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Meme Maker - Congratulations on getting back together with your ex AGAIN I'm certain that yo Meme Maker! Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.
Each autumn, salmon return to the rivers of their birth a€“ there to spawn and once again trigger a renewal of the eternal passion play. Salmon that do eventually arrive at their destinations must once again compete a€“ this time for mates and to fight for access to the precious and very limited gravels.
The profligate expenditure of life and extravagant wealth of biology is there everywhere to behold, as Death dances lightly among the gathering throngs of fish, picking and choosing from among them; who from their number shall successfully spawn and who shall just be food for the gathering predators and scavengers. Spend a day in silence, walking among the spawning salmon, as they dig spawning redds, jockey for position and slash at competitors with those gaping, snaggletoothed, hooked jaws.
Jan Bohuslav Sobota has died, while half a world away; I was preparing these etchings of Spawned Salmon and dedicating them to Jan, the lover of fish. The book you hold in your hands has evolved from my simply giving these etchings a second life in book form, to my using them as a vehicle for honoring a friendship of three decades.
In 1985, Jan and I had been corresponding for some months without ever meeting a€“ all quite distant and correct.
A short bit of background on Jan Sobota to begin, but fear not; Ia€™ll soon be spinning anecdotes and thoughts on books as art a€“ celebrating Jana€™s life of course, telling a few stories out of school, but also straying into the personal and speculative in search of the meaning to be derived from the life and death of a friend. Jana€™s father was a serious bibliophile and collector of fine books, who nurtured that same love of books in his son a€“ an appreciation that steadily grew, until he was apprenticed to master bookbinder Karel A ilinger in PlzeA?.
The pivotal event in Jana€™s early life as a book artist was the posthumous retrospective exhibition of fellow Pilsener, Josef VA?chal in 1969.
Jan supported a family, sponsored workshops, exhibited widely, did conservation work on rare historic books, ran a gallery a€“ and on it went.
What Jan did for contemporary bookbinding, was to act as a bridge between the traditionally trained masters of the past and innovators of the present. America was a great place to be a book artist in the early 1980a€™s precisely because it was an active zone of hybridization and hotbed of creativity. An instructive contrast to the anything-goes US scene was the icy reception I got when I showed a wooden box containing loose sheets of poetry and etchings to a Prague publisher. Neither Jan nor I had much interest in the book-like objects that often sneak into the museums as book arts a€“ the carved and glued together things that sorta, kinda have a bookish aspect to them a€“ rough-looking a€“ perhaps chain-sawed Oaken boards or granite slabs, slathered in tar and lashed together with jute; but lacking text. When Jana€™s books went beyond function, conservation or decoration, they were subtle statements about binding and the place of books, knowledge and art, as well as statements about the dignity inhering in the handcrafted - with a good dose humor.
There are others who know their conservation and those, whose scientific contributions are far greater, but few of them are also artists at heart. It can sound so pedestrian, these eternal compromises between art and craft, yet what Jan represented was not at all common.
There is an inflection point at which exceptional craft begins to make the transition to art and it is closely associated with surmounting the limitations inhering to the discipline.
Visiting with Jan in his workshop you quickly realized, that he did what a professional must, but ultimately, he just loved messing about with books.
A curiously protean hybrid of artist and craftsman, ancient and modern, one cannot think of Jan without seeing an unabashed Czech patriot in a foreign land. Early on in their stay in Cleveland, the Sobotas experienced the quintessential American disaster.
Even after their medical debts were retired, money was still an issue for a family of immigrants with three kids a€“ two with special needs.
Later on, when they were living in Texas, the massacre at Waco opened Jana€™s eyes to yet another difficult side of his adopted home. In 1979, I apprenticed with Jindra Schmidt, an engraver of stamps and currency, living in Prague. Schmidt had engraved stamps for Bulgaria, Iraq, Ethiopia, Albania, Guinea, Vietnam and Libya.
In 1992, Jindra Schmidt was honored for his contributions and depicted on the last stamp of a united Czechoslovakia, before it split into Czech and Slovak republics a€“ a fitting tribute.
Unlike most children of immigrants, my destiny remained connected to that of my parentsa€™ homeland. My vocation as artist clarified itself in Prague while learning the increasingly obsolete skills of steel engraving. My first book was indeed, modeled after VA?chal, even to the extent of its diabolical subject matter. Jan showed me a great deal in the following years about the tradition of books as the meeting place of art, craft and ideas a€“ where printmaking intergrades seamlessly with the worlds of language, typography and illustration. One can like these things just fine and admire them from an uncomprehending distance, or you can become engaged.
The book you hold was to have been a simple reprint of the Spawned Salmon a€“ something fun for Jan to work his magic upon. Nice sentimental reminiscences, but there is still the matter of getting the work accomplished and out before the public, organizing exhibitions, printing catalogs and paying for transatlantic flights.
The Prague show was reconfigured and curated by Jana€?s longtime friend, Ilja A edo, for exhibition at the West Bohemian Museum in PlzeA?.
Quite predictably, I like seeing the kind of work I do honored a€“ the wood engravings and etchings made to shine in the context of crisply printed type and an excellent binding. Ia€™ve heard printmakers lament that the surest way to devalue prints is to add excellent poetry, sensitive typography and a bang-up binding a€“ and then live to see the whole thing sell for half the price of just the unbound prints. Therea€™s nothing quite like seventeenth century Bohemia, the dead center of Europe, for particularly thorough violence a€“ with the Bubonic Plague stepping in afterwards as mop-up crew. The chapel at Sedlec was rebuilt after the major blood-letting of the thirty-years war as a memento mori a€“ reminder of death.
What can you say about the mounds of dead, the ruined lives, destroyed nations and misery multiplied by millions that isna€™t trite or self-evident? But then I pan over to other fields a€“ not the kind where the grass is composting my fellow man, but to fields of endeavor where the ferment is of ideas recombining into ever more refined ways of thinking.
I once lived at the Golem house in Prague a€“ at Meislova ulice, number 8, in the old Jewish ghetto. Horoscopes might seem a curious basis on which to select ministers and diplomats, but it is also more common than youa€™d think. Picture the scene before you: Ita€™s a late night in Prague, before the Marlboro man dominated every street corner, even before the neon of casinos and the vulgarity of Golden Arches assaulted the nightwalkersa€™ eyes at all hours a€“ back when darkness, oh yes, that beautiful comforting velvety, all-enveloping and blessed dark, broken only by the moon, stars and late night taxis, still ruled the streets after the sun went down.
The Golem was a mythic being of Jewish folklore, created from clay and quickened by the Shem, a magical stone engraved with an ancient Hebraic inscription, inserted into Golema€™s forehead.
The maternal tongues of these small nations have miraculously survived all the invasions, floods, plagues and foreign occupiers to this day a€“ a gift preserved and delivered to them across the generations. Minority languages, on the other hand, carry an emotional load that can scarcely be exaggerated. Ishi and his sister were the last of the Yahi tribe to survive the genocidal colonization of California.
Those whose language and culture are not threatened can never know the burden under which the carriers of small minority languages labor a€“ nor how those in exile bring up their children to preserve that which is beyond their capacities to save.
Jan was all about preserving traditions and the kind of ancestral knowledge that today is mostly enshrined in books. Today, the stories of our tribes are less and less passed on as oral tradition and most often read to us from the childrena€™s books wea€™ve learned to treasure a€“ illustrated by fine artists and produced with care for the highly discriminating purchasers of childrena€™s books a€“ for grandparents. A?epelA?k employed binders and typesetters to present complete suites of his work and in this too, he introduced me to a new world.
Later in Prague I missed my flight back, due to the World Trade Center bombing and was delayed by a week. The difficult thing to bear in acknowledging my teachers, models, heroes, suppliers and inspirations, is that these masters of the crafts and industries surrounding and supporting the book arts are mostly deceased.
The fruit we seek is not fast food, but laden with full-bodied flavors, attained by slow natural processes.
All of us come from grandfathers who once were wheelwrights, cobblers or instrument makers; men with a profound love of wood and leather, who knew the working qualities of every kind of obscure tree growing in their countryside a€“ men who knew when to reach for elm or hickory a€“ as well as for goat, dog or even fish-skins. Jan spoke fondly of his grandmother, who baked bread every week of the year to feed an entire estate a€“ farm hands, livery people, gentry, trainers and hod-carriers alike. Working consciously is the ultimate goal a€“ and that is the legacy youa€™ll find evidently contained within and upon the boards of every book bound by Jan Bohuslav Sobota. The etchings you see here first came to life as illustrations for the wedding anniversary announcements of MA­la and Jaroslav KynA?l. Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.A  He was an exceptional bookbinder, teacher and promoter of the book arts, but also an exile who successfully returned home after years abroad. GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 2TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS AND SAFETYTIPS AND TRICKSLets talk aluminum foil for a minute. There they encounter resident trout and bass a€“ even sunfish, chubs and dace, all keyed into the increasingly plentiful and highly nutritious bounty of salmon eggs.
Situated 90A km south-west of Prague at the confluence of four rivers, PlzeA? is first recorded in writings from the tenth century. That vision was about innovation and creativity within the context of an historical tradition.
This is what youa€™ll see in a Sobota binding a€“ exceptional attention paid to context and relationships, using materials and technical means that do indeed function and last.
He knew his work was valuable and documented it fastidiously a€“ confident that it would be last.
There was, however, nothing about his nationalism that demeaned anybody elsea€™s traditions or origins. That smallish incident within the parade of American fringe politics elicited an insanely violent level of suppression. Masaryk a€“ and the cute little girl with a bouquet of flowers, is my mother Eva, at the age of three. Schmidta€™s income from the federal mint far exceeded anybody elsea€™s in the extended family and supported a network of cars, cottages and rent-controlled flats. Schmidt, as he preferred to be called, was a man of conservative demeanor who preferred polite and reserved forms of speech and address. While visiting their unassuming engraver and extending my tourist visa 30 days at a time, I was quietly becoming qualified for life as a counterfeiter a€“ a vocation within which, one is set for life, however it may eventually turn out.
Jan allowed several binders to have their way with it a€“ amo boxes for slipcases with shell casings for hinges and so forth. This next incarnation of our exhibit in PlzeA? was all just a bit more prosaic and provincial. Is it the binding we consider and exhibit a€“ or is the binding there to conserve a text, which is ultimately the point?
There are also binders to whom everything else is merely the text block, who care little if it is an offset trade edition or a book made by hand.
The tales therein recorded reflected the accreted wisdom and wit of a people as they retold them across the highlands in modest log cottages after the harvest was in. The way of working belongs to the Sobota vision I addressed earlier a€“ the honor and soul to be found in conscientiously made handcrafts. I dona€™t feel that accomplished or ready to assume their mantle and yet with every generation that is what must happen. Gravels, with just the right flow of fresh water running up through stones of the right size are but a tiny portion of the riverbed.A  The salmon must struggle past cities and sewer pipes, farms and irrigation systems, dams and turbines, fishermen and waterfalls a€“ just to reach the streams of their birth. The different designs are differentiated by being a different "model" or "series." Confusing the issue even more, some manufacturers "private label" their machines for large department stores. This widely beloved stamp was re-issued in 2000 and mother continues to receive philatelic fan mail to this day. He died the day I was composing a colophon for the Spawned Salmon with words of praise for his lifea€™s work.
Such as Sears' Kenmore and Montgomery Ward's Signature machines. Check the following list to determine if you have one of these "cross-branded" machines.
The engraving was masterfully done by Schmidta€™s long-dead colleague, Bohumil Heinz (1894-1940).
The state security apparatus was surely aware of my presence, but if they kept tabs on me, I never knew. But even in an oven with natural convection, it can mess up airflow and cooking and even cause burners to malfunction.
Everything is just so wonderful and everybody so creative, but suspending judgment long enough to actually look at some artwork and then giving it a chance isna€™t so bankrupt, is it? Human body parts are again flying and the Baron is at his best defeating Turks and evading friendly fire from buffoonish generals. Farmers would occasionally find their possessions and take them as souvenirs, unaware that the last Indians still lived in their midst.


Damn the cost; ita€™s who we are and the last material vestiges of soulful encounters with our elders a€“ onea€™s whose stories are slipping inexorably away, thinned by each passing year and generation. Their kids were grown and they were by then slipping into that last, reflective phase of life a€“ done competing.
If you simply must line the bottom of your oven with foil, at least poke holes in it where there are holes in the oven floor. These scraps turned out to be a deck of medieval playing cards - the second oldest such cards known. A book is so much more than the sum of its parts a€“ and yet each of us tends to have our own bailiwick in which we shine and to which we look first. They are known in the parts houses as "Whirlpool belt-drive" models. In the early 80's, Whirlpool began manufacturing their "Design 2000" washers. They're there for a reason.2-1 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) When working on gas cooking equipment, if you've disconnected a gas pipe to replace a valve or other component, always test the pipe joint for leaks when you reassemble it. These plates have been inked and wiped by hand, employing methods that woulda€™ve been familiar to Rembrandt. You can do this by coating the joint with a solution of liquid soap and water and looking for bubbles.
They crashed with my wife Jana and me in Kalamazoo, while taking the a€?orientation coursea€?nearby. I can confidently report back to my English reader, that Jan would only grow in stature for you, if you could have fully understood the subtlety of his thoughts in his own maternal tongue. Apply it with a brush to make sure you coat the joint thoroughly, and use a mirror to look at the back side of the joint if necessary. Perhaps right for those who shouldna€™t have sharp objects, for fear of hurting themselves. That show was purchased whole by Special Collections at Western Michigan University and constitutes the largest collection of Sobota bindings and the most complete archive of my work.
These machines were sold as GE, Hotpoint, and "private-labelled" as JC Penney and Penncrest brands. In 1995, GE started making a new "front access" washing machine. Your appliance parts dealer has gas leak testing solution, with a brush built into the cap, made specifically for this purpose. 2) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any oven that you're disassembling.
Few people would have cast a second glance at that glued-up mess of moldering old papers before pitching it, nor would they have recognized what they had in hand or known how to restore or sell it. Unlike the old model, there is no rear access panel on these machines; all the machine internals are accessed through the front. If you need to re-energize the oven to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. These folks were a profound blessing to a family facing some truly rough sailing a€“ a Godsend. Schmidt had worked was signed with warm dedications to him and thus worth real money to collectors. He wanted to see the printmaker in me come to full fruition and I wanted to be worthy of his attentions.
The family has dwelled within sight of the seats of power, pushing copper plates through a press and outlived the Hapsburg Monarchy, First Republic, Nazis and Communists. The intact packages were still there on their shelves, all duly graded, labeled and priced, awaiting an owner who was never to return. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!! Back home, their Czech neighbors would have envied them and accused them of theft or worse, but people here seemed to be pleased as punch to see them prosper a€“ genuinely happy for them. Those items too, kept trickling out the door, until there came a sad, sad day, when the golden eggs were all gone. These machines were sold as GE, Hotpoint, and "private-labelled" as JC Penney and Penncrest brands. In 1995, GE redesigned their dryers.
WCI's machines were sold under these original brand names, as well as Westinghouse and White-Westinghouse brands.
They bashfully admitted their foolishness and went back to making beautiful books a€“ and their American friends were so relieved to see them regain their sanity. You take time to grieve and then pick yourself up by your bootstraps (by God a€“ get a grip) and get on with it (Rome wasna€™t built in a day you know). StrejA?ek was still working, but it was all coming to an inevitable end, as he grew shaky of hand and hard of seeing.
Frankly, these washers were pretty poorly designed, displaying major oil and water leakage within five years. In the '90's, WCI was bought by Swedish giant Electrolux, who changed the company name back to the Frigidaire Home Products Company. There is a reason that it stopped - you can bet on it - and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will fail again.
Enriched by my days of being nurtured by Prague, Matkou MA›st (Mother of Cities), I moved on to meet my destiny with art.
WCI's machines were sold under these original brand names, as well as Westinghouse and White-Westinghouse brands. In the '90's, WCI was bought by Swedish giant Electrolux, who changed the company name back to the Frigidaire Home Products Company. Replace the part. 4) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. The orbital machine, manufactured since the late '80's, is a "Newton" machine with a redesigned "orbital" transmission with only six moving parts.
They have continued to manufacture these "Herrin" machines as Maytag "Performa" models and high-end Crosley brand machines, but they have gone through a LOT of evolution. Wear gloves, and be careful not to cut your hands! 6) If you have diagnosed a certain part to be bad, but you cannot figure out how to remove it, sometimes it helps to get the new part and examine it for mounting holes or other clues as to how it may be mounted. 7) When testing for a 110 volt power supply from a wall outlet, you can plug in a small appliance such as a shaver or blow dryer.
The "orbital" transmissions are interchangeable with the pre-1980's so-called "counterweight" transmissions. Unlike the counterweight machine, the gearing in the orbital transmission can be serviced without removing the transmission from the machine.1-2 BEFORE YOU STARTFind yourself a good appliance parts dealer. You can find them in the yellow pages under the following headings:APPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, MAJORAPPLIANCES, PARTS AND SUPPLIESREFRIGERATORS, DOMESTICAPPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, REPAIR AND SERVICECall a few of them and ask if they are a repair service, or if they sell parts, or both.
If you're testing for 220 volt power you need to use the VOM. 8) When splicing wires in an oven, remember that you're dealing with high temperatures. You can find them in the Yellow Pages under the following headings:APPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, MAJORAPPLIANCES, PARTS AND SUPPLIESREFRIGERATORS, DOMESTICAPPLIANCES, HOUSEHOLD, REPAIR AND SERVICECall a few of them and ask if they are a repair service, or if they sell parts, or both. Your parts dealer has high-temp connections, porcelain wire nuts and fiberglass-insulated wire for this purpose. I want to impress upon you something really important.
However, you don't want to badger them with TOO many questions, so know your basics before you start asking questions. Some parts houses may offer service, too. They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath, "guide" you to their service department.
It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good.
They'll tell you it's too complicated, then in the same breath "guide" you to their service department.
They should contain the model number SOMEWHERE. If you have absolutely NO information about the washer anywhere, make sure you bring your old part to the parts store with you. Sometimes they can match an old part by looks or by part number.1-3 TOOLS (Figure 1-2)The tools that you may need (depending on the diagnosis) are listed below.
They should contain the model number somewhere. In any case, and especially if you have absolutely NO information about your dryer anywhere, make sure you bring your old part to the parts store with you. However, you don't want to badger them with too many questions, so know your basics before you start asking questions. Some parts houses may offer service, too.
If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service.
An inexpensive one will suffice, as long as it has both "AC Voltage" and "Resistance" (i.e.
On some models, you will also need the lot number to get the right part, so if there is one on the nameplate, write that down, too.2-3 TOOLS (Figure 2-A)Most of the tools that you might need are shown below. It can save you lots of time and hassle.1-4 BASIC REPAIR AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS1) Always de-energize (pull the plug or trip the breaker on) any washer that you're disassembling. If you need to re-energize the washer to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 2) To work underneath the washer sometimes requires leaning the washer back against the wall at a 30- to 45-degree angle. Remember the rule in section 1-5 (1); while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair.
Always have someone standing by to help you while you work beneath the washer, in case it comes down on you.Figure 1-7: Leaning the Washer Against the Wall 3) If the manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!! You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter. In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM. There is a reason that it stopped--you can bet on it--and if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will stop again.
When testing 220 volt circuits (usually in electric dryers) make sure you always follow the precautions in rule 1 of section 1-5!Figure B-4: Testing Voltage1-4(b) TESTING FOR CONTINUITY (Figure B-5)Don't let the word "continuity" scare you. Replace the part. 4) If you must lay the washer over on its side, front or back, first make sure that you are not going to break anything off, such as a drain hose or fill valve. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source.
It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked. And for goodness' sake, make sure you drain the thing completely first! 5) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component.
Remember the rule in section 2-1; while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair. And NEVER EVER remove the third (ground) prong in the main power plug! 6) When opening the washer cabinet or console, remember that the sheet metal parts are have very sharp edges.
You will only need to be able to set the VOM onto the right scale, touch the test leads to the right place and read the meter.In using the VOM (Volt-Ohm Meter) for our purposes, the two test leads are always plugged into the "+" and "-" holes on the VOM. If you're not getting full power out of the outlet, you'll know it right away. 2) If you just can't get that agitator unstuck, your appliance parts dealer has a device called an Agi-Tamer for just such an occurrence. It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" scale.
It's basically a heavy-duty rubber balloon that fits under the agitator, and uses water pressure to lift it upwards from underneath. 3) If you need to drain the tub (usually because your pump isn't pumping out) most folks try to bail it out. If the meter does not read zero resistance, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero.
And what happens when that nice, week-old dirty wash water reaches your mouth? You guessed it: there's a better way. What's the point in sucking the water through the hose? You can touch the ends of the wires and test leads with your hands if necessary to get better contact. It's derived from the word "continuous." In an electrical circuit, electricity has to flow from a power source back to that power source. Well, instead of using lung suction to do that, let's use hose pressure. Leave your garden hose connected to the faucet, and put the other end of it in the washer tub.
If there is GOOD continuity, the meter will move toward the right side of the scale and steady on a reading.
The air is gone now, right? Kink the garden hose so you don't lose the water charge, and disconnect it from the faucet. This is the resistance reading and it doesn't concern us; we only care that we show good continuity.
When you're sure the faucet end of the hose is lower than the bottom of the washer tub, release the kink in the hose. If you do not, the switch is bad.   1-4(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory.
It should peg the meter all the way on the right side of the scale, towards "0" on the meter's "resistance" or "ohms" scale. No muss, no fuss.1-6 HOW TO USE A VOM AND AMMETERMany home handymen are very intimidated by electricity.
If you own an ammeter, you probably already know how to use it. If you don't, don't get one. If the meter does not read zero ohms, adjust the thumbwheel on the front of the VOM until it does read zero. If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something. Remember the rule in section 1-4 (1); while you are working on a circuit, energize the circuit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then take the power back off it to perform the repair.


The greater the current that's flowing through a wire, the greater the density of the magnetic field, or flux, it produces aroundthe wire. The ammeter simply measures the density of this flux, and thus the amount of current, flowing through the wire. To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the cur rent going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do).
If you need to re-energize the dryer to perform a test, make sure any bare wires or terminals are taped or insulated. If you do not, the switch is bad. 2-4(c) AMMETERSAmmeters are a little bit more complex to explain without going into a lot of electrical theory. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. I want to impress upon you something really important. For our purposes, it doesn't matter how fast the current is flowingTo use your VOM to test continuity, set the dial on (resistance) R x 1, or whatever the lowest setting is.
It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good.However, 220 VOLTS CAN KNOCK YOU OFF YOUR FEET. To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's any current flow. To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do). If the solenoid's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.
If there is still live power on the item you're testing for continuity, you will burn out your VOM instantly and possibly shock yourself. Touch the two test leads to the two bare wire ends or terminals of the solenoid. If the meter shows any reading at all, something in the oven is using power.2-5 WIRING DIAGRAMSometimes you need to read a wiring diagram, to make sure you are not forgetting to check something. And if you get it going and re-install it, you are running a very high risk that it will stop again. The symbols used to represent each component are pretty universal. Wire colors are abbreviated and shown next to each wire.
Replace the part. 3) If you must lay the dryer over on its side, front or back, first make sure that you are not going to break anything off, such as a gas valve. GR or GN are green, GY is gray.A wire color with a dash or a slash means --- with a --- stripe. Lay an old blanket on the floor to protect the floor and the finish of the dryer. 4) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component. And NEVER EVER remove the third (ground) prong in the main power plug! 5) When opening the dryer cabinet or console, remember that the sheet metal parts are have very sharp edges. In some wiring diagrams, wiring and switches inside a timer or other switchblocks are drawn with lines that are thicker than the rest of the wiring. The small white circles all over the diagram are terminals. Wear gloves, and be careful not to cut your hands! 6) When testing for your power supply from a wall outlet, plug in a small appliance such as a shaver or blow dryer.
These are places where you can disconnect the wire from the component for testing purposes. The ammeter simply measures the strength of this magnetic field, and thus the amount of current, flowing through the wire.
To determine continuity, for our purposes, we can simply isolate the component that we're testing (so we do not accidentally measure the current going through any other components) and see if there's anycurrent flow.To use your ammeter, first make sure that it's on an appropriate scale (0 to 10 or 20 amps will do).
If two wires cross on the diagram without a black dot, they are not connected. Switches may be numbered or lettered.
Usually the terminals on the outside of the timer or switch are stamped or printed with markings that you will see on the wiring diagram. To test a switch, mark and disconnect all the wires. For example, in figure 2-F, if you want to test the door switch, take power off the machine, disconnect the wires from it and connect one test lead to COM and one to NC. If it does, you know that contact inside the switch is good. Remember that for something to be energized, it must make a complete electrical circuit. You must be able to trace the path that the electricity will take, FROM the wall outlet back TO the wall outlet. In this simplified circuit diagram, notice that only the heating elements operate on 220 volts.
WCI's machines were sold under these original brand names, as well as Westinghouse and White-Westinghouse brands. Since the locking mechanism is interlocked with the heating circuit, the oven will not reach cleaning temperature either.Let's start at the lock motor and find out which switches feed electricity to it.
Tracing the other lock motor lead, we first end up at the "C" terminal of the 4-position selector switch. Looking at the switch for the chart, the "C" to "LM" contacts are closed when the "clean" button is depressed on the switch. Power then leaves the thermostat through the "5" terminal, so we need to check for continuity between terminals "5" and "6" of the thermostat. Since it is a thermostatic switch, only heat will open the switch, so we only need to test it for continuity.
They are shown in the diagram in their "normal state." So continuing with our circuit, if the locking motor is not turning, you need to check switch "B" for continuity between the "COM" and "NC" terminals. If there is no continuity, it might mean the switch is bad. It might also mean that the switch was not returned to its "normal" state the last time it was activated!You need to examine the switch carefully to determine what the problem is. If the locking motor stopped turning before the switch unlocked, you've got other problems. You will need to trace other circuits in the diagram to figure out what. From the "COM" terminal of switch "B," the circuit goes back through the door switch to L1.
The door switch feeds several other oven circuits, too, so unless there's something else not working, we can eliminate that as the problem. The door must be closed to close the switch that feeds electricity to the thermostats and heating circuit.To check for a wire break, you would pull each end of a wire off the component and test for continuity through the wire.
You may need to use jumpers to extend or even bypass the wire; for example, if one end of the wire is in the control console and the other end in underneath the machine.
It will then be up to you to figure out exactly where that break is - there is no magic way.
An ammeter is a safer way to test energized circuits if you have one, especially testing 220 volt circuits. Occasionally, if the component is inexpensive enough, it's easier to just replace it and see if that solves the problem. Following is a primer on how to test each individual component you might find in any given oven. Take all wires off the component and test continuity across it as described in section 2-4(b). Switches should show good continuity when closed and no continuity when open. NO means "normally open" and with the switch at rest, you will see no continuity through it. SELECTOR SWITCHBLOCKS A selector switchblock, located in the control panel, is a group of switches all molded into one housing.
In your oven, a switchblock might be used to allow you to choose a cooktop heat setting, for example, or a cleaning cycle instead of a baking cycle. You must look at the wiring diagram to see which of the terminals will be connected when the internal switches are closed. Keep in mind, however, that you must also know which of the internal switches close when an external button is pressed. When you press one button on the switchblock, several of the switches inside may close at once.To test a switchblock, in addition to the wiring diagram, you must have a chart that gives you this info. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
Usually this is a part of the wiring diagram. Using the diagram and chart in figure 2-J, lets say we want to test contacts "T1" to "FM" for proper operation. We see that with the "clean" button pressed, these contacts inside the switchblock should be closed. Although error (fault) codes for most major brands may be found in Chapter 7, usually diagnosis consists of simply replacing circuit components until you find the bad one. Usually the problem turns out to be a bad oven sensor, stuck or defective keypad, ERC (clock) unit or a circuit board.
These can be tested and rebuilt or replaced as described in this chapter.2-6 (c) THERMOSTATIC CONTROLSA thermostat is simply a switch or a gas valve that opens and closes according to the temperature it senses. If there is an automatic oven cycle, main control thermostats must also be wired through the timer.
And if there is a cleaning cycle, they must be either bypassed or adjusted for the higher temperatures of that cycle.
That's where you start to get dual-control thermostats, thermostats with twelve leads, and other complexities.
And for goodness' sake, make sure you drain the thing completely first! 5) Always replace the green (ground) leads when you remove an electrical component.
Some even control two levels of the same pilot. Main control thermostats are about the most expensive commonly-replaced parts in an oven. It should be the last thing you conclude, after you have checked out everything else in the system.The liquid inside the bulb and capillary of an oven thermostat is usually a mercury or sodium compound or some other such nasty and dangerous stuff.
So when you replace an oven thermostat, do not cut open the capillary or bulb, and dispose of the old thermostat properly. The definition of "properly" varies between jurisdictions, but check with your appliance parts dealer or local fire department hazardous materials professionals.ADJUSTING THERMOSTATS The oven is adjusted by a small adjusting screw in the center of the oven thermostat valve stem.
In other words, if you set the thermostat at 350 degrees, you want the heating system to cycle on if the temperature is below 340 degrees, and off when the temperature reaches about 360 degrees.
With nothing else in the oven, place it in the middle of the oven, where you can see it through the oven door glass. The air is gone now, right? Kink the garden hose so you don't lose the water charge, and disconnect it from the faucet.
The important thing to remember about clocks in an oven unit are that often the thermostat controls are first wired through the timer. When you're sure the faucet end of the hose is lower than the bottom of the washer tub, release the kink in the hose.
Also, if you are troubleshooting a no heat complaint in an oven with an automatic cycle, the first step is always to check the timer controls. The greater the current that's flowing through a wire, the greater the density of the magnetic field, or flux, it produces aroundthe wire. It's true that diagnosing and repairing electrical circuits requires a bit more care than most operations, due to the danger of getting shocked.
The woman who greeted me was the ultimate Susie homemaker; everything was spotless in HER kitchen. Including the oven, which looked new, but this gal swore she'd owned it since it was new 35 years before, and by golly she knew it inside and out and didn't know why two ovens out of three suddenly didn't work. You must have a wiring diagram to determine which terminals are connected when a switch inside the timer closes.
Put a resistance meter across those terminals and advance the clock to determine if the switch is opening and closing.
If the clock motor doesn't run or the switches don't open and close as they are supposed to, replace the timer. For our purposes, it doesn't matter how fast the current is flowingTo use your VOM to test continuity, set the dial on (resistance) R x 1, or whatever the lowest setting is. If there are any special wiring changes, they will be explained in instructions that come with the new timer. Clocks and timers can usually be rebuilt.
Ask your appliance parts dealer for details.2-6 (e) ELECTRIC HEATERS AND IGNITORSElectric heater elements and ignitors are tested by measuring continuity across them as described in section 2-5(b).
If the solenoid's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.
Replace heater elements if they show no continuity.2-6 (f) RELAYSHeating elements use a lot of electricity compared to other electrical components. The switches that control them sometimes need to be built bigger than other kinds of switches, with more capacity to carry more electricity. The switches involved in running a heater or ignitor can be too big to conveniently put inside the control console or timer. Besides that, there are safety considerations involved in having you touch a switch that carries that much electricity directly, with your finger. The way they solve that problem is to make a secondary switch. A little switch activates an electromagnet, which closes a big switch that carries the heavier current load. Energize the unit only long enough to perform whatever test you're performing, then disconnect the power again. 3) If this manual advocates replacing the part, REPLACE IT!!
It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good.
If they genuinely try to help you fix it yourself, and you find that you're unable to, they may be the best place to look for service. If the ignitor's leads are still connected to something, you may get a reading through that something.



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