Stains for concrete come in two general categories: acid-based chemical stains and water-based acrylics.
If you want to go beyond the subtle drama and subdued earth-toned palette of acid staining, consider using water-based stains, which come in a much broader spectrum of hues.
Like stains for wood, concrete stains are semi-transparent and are intended to enhance rather than disguise the surface. Because stains must be able to soak into the concrete to achieve full color saturation, they shouldn't be applied to surfaces covered by anything that can inhibit stain penetration, such as dirt, grease, glues, coatings, curing membranes and sealers. Browse our library of decorative concrete pictures for staining inspiration and ideas for indoors and out. Stained floors offer a number of advantages that other materials, such as carpet and tile can’t match.
See pictures and get inside information on stained concrete projects from across the country.
Discover the benefits of concrete flooring and learn about stenciling, polishing and overlays. The price of stained concrete starts at $2 to $4 per square foot and increases with complexity. Watch 17 videos with expert design ideas for using stained concrete in residential and commercial settings. Find answers to common questions about stained concrete benefits, appearance, performance and maintenance.
Finding the average cost of kitchen remodel can be tough because it all depends on what you want form the kitchen. During the last thirty years, the protection of concrete floors has gone from essentially nothing to a fairly sophisticated process of some type of protective coating or surfacing. Floors are subjected to just about every kind of abuse - impact, abrasion, chemical attack, and thermal shock.
This article does not concern resilient tile, ceramic tile, carpet, or wood, which are placed on top of concrete floors.
Total floor protection should be part of any study or evaluation for new or old concrete floor protection. The flooring specialist must be able to provide a complete program from conception to long-term maintenance. The first step in the selection process is to evaluate the existing surface to determine what you are working with. What type of surface preparation is needed for the area in question?Surface preparation is the most important step in the installation process and is critical to long-term performance of the total system. It is also important to remember that new concrete requires proper preparation just as does any old surface. Once you have identified the degree of severity of the major areas of abuse, you must rank them in order of importance for the particular project. Other considerations are often overlooked when selecting or specifying a floor coating system.
The primary reason to go through a material selection process is to get the proper material for the application under consideration. At this point in the selection process, the type of material, application, and thickness should be taking shape.
Polymer type: epoxy, polyurethane, polyester, vinyl ester, acrylic, methyl, methacrylic, orothers.
Epoxy formulations used in concrete floor coatings typically are 100% non-volatile (no solvent), have excellent adhesion, good to excellent chemical and abrasion resistance, and excellent mechanical properties. Once the system has been chosen, the material must be applied and the job inspected and approved.
Bob Cain is president of Key Resin Company, manufacturer of specialty coatings, toppings, and protective treatments for concrete surfaces. Construction cost estimators require correct information about every particular to generate a precise estimate.
While preparing an estimate of wooden items the estimator should include the total cost of wooden items comprising plain wooden side bottoms for windows and doors, plain wooden pillars, etc. DISCLAIMER: "Autodesk, AutoCAD, Revit, Navisworks, Ecotect, QTO, DWG, 3ds Max, are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc.
It is important that your concrete driveway is properly designed to make sure you don't encounter any problems in the future. One way of adding interest to your concrete driveway is to add decorative elements such as a stain, stamp or other type of finish.
Rather than produce a solid, opaque effect like paint, stains permeate the concrete to infuse it with luminous, translucent tones that vary depending on the surface they are applied to and the application techniques used. Most acid stains are a mixture of water, hydrochloric acid and acid-soluble metallic salts. Most manufacturers offer dozens of standard colors, including black and white and even metallic tints. It may be the the changes you want to make are in the hundreds of dollars, but they may be higher if you are trying to do a truly epic remodel. The problem, in the overall picture, is to determine what type of protective material to choose for the various conditions.
The main purpose, of course, is to provide protection to the slab from deterioration or contamination, or to provide some added benefit such as aesthetics, wear, non-skid, chemical resistance, ease of maintenance, physical performance, and a myriad of other properties.

These do add a benefit, but are primarily used aesthetically for residential and highly commercial areas. The thorough process for selecting a coating or topping system, the writing of a detailed specification, and the preparation of detailed application procedures and final acceptance criteria will give the owner a basis for choosing the right system. The surface must be structurally sound, clean, and must not be contaminated with any foreign material that could interfere with the bond of a new coating system.
Curing compounds must be removed, a proper profile or roughness achieved, and any surface laitance removed.
Temperature fluctuation or thermal shock is an important condition that must be considered. This will provide a major focus for what is needed in terms of material and applied thickness.
These lesser considerations don't necessarily contribute to the function of the system, but are important as far as being able to install a particular system and assuring owner satisfaction. The final appearance of the floor surface is more important than many people perceive it to be.
It is critical to review technical data, performance characteristics, and installation procedures for those that have survived the elimination process thus far.
Polymer type, however, becomes more difficult and may require assistance to review data and compare performance. Applications include bonding adhesives, crack repair, concrete coatings, toppings, and overlays.
To more specifically compare polymer types would require discussing each thickness classification individually. The choice of an appropriate contractor to install the system is just as important as the material used.
He is concurrently President of KRC Associates, consultants to architects, engineers, contractors, and manufacturers and specializing in protection of concrete and steel. Estimates vary as per the size and type of the construction along with the quantity and quality of the materials used. Total cost for non- wood material must include bags of cement, bamboo, steel roof, rod for ground foundation, window and door hardware, etc. The results can mimic everything from polished marble to tanned leather to natural stone or even stained wood. They work by penetrating the surface and reacting chemically with the hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) in the concrete.
Like acid stains, water-based stains (typically a blend of acrylic polymers and pigments) penetrate the concrete to produce permanent color, ranging from translucent to opaque depending on the product. Because they penetrate the concrete surface, most stains have excellent UV stability and wear resistance, permitting their use on interior or exterior concrete. The average cost of kitchen remodel can be calculated by pricing out the different contractors and see what they charge. We must remember that no other surface in a building takes more abuse than floors, regardless of the type of building, whether it be industrial or commercial. We are focusing on coatings that are bonded directly to the surface and offer long term protection and may or may not have some aesthetic value. There is a very complete selection process to narrow the search for the right product and application for floor coatings.
Materials differ widely in chemical resistance, making identifying the exposure very important.
Thermal shock, such as steam cleaning of the floor surface, will cause a loss of bond from thermal expansion if the floor system is not chosen properly.
How an owner thought the floor was going to look versus the final appearance is sometimes widely divergent. The technical data and performance review can be difficult for most engineers, owners, and specifiers because there is a lack of standard form of data presentation. A contractor trained to install a particular system (thin film versus thick overlay) is critical. Labor cost must comprise expenses for concrete engineers with labor cost and wooden engineers cost. Concrete does tend to be less expensive than cobblestone, brick or pavers, but more expensive than asphalt, gravel or a generic stone. The acid in the stain lightly etches the surface, allowing the metallic salts to penetrate more easily.
An existing concrete slab with major cracks or spalling is usually not a good candidate for staining because any patchwork is likely to show right through the stain. The problem for most decision makers today, whether it be architects or facility managers, is to choose the most effective material and application that will result in the best performance and lowest life cycle cost.
Remember, you must not only select the material, but also a total system in terms of application, total thickness, and aesthetics. Patching, repairing, and leveling are as important as the coating system and would require a whole separate article to discuss thoroughly.
Or, to put it another way, the required surface prep can dictate the type of system from a thickness standpoint.
Any surface exposed to steel-wheeled traffic requires special treatment for long-term wear.
The coefficient of expansion of most coating systems is much higher than for concrete and must be carefully considered when selecting a material.

It involves how the coating project is going to look aesthetically, how it's to be applied, what the time frame for installing the system may be, and last, but certainly not least, what are the budget parameters. Today, the same performance characteristics can be obtained with a variety of decorative appearances and surface textures. In occupied areas, the odor of some solvent-based systems or the inherent odor of the material itself will limit its use. Maintenance procedures must be clearly outlined and understood for a realistic life expectancy. The following table will provide some differences in technical data and performance based on applied thickness. Once the system and the contractor have been selected, coordination among parties must be maintained for best performance and user satisfaction.
He is a member of ICRI and served on the ICRI Board of Directors as secretary from 1991-1994. Hence detailed information about the number or quantity of the item along with its cost per unit is essential. Miscellaneous unit costs must include expenses for toilet & bathroom, water tank, water pump with motor, etc. Once the stain reacts, it becomes a permanent part of the concrete and won't fade, chip off or peel away. It may be that if you do the kitchen remodel on your own that you will save a ton of money.
It's for this reason that all concrete needs some sort of protection regardless of where it's located. It is increasingly clear that these individuals must rely on knowledgeable people to assist in proper selection, application, and maintenance of the floor coating.
It is important to say, however, that any material used to level, patch, or slope must be compatible with the total system.
Temperature of the surface at the time of installation is critical in selecting a material.
Another generally accepted maxim is that the thicker the applied system, the better the performance. Various ASTM test methods, Federal Standard Test Procedures, Corps of Engineers test methods and others are used by formulators to best present their products. As a very general comparison, however, urethanes are used for thin film to high build coatings, have excellent abrasion and wear resistance, excellent gloss retention, and good to excellent stain and chemical resistance. Throughout his career he has participated in and chaired many industry and government committees in the generation of national standards of industry specifications. The palette for acid-etch staining is generally limited to earthy tones, such as tans, browns, terra cottas and soft blue-greens. The flooring specialist can guide the owner in proper material, application, and long-term performance, thereby reducing the long-term cost of floor maintenance. A cheap, low-performance patching and leveling material can ruin an otherwise good coating. Some systems, such as epoxies, are very temperature-sensitive and can vary widely in cure time at lower temperatures. In many cases, the reviewer must compare test method to test method to find the differences in the reported values.
Some urethanes have excellent elastomeric properties and, together with their low permeability, are used extensively in waterproofing applications.
A long-term review, maintenance, and repair program should be established for continued performance and satisfaction. ConcreteCOST Estimator contains extensive industry standard user-modifiable unit cost data for all cost categories covering concrete construction. It is also good practice to allow the same contractor that is doing the final work to make any needed repairs.
Built-in Concrete calculator automatically figures typical measurements simply by entering dimensions. Recent governmental mandates by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency have made it necessary to lower their volatile organic compound content. ConcreteCOST Estimator instantly creates user-modifiable, on-screen or printed estimate reports including price quotation.
A small amount of attention before installation will prolong the life of a flooring system.
Use ConcreteCOST Estimator as an estimating or sales tool to save time, Improve accuracy and achieve greater success. As years go by, the success of the project will depend upon the coordination between the flooring specialist and the facilities manager.
ConcreteCost Estimator is designed and developed in the USA by CPR, Inc., a leading provider of cost estimating software tools and cost data for the general and specialty construction and insurance repair industry since 1986.

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