writingsa€? of ancients.
The contribution of Strabo as a scholar of great stature as philosopher, historian, and geographer, epitomizes the continuing importance of the Greek intellectual heritage - and contemporary practice - to the development of cartography in the early Roman world. Strabo claimed to have traveled widely to bring together an enormous amount of geographical knowledge. In many ways the most interesting passages relating to cartography in Straboa€™s Geographia are those that, although they contain no maps, give an account, for the first time in a surviving text, of how a description of the known world should be compiled. In order to avoid the deformational problems of flat maps, Strabo stated that he preferred to construct his map on a globe large enough to show all the required detail. As with all Greek world maps, the great impediment to study for the historian of cartography is that we have only these verbal descriptions, not the images themselves. It is not clear how we should interpret these familiar graphic similes Strabo employed to describe to his readers the land areas and other features on the world map.
Strabo was a lengthy and discursive writer, but demonstrated good critical power in assessing earlier geographical writers and has given us a verbal picture of the known world of the time. The most detailed examination of a term arising from Homeric geography (#105) is in respect of Ethiopians. The function of geography, according to Strabo, is to be an interpreter, not of the whole world, but of the inhabited world. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?a€?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦. Strabo has summed up for us the knowledge of the ancient world as it was in the days of the Emperor CA¦sar Augustus of the great Roman Empire, as it was when in far-off Syria the Christ was born and the greater part of the known earth was under the sway of Rome. Strabo begins his book with a detailed account of southern Spain where he tells of her two hundred towns.
Large quantities of corn and wine are exported, besides much oil, which is of the first quality, also wax, honey, and pitch . But if anyone disbelieves the evidence of reason, it would make no difference, from the point of view of the geographer, whether we make the inhabited world an island, or merely admit what experience has taught us, namely, that it is possible to sail round the inhabited world on both sides, from the east as well as from the west, with the exception of a few intermediate stretches.
Despite the extension of the geographical horizons of the inhabited world since the time of Eratosthenes, Straboa€™s oikumene [inhabited world] was smaller. He goes on to suggest that the quadrilateral in which the Atlantic lies resembles in shape half the surface of a spinning-wheel, and that the oikumene [inhabited world] resembles a chlamys, a Greek mantle. He goes on to say there is little point in making the meridians converge slightly in such a map, so was it rectangular, a forerunner of something like Mercatora€™s projection?Like Herodotus (#109), Strabo had traveled himself from Armenia and western Italy, from the Black Sea to Egypt and up the Nile to PhilA¦. Those best known are situated on the rivers, estuaries, and seas; but the two which have acquired the greatest name and importance are Cordova and Cadiz. He grows enthusiastic over the richness of this part of southern Spain, famous from ancient days under the name of Tartessus for its wealth. It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos (#113), a contemporary of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic school of Philosophers, who made the first attempt to construct a terrestrial globe, and that he exhibited the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B. It doesn’t matter how long it has been, how bad your break-up was or the number of years since you both agreed to never speak again. While there are many times you might want to text your ex, it’s rare that you truly need to.
If your ex-girlfriend has recently lost a loved one it is much more appropriate to call or send a condolence card than a tacky text message. This map includes nine maps on a single sheet, each illustrating the geographical views entertained at different periods and as expressed by prominent authorities of the time. No snow is there, nor heavy storm, nor ever rain, but ever does Ocean send up blasts of the shrill-blowing West Wind that they may give cooling to men.
Here we see that the world is divided into three continents, Europe, Asia and Libya [Africa], and that the western countries of the Mediterranean have gained some form and proportion. It is worth noting the superiority of the Ptolemaic system which would come to dominate European cartographic presentation until the discovery of America. There has been considerable debate about the true location of Cattigara, certainly Magellan and the other great navigators failed to identify it, with some attaching the name to Hanoi or South China and others placing it on the shores of South America. Originally, barbaros simply meant a€?babblera€™ and was used to indicate everybody who did not speak Greek. Greece was surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea (with large islands like Sicily, Italy, and Cyprus); the Mediterranean was surrounded by the three continents, and behind the continents was the Ocean, which surrounded the world disk.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul. The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces .
The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. You can’t be honest with the person, because if you were, you would unleash a fury upon them that would echo through eternity, but you can’t be too nice or it will never end.
The now lost map by Strabo represented the sum total of cartographic knowledge before the Christian era.
It is generally accepted, however, that he must have compiled much of this information in the great library at Alexandria, where he had access to many earlier texts now lost. His motives for writing such a geography (so he tells us) were that he felt impelled to describe the inhabited world because of the considerable strides in geographical knowledge that had been made through the numerous campaigns of the Romans and Parthians. The first stage was to locate the portion of the terrestrial globe that was known to be inhabited. And, as to these stretches, it makes no difference whether they are bounded by sea or by uninhabited land; for the geographer undertakes to describe the known parts of the inhabited world, but he leaves out of consideration the unknown parts of it - just as he does what is outside of it. Although PythA¦s, Eratosthenes, and perhaps Posidonius had fixed its northern limit on the parallel through Thule [Iceland ? He recommended that it be at least ten feet (approximately three meters) in diameter and mentions Crates (#113) in this regard. Nevertheless, apart from the reduced size of the inhabited world, the map Strabo envisaged was similar in its overall shape to that drawn by Eratosthenes (#112).
He treats Homer (#105) as the first writer on geography, and defends the Homeric picture of the known world as substantially true. Thus he says that the legend of the Golden Fleece brought back from Colchis by the Argonauts reflects the search for gold by early Greeks in areas of the Black Sea.
What did Homer mean by saying they were a€?divided in two, some where Hyperion rises and some where he setsa€??

Thus, accepting Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of 252,000 stades for the circumference of the earth, the geographer ought not to include the equatorial zone, since that in Straboa€™s view is uninhabitable.
This suggests that the eastern and western extremities of the oikumene were thought of as tapering and convex. But one needs a large globe, so that the section mentioned, being only a fraction of it, may clearly show the appropriate parts of the oikumene, which win present a recognizable shape to users. But his seventeen volumes -vastly important to his contemporaries - read like a romance to us today, and a glance at the map laid down according to his descriptions is like a vague and distorted caricature of the real thing. A wall-map had already been designed by order of Augustus (#118) to hang in a public place in Rome - the heart of the Empire - so that the young Romans might realize the size of their inheritance, while a list of the chief places on the roads, which, radiating from Rome, formed a network over the Empire, was inscribed on the Golden Milestone in the Forum.
It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!a€?But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. Some had told him it was a third of the whole habitable world, some that it took four months to walk through the plain only. 21, and a century passed before Pliny wrote An Account of Countries, Nations, Seas, Towns, Havens, Mountains, Rivers, Distances, and Peoples who now Exist or Formerly Existed. It is astonishing to think that in the days of Strabo the silver mines employed forty thousand workmen, and produced the modern-day equivalence of approximately $1,800 a day!But we cannot follow Strabo over the world in all his detail. Of course, the world of the ancient Greeks centered in the Mediterranean and the Americas were yet to be discovered.
Beyond Oceanus in the north, are the Cimmerii, an ancient people of the far north of Europe, described by Homer as the people living in perpetual darkness. The three important seas, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Black Sea divide the three continents and the Caspian Sea is noted. He determined latitudes and longitudes based on astronomical observations and developed trigonometry. His map of the World in about AD 160, as well as his two maps of Asia and Europe may be somewhat difficult to understand at first glance, but upon closer examination, correspond to many actual locations and yield some of their secrets.
Be as it may, the Ptolemaic model retained a great deal of influence well into the 16th century until Portuguese and Dutch navigators more fully explored the region.
While there is not a detailed description extant of the maps he is reputed to have made, we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that the earth has the form of a circular disc, and is surrounded by the Ocean Stream, an idea generally approved by the Ionic School of Philosophers. After the Greek victory in the Persian wars (492-479), the word became pejorative: a barbarian was not only unable to speak Greek, but was inferior as well.
Here, one could encounter strange monsters: Homera€™s Odyssey mentions a great variety of them. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling.Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul. In bru art, you can draw flower figures that are traditional from the Ottoman period BUT the things that you can capable of by using Ebru art is unlimited. To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. All his writings were firmly set in, if not direct extensions of, the work of his predecessors. The world map had to be adjusted to take account of these facts, and thus Strabo almost certainly proceeded by taking Eratosthenesa€™ map - and the criticism of it by Polybius, Crates, Hipparchus, and Posidonius - as the basis for his own work.
Strabo reasoned that it lay in a northern quadrant of a globe, in a quadrilateral bounded by the frigid zone, the equator, and two meridians on the sides. And it will suffice to fill out and complete the outline of what we term a€?the islanda€? by pining with a straight line the extreme points reached on the coasting-voyages made on both sides of the inhabited world. 66A° N], Strabo, like Polybius, refused to believe that human life was possible so far north, and he blamed Pytheas for having misled so many people by his claim that the a€?summer tropica€? becomes the a€?arctic circlea€? at the island of Thule. On the other hand, if a globe of this size could not be constructed, Strabo was familiar from Eratosthenes with the transformation necessary to draw it on a plane surface. In describing its detailed geography, however, Strabo did not employ, at least overtly, Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into irregular quadrilaterals or sphragides, but he often used geometric figures or comparisons to everyday objects to describe the general outline of a country. In some cases, where alternative descriptions are provided, he may have been attempting to collate the outlines of more than one map. But within the Homeric chapters he has a section in which he attempts to analyze navigation of the oceans over the ages. When Homer made Hera say: a€?For I shall see the bounds of fertile earth and Oceanus, father of the godsa€?, what he means, says Strabo, is that the Ocean touches all the extremities of the land. Instead he should start his analysis with the Cinnamon Country [near the mouth of the Red Sea, Somaliland], about 8,800 stades north of the equator, in the south, and with Ireland in the north. Again, he estimated the length of the oikumene as 70,000 stades and its width as less than 30,000. He tells us of a people living north of the Tagus, who slept on the ground, fed on acorn-bread, and wore black cloaks by day and night. It seems to have been Cratesa€™ idea that the eartha€™s surface, when represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like habitable regions.
And if you’ve already made the (possibly inadvisable!) decision to do so, then at least you can do it in the least life-damaging way possible.
If you hem and haw for too long your ex might get the wrong message and respond accordingly. Europe Asia and Africa (Libya) however were known, leading prominent geographers of the ancient world to adopt the three-part world model a€“ a system that would remain in use until the era of Martin WaldseemA?ller in the early 16th century (Book IV, #310).
It is not improbable that we have an allusion to the work of Anaximander in the History of Herodotus (484-400?
At that moment, the two ideas had already been combined: the center of the world was inhabited by civilized Greeks, the periphery by barbarians. The edges of the continents were inhabited by savage, monstrous barbarians, the opposites of the civilized Greeks in the middle of the earth. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation. MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. Thus his Historical Memoirs in forty-seven books, now lost, was a continuation of Polybius.
For a graticule, Strabo adopted the straight forward rectangular network of parallels and meridians. It is also probable that students were expected to consult the text of the Geographia with the help of maps, so that the shapes thus enumerated may have served as a simple mnemonic. Or again, when Homer describes Odysseus as seeing land as he was on the crest of a great wave, he must have been referring to the curvature of the earth, a phenomenon familiar to sailors. He categorizes regions from south to north according to greatest length of day in equinoctial hours. If one cannot make it as big or not much smaller, one should construct a map of the oikumene on a plane surface at least seven feet long.
He does not think Britain is worth conquering - Ireland lies to the north, not west, of Britain; it is a barren land full of cannibals and wrapped in eternal snows - the Pyrenees nun parallel to the Rhine - the Danube rises near the Alps - even Italy herself runs east and west instead of north and south. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us. C.), was the first to attempt a representation of the curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with geometrical rules. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion. There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries.
Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye. The Geographia is of key importance to our whole knowledge of the history of Greek cartography as well as to the history of science in general. The so-called quadrilateral, bounded by half of this arctic circle, half of the equator, and segments of two meridians, is a spherical quadrilateral, a portion of a sphere. He defended his projection on the ground that it would make only a slight difference if the circles on the earth were represented by straight lines, a€?for our imagination can easily transfer to the globular and spherical surface the figure or magnitude seen by the eye on a plane surface.a€? The dimensions of this flat map were also to be generous. Similarly, Strabo compares the shape of Iberia to an ox-hide, the Peloponnese to a plane-leaf; and the northern part of Asia, east of the Caspian, to a kitchen knife with the straight side along the Taurus range and the curved side along the northern coastline.
Yet if such suggestions must remain speculative, there can be little doubt that by the early Roman period world maps and globes drawn by Greek scholars were encouraging a distinctively geographical way of thinking about the world. The problems of the armchair geographer are revealed in the journalistic trick of quotes from quotes on an important exploration: a€?Posidonius, says Herodotus, thinks that certain men sent by Neco completed the circumnavigationa€™.
Some of this was polemic against Eratosthenes, who would not have if that early epic poetry could contribute anything to scientific theory.
Cratesa€™ view was based upon an unorthodox view that the division was north-south rather than the obvious interpretation of east-west. This list, starting at Meroe with thirteen hours and ending at an area north of the Sea of Azov with seventeen hours, is similar to that given by the elder Pliny. A vast number of people dwell along the Guadalquivir, and you may sail up it almost a hundred and twenty miles from the sea to Cordova and the places a little higher. Through the formulation and expression of such a theory the idea of the existence of an antipodal people was put forth as a speculative problem, an idea frequently discussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the day of great transoceanic discoveries. But he gives us a fuller account of Great Britain, based on the fresh discovers of Roman generals. Most importantly, is there someone else you can contact about this issue other than your ex? This mapa€™s most intriguing element is the southward extension of land running along the eastern edge of the map and extending beyond the border.
Sherman, for issued as plate 26 in Sheldon and Companya€™s An Atlas of Classical Geography in 1867.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world.

There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world.
It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Armando CortesA?o states that as a source it was a€?second to none in the history of geography and cartographya€? of this period.
In this design Strabo had been influenced not only by Eratosthenesa€™ measurement of the earth but also by the concept of the four inhabited worlds, known and unknown, expounded by Crates (#113), to whom he refers explicitly.
He estimated the latitudinal extent of the inhabited world as less than 30,000 stades (compared with Eratosthenesa€™ 38,000 stades) and reduced its length to 70,000 stades instead of Eratosthenesa€™ 78,000 stades [one mile = 9 to 10 stades; there has always been some controversy over the equivalent modern length of a stade as used by various authors].
Strabo envisaged that it would be at least seven feet long and presumably three feet wide, which would suit the length of the inhabited world (70,000 by 30,000 stades), one foot being equivalent to 10,000 stades. India, with two adjacent sides (south and east) much longer than the two others, he described as rhomboidal; Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, he saw as being like a boat drawn in profile, with the deck on the Tigris side and the keel near the Euphrates. And it is likely, among the educated group at least, that an increasingly standard image of the inhabited world had come to be more widely accepted through the use of these maps. This is all he reports, so that we have to beware of using all his work as scientifically worthy material. As mentioned earlier, in the extreme north, Strabo denied the existence of a Thule Island [Iceland?]. A considerable quantity of salted fish is exported, not only from hence, but also from the remainder of the coast beyond the Pillars. That Strabo, at a later date, had this Pergamenian example in mind when stating certain rules to be observed in the construction of globes seems probable, since he makes mention of Cratesa€™ globe. This landmass reflects speculation, inspired by Ptolemy, that the Indian Ocean was landlocked. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.hakan hacibekiroglu,Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . Interestingly, several variations developed in time, giving us types such as gelgit, tarakli, hatip, bulbul yuvasi, cicekli (respectively come-and-go, combed, preacher, nightingale's nest, flowered, etc.) An attempt has been made here to show some of its principal patterns, with samples by the master marblers of this century chosen from our collection. Many of the earlier treatises that touch upon maps are known to us only through Strabo, while the interest of his commentary on these writers is in its critical handling of their theories, albeit he sometimes fails to advance truth by this process. Strabo repeats that the river Nile was described by Eratosthenes as a reversed N, and that its mouth was named after the Greek capital letter delta. Perhaps because he is drawing on an account at second hand, he is afraid to support what may have seemed like science fiction. To him the most northerly inhabited area was Ierne [Ireland], itself a€?only wretchedly inhabitable because of the cold, to such an extent that regions beyond it are regarded as uninhabitablea€?. Let the equator be conceived as a circle on it, and let a second circle be conceived parallel to it, delimiting the frigid zone in the northern hemisphere, and through the poles a circle cutting these at right angles.
The eye is also delighted with groves and gardens, which for this district are met with in the highest perfection.
Formerly they exported large quantities of garments, but they now send the un-manufactured wool remarkable for its beauty. Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as we find in use at the present day. Eratosthenes also calculated the circumference of the Earth using simple geometric relationships.
It was believed that this landmass extended far southwards before turning westward and connecting with eastern Africa. In a few words I shall declare the size of each division and of what nature it is as regards outline.a€? It is, however, interesting to observe that the father of historical geography and of history nowhere records his idea of a properly constructed map, and further that the circular form, which he condemned, is one that found wide acceptance even to the close of the middle ages. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Betul !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs. He does not deal extensively with Hanno the Carthaginian, instead spending much effort on questioning the explorations of Eudoxus of Cyzicus, who must have added to the accumulation of knowledge about the remote parts of Africa.
Straboa€™s own view is that there were two groups of Ethiopians, one living in Asia and one in Africa; and that Homer thought likewise, though not to the extent of placing the eastern group in India, of which he had no knowledge. Likewise, if one were to go not more than 4,000 stades [500 Roman miles] north from the center of Britain, one would find an area near Ireland, which like the latter would be barely inhabitable. For fifty miles the river is navigable for ships of considerable size, but for the cities higher up smaller vessels are employed, and thence to Cordova river-boats. He thought that a globe to be serviceable should be of large size, and his reasoning can readily be understood, for what at that time was really known of the eartha€™s surface was small indeed in comparison with what was unknown. Though the exploits of Vasco de Gama and Magellan had proven that the Indian Ocean was not fully land locked, it was believed that a large tract of land, possibly even America, attached to Asia west of Malaya.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. However, this idea of eastern Ethiopians living in some area of India and resembling Indians in appearance and customs persisted throughout antiquity.
These are not constructed of planks pined together, but they were formerly made out of a single trunk.
There is a superabundance of cattle and a great variety of game, while on the other hand there are certain little hares which burrow in the ground (rabbits). Should one not make use of a sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions, in comparison with the eartha€™s entire surface, would occupy but small space. Thus the Great Promontory or Dragona€™s Tail that appeared on many maps of this region well into the 16th century. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.
A chain of mountains, rich in metal, runs parallel to the Guadalquivir, approaching the river, sometimes more, sometimes less, toward the north.
Strabo based his map on the knowledge of the Roman expeditions in many parts of the known world.
Surprisingly, though, it seems not to have been read in Rome in the first century, judging from the fact that it is not even mentioned by the elder Pliny. Whoever would represent the real earth, he says, as near as possible by artificial means, should make a sphere like that of Crates, and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart of geography is to be placed. It is said that formerly the inhabitants of Majorca and Minorca sent a deputation to the Romans requesting that a new land might be given them, as they were quite driven out of their country by these animals, being no longer able to stand against their vast multitudes. For this purpose however a large globe is necessary since the section mentioned, though but a very small portion of the entire sphere, must be capable of containing properly all the regions of the habitable earth and of presenting an accurate view of them to those ho wish to consult it. In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable. Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. But it should have a diameter of not less than ten feet; those who cannot obtain a globe of this size, or one nearly as large, had better draw their charts on a plane surface of not less than seven feet. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”.
Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
They feed on the fruit, of stunted oak, which grows at the bottom of the sea and produces very large acorns. We can easily imagine how the eye can transfer the figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to he that is spherical. In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. So great is the quantity of fruit, that at the season when they are ripe the whole coast on either side of the Pillars is covered with acorns thrown up by the tides.
The meridians of each country on the globe have a tendency to unite in a single point at the poles; nevertheless on the surface of a plane map there would be no advantage if the right lines alone which should represent the meridians were drawn slightly to converge. The tunny fish become gradually thinner, owing to the failure of their food as they approach the Pillars from the outer sea. When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”. In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”. If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors.
Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu).
For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out. The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any). Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms.

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