Citing sources according to the citation style found in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. More bluntly plagiarism is theft and it goes against the US Copyright law and the USFSP Code of Conduct. As you do your research, keep track of the books, articles, and other resources that you consult WHILE you are doing your research. Finally, If you are still worried, ask your instructor whether you can submit your paper to Turnitin, a plagiarism check software available through Canvas.
A citation style is a consistent method for documenting sources and acknowledging the original creator of an idea, thought, or quote. Using a citation style is the means that you can give credit to the people, articles, webpages, and videos that you used as the basis of your work.
Finally, a citation style contributes to the academic process and demonstrates how you have contributed to the scholarly conversation and built upon previous knowledge.
In this module, we focus on how to properly create reference entries and in-text citations using the MLA Citation Style as defined by the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition.
You will learn how to create and cite reference entries and in-text citations for basic sources such as books, journal articles, and web pages. Each entry should be double-spaced, the first line of the reference should begin at the left margin, while all subsequent lines of the entry should be indented by half an inch (a hanging indent).
As you can see, the elements of a journal article citation contain some similarities and some differences from the book reference format. Scroll to the bottom of the webpage – this is a common location to cite when the webpage was last updated. When you cannot find all the information that you may need, include as much as possible and follow MLA guidelines for the general entry format as closely as possible. An in-text citation is frequently located at the end of a sentence to indicate that you are citing another author's ideas or text. Burmese pythons are an invasive species spreading throughout the Florida Everglades (O'Shea 2-10). However, if the author is mentioned within the sentence, the in-text citation of the page numbers should be included at the end of the sentence.
O'Shea visually documents the spread of Burmese pythons through the Florida Everglades (2-10). If you are citing books with chapters or multiple volumes or editions, include this information in the in-text citation to help your readers locate the source.
Finally, each source that you cite within the text of your paper should be listed on your Work's Cited page.
Read the following statements and mark True if the sentence should be cited and False if it is not required.
These tools can help you manage your references, automatically generate your reference list, create in-text citations within your paper, and generally speed up your reference and bibliography process. RefWorks is a web-based research management tool that allows you to import references from many electronic databases and catalogs, include in-text citations in your paper, build a bibliography using a variety of citation styles, and create a bibliography in a choice of formats. Try RefWorks to save time and efficiently create and manage your bibliographies and in-text citations.
This module has provided you with an overview How to ethically use information, how to avoid plagiarizing sources, and how to format basic References and In-Text citations using the MLA Citation Style. Thoroughly referencing and citing all of our sources is an crucial way to avoid plagiarism and to effectively document the facts, ideas, and direct quotes that you use in writing. MLA Lite is a concise guide to crafting college research papers in the style of the Modern Language Association (MLA). FBI Warning?  You are welcome to print, link, or distribute MLA Lite for not-for-profit educational purposes. The Modern Language Association (MLA) has developed a contemporary research style to meet the needs of scholars of modern literature and the humanities.
There are a few basic features that recur throughout MLA style that might be missed if mentioned only in one section of MLA Lite.
Sentence capitalization capitalizes a title as you would a sentence, capitalizing the first word and proper nouns. Number figures and exhibits consecutively throughout your text, independently from tables (each has their own number sequence).
1Bibliographic notes enable an author to refer readers to sources not directly cite in the text for additional information.
2Content notes let an author present a useful digression that might otherwise disrupt the main theme of the text.
Spell out the names of countries, states, counties, provinces, territories, bodies of water, mountains, in the text.
Most prefixes to places, such as Fort, North, Port, South, are spelled out in the text; as are suffixes such as Peak or Fork. When writing initials, the traditional format is still preferred—put a period and a single space after each. If an acronym is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, FBI, ESP). A term must be fully written the first time it is used, thereafter just the acronym is used. NB> It is common practice in research writing to spell out the name or phrase to be abbreviated followed by the acronym in parentheses.
Use italics for the titles of books and the names of periodicals in your text and references. NB> Add italics to a word or phrase only the first time it is used, thereafter use plain text. Do not mix numbers that are spelled out with symbols, write out the term for the symbols as well.
Page numbers above 99 require only the last two digits of the second number as long as the result is unambiguous. If you quote material that contains a citation to another work, include this citation in your quotation. What the MLA Handbook is trying to say is that the first paragraph of a block quote—whether it was indented in the original or not—is not indented if only one paragraph is quoted. If a quote begins in what is mid-sentence in the original, the first letter of the first word may be uppercased to open a sentence. An introductory phrase may lead into a quote that starts with an uppercased letter in the original. The punctuation mark at the end of a quotation may be changed to fit the syntax without indicating the change in the text. Double quotation marks may be changed to single quotation marks, and the reverse, without indicating the change. For example, "The ship struck an iceberg and floundered [sic], with the loss of all on board." Or write "The ship struck an iceberg and floundered" (sic). This is a delicious evening, when the whole body is one sense, and imbibes delight through every pore. The names of ethnic or racial groups are capitalized if they represent a geographical region or language group.
Designations based only on color, direction, size, habitat, customs, or local usage are often lower cased. NB> When in doubt, and when a good guide to grammar and usage is no help, follow whatever practice appeals to you but be consistent throughout your text! Sentence caps capitalize just the first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns in a heading or title.
An introductory phrase leads into a direct quotation by placing the author's name in the text.
Multiple works by one author require the short title of the specific work be added to the citation (See Gibaldi 251). Place references on a new page under the centered heading "Works Cited" (in heading caps one inch below the top of the page just inside the top margin). Arrange references alphabetically by author, if there is no author by title (ignore A, An, The, and non-English equivalents). Give authors' full names as indicated in the publication (do not abbreviate names to intials). All titles are set in heading caps (in languages other than English use sentence caps as customary in that language).
The MLA Handbook makes an obsession of using abbreviations in references (see Gibaldi 261–82). Reprinted works require the original publication date as well as the date the reprint was published.
Research journals are typically paged consecutively from issue to issue—if the previous issue ended at page 101 the next would start at page 102. NB> If the locale of a publication is not evident from its name and likely to be unfamiliar to readers add that information in brackets.
NB> A 3-em dash is used to list multiple works by the same author after the first reference. NB> The original publication date of a reprint usually goes immediately after the title.


NB> "If the nonperiodical work you are citing also appeared in print, you may determine that it is important [or useful] to include the bibliographic data for the print publication" (MLA 187). One of the rights accorded to the owner of copyright is the right to reproduce or to authorize others to reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords. Section 107 contains a list of the various purposes for which the reproduction of a particular work may be considered "fair," such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.
Copyright protects the particular way an author has expressed himself; it does not extend to any ideas, systems, or factual information conveyed in the work.
The safest course is always to get permission from the copyright owner before using copyrighted material.
When it is impracticable to obtain permission, use of copyrighted material should be avoided unless the doctrine of "fair use" would clearly apply to the situation. How Herbalists can Integrate with Integrity - Herbalists are one of the last health care modalities that remains unlicensed. Plant Walk -On this walk we would meet local plants and discuss the importance of botanical characteristics (an examination of their individual parts), the plantsa€™ relationships with other plants, ethical and practical ways of wildcrafting species we see, plants from other areas that have similar uses, and real-life clinical applications. GI Tract Protocol - The GI tract protocol can be used for normalizing varied types of chronic digestive problems.
Hispanic Herbalism - The Hispanic healing traditions of California, incorporating the herbal use of other cultures within the Latino experience. Guerilla Herbalism - Street herbalism through helping the homeless, impoverished, and under insured, often under dangerous conditions. Giving Back - Rosemary Gladstar, renowned herbalist and founder of United Plant Savers, talks at length about the importance of giving back to the natural world that provides the plants we use for medicine, and that imparts the wisdom needed now more than ever in these trying times. An Ecology of Healing: Health as Wholeness and Balance - Taught by Kiva Rose and Jesse Wolf Hardin, this class will be an in-depth exploration of healing as the bodya€™s natural effort to be whole and in balance.
Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Kiva Rose) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating.
Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Jim McDonald) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating. Clinical Skills - Learn to evaluate energetic conditions (hot, cold, damp, dry, tense, relaxed etc.,) by complexion, tongue and pulse examination and simple questions. Herbs for the Muscular & Skeletal Systems - Herbal treatment of locomotor injuries, problems of aging, arthritis, gout, lyme disease and more. I am so excited to be registered for the following course and thought I would share the information with readers. Join Herbalist, Nutritionist, and food lover, Darcey Blue French of Brighid’s Well Herbs for a 6 week online intensive course on the energetics of food, true nourishment, nutrition, relationship with place and food, nutritional healing and more. May 3, 2010 - June 21, 2010*Learn about the ways traditional healing systems such as Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine see food energetics, and use food as healing tools on a day to day basis.
Darcey Blue French is an herbalist and food lover, who has over the years explored various ways of eating, interacting with food and preparing food. Due to the fact that I am working on my last three weeks of the semester while my husband is on a business trip,A  I have decided to re-post articles worthy of being passed along.
For those who are not familiar with the name,A  Paul Bergner is the director of the North American Institute of Medical Herbalism in Boulder, Colorado whichA  offers introductory, advanced, and clinical training in medical herbalism and clinical nutrition in the vitalist tradition.
For those interested in more information,A  please check out the websites above you will find a wealth of information.
The process for making HFCS is to chemically strip the sugars off of the starch in corn, freeing them up.A The process of making of agave nectar is similar (this is not agave sap), but the sugars are chemically stripped off of inulin starch, inulin being a fructo-oligosaccharide, having fructose as the dominant sugar in the chain, so the agave nectar might be 80-90% free fructose instead of 55% like the HFCS in soft drinks. I like to think that my childhood was unique but honestly there are a great number of folk out there who grew up in a very similar manner to me. There is a point to all of this.A  Herbalism is newer to me than the natural family living. I honestly am not sure of the answers but I thought I would throw the question out there as it is rumbling around in the back of my brain.A  What have you been thinking about today?
Nutrition plays a vital role in a healthy nervous system but before you even think about what foods to eat, you should look at your eating patterns.A A  Are you skipping meals while taking in large amounts of stimulants or sugars? B Vitamins are also important to a healthy nervous system but it is important to note that there is too much of a good thing.A  Taking large doses of B vitamins (specifically B12)A  can lead to anxiety attacks and panic disorders. As I examined the packets, I continued to like what I was reading and is there ever there a lot to read.A  These might be the most informative seed packets I have ever run across! All-in-all it seems like a good company and I plan on spending a good share of my gardening budget at their website. A lot of herbalists talk of using herbal infusions to support your body during and illness or perhaps as an alternative to a nutritional supplement in the form of a nourishing infusion. They are quite useful; I have been making herbal preparations, for years now,A  with good results.
You don’t hear many of them mentioningA  spaghetti sauce as an decoction although the acidic base of tomato sauce is wonderful for drawing minerals out of foods. Keep in mind I am not talking about the watered-down, additive-laden prepared foodstuff you buy at the the megamarket.A A  I am talking of preparations you make yourself. I don’t remember exactly when it occurred to me that soups and broths are really just giant pots of herbal goodness. I realized that I don’t know that I ever have put our spaghetti sauce recipe on the blog, so I though I would use it here as an example of the herb to food ratio that is health-producing. Beverages don’t have to be the boring preparations many people think of as medicinal infusions, either. There is an added benefit of incorporating these beverages into your daily diet.A  I have experimented with many different ways to get little ones to eat their herbs.
I also dona€™t like using them from a sustainability standpoint.A  I dona€™t want my well-being to be dependent on any industry and it would be rather hypocritical of me to talk a good game about local sustainable food systems when half my nutrients are arriving on a boat from China. For the next couple of weeks, I am going to post about different ways eating and cooking with herbs can help to improve your health.
Most instructors like or require that you to consult relevant books and articles for your papers – so let them know where you got your information. This will save you time from having to track down where you originally found your information for your Reference List.
For example, the author's name always appears in the same place, the date of publication always appears in the same place, etc. By creating a bibliography and citing in the text of your paper you can avoid any accusations of plagiarism. The MLA Citation Style is commonly used in the fields of Literature, History, and other disciplines in the Humanities. As there are many other types of sources that you may use in your papers and presentations (such as dissertations, newspaper articles, personal interviews, etc.) be sure to consult the MLA Manual or the OWL at Purdue for more specific guidelines.
If an individual author is not provided, list the corporation or organization as your author in the reference. In-text citations should be used throughout your paper wherever you quote an author, paraphrase a source, or refer to someone's idea, concept, or research findings. Correspondingly, each source listed on your Work's Cited page should also be cited within the text of your paper. As a note of warning, be sure to edit and format of any of the references you download using these tools. The terminology and location on the website may vary from database to database; be sure to look for the terms such as Cite, Export, or Manage References. While you have now learned how to construct the basic formats for book, article, and web page references, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed.
The MLA Handbook has no instructions for using headings or subheadings in a research paper other than for the title and works cited. If each element in the series requires a separate paragraph, these are set flush with the left margin with each paragraph indented and numbered appropriately. This form of seriation is useful in detailing and summarizing an argument, or perhaps the results of a research study in the conclusion. But as a practical matter, this form of seriation is not particularly common in research papers. If the contents of a table are drawn or adapted from a published source, note that as a source note as shown in figure 5.
MLA style has restored it traditional rules for editing quotations after expanding them in the last (5th) edition of the Handbook. Conventional spacing after punctuation is practiced by MLA style, with the exception of putting a single space after most colons.
Exercices Spirituels et Philosophie Antiques [Spiritual exercises and ancient pholosophies]. Copyright laws provide for the fair use of copyrighted material for educational purposes, reviews, and scholarship.
There is no specific number of words, lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission. The Copyright Office can neither determine if a certain use may be considered "fair" nor advise on possible copyright violations.
Using your powers of concentration, visualize a white light flowing from the palms of your hands and from your heart center, which is situated just in front of your breastbone. When you start to feel this power flowing in you, then say out loud the girls’ names.


This will be a combination storytelling class as well as practicalities of gathering plants. This will lead into Skullcap’s specific indications and contra-indications illustrated with colorful case histories, as well as the ecology and specifics of a number of western Scutellaria spp. Many clients have compromised GI tracts from a fast food vegan or other extended elimination diets, protein deficiencies, or multiple nutritional deficiencies.
California Hispanic herbalism differs from the Mexican or Tejano, or Southwest traditions due to the various native and foreign cultures which helped form it.
Special focus will be placed on of the body as a dynamic ecosystem instead of a battlefield. Jim and Kiva will explore the underlying elements of traditional western herbalism, including sense-based herbal energetics, primary herbal actions and ways of integrating these essential components into an effective healing practice.
Join Jim McDonald in an exploration of the fundamental role of diaphoretics in immunity, and how they can be used to support and enhance the body’s vital response to infections from influenza to the common cold. Although Mercola is a little distasteful in his sensationalism, what he says in this case is true. Even though digestion of the disaccharide to the monosaccharides take some time and acts as a partial brake, because the extracted sugar is very concentrated, compared to eating a naturally sugary food, the glucose and fructose surge in the system.
A  So it is with a little bit of bemusement that I watch the latest explosion of the back-to-the land movement because I really never left it. A A  I giggle when we make homemade macaroni & cheese to take someplace and it is viewed as some sort of accomplishment because in my family that is pretty standard fare.
A  IA  suppose I started the path about fifteen years ago although I have only been studying seriously about six years (around the same time I started blogging). A  How do we keep the message of the websites of today from being lost in a internet archive in the same way the poster above was lost in a file cabinet? Bring to a boil; then lower heat and simmer for about 30 minutes, until the broth is thick. A  I thought I might offer a bit of advice as to how to eat your way to a healthier nervous system. The fun doesn’t stop on the outside though, so be quite careful when opening your first Botanical Interests seed packet. A  My Trionfo Violetto Pole Beans outgrew and outproduced my Kentucky Wonder Beans.A A  I think my Dwarf Blue KaleA  might still be alive out there under the piles of snow. You also don’t hear hot sauceA  tossed around as an herbal preparation but these are both excellent examples of ways you can incorporate more herbs into your diet. A A  It was probablyA  have been shortly after Darian became a vegetarian and I made my first batch of homemade vegetable broth.A  I know I definitely had a handle on it by the time I was making garlic broth to use in soups.
While I am sure that in cases where a blood test has shown there to be a deficiency, supplements can be useful to catch the body up.A A  I prefer to avoid the deficiency in the first place. A This is one of the reasons that I tend to focus on using herbs and foods that I can grow or wild-craft in my area.
A When you dona€™t eat properly, your body does not find the nutrition in the food you eat, it will find the nutrients someplace in your body such as your bones, muscles or brain matter.A  A This is especially true of protein which your body will leach from your muscles or brain matter and vitamins and calcium which your body will take from your bones.
This consistency enables readers who are familiar with that style to easily locate the various elements and interpret important information such as who wrote the document or when was it published. A reference contains all the information needed for you or your readers to find your original source whether it was published in a book, in a newspaper, or on the web.
These go inside the margin space, one-half inch from the top of the page, next to the right margin. When the elements require this form of elaboration it is more common to set them under their own subheadings in the text, perhaps following sentence seriation in a transition paragraph under a major heading. The source is formatted with a hanging indent, table notes are formatted as indented paragraphs (MLA 119).
Concluding punctuation (a question mark, exclamation point, or period) may be followed by one or two spaces as long as you are consistent throughout your text. Use this "three-em dash" in place of the author's name in subsequent works by the same exact author(s). Single-spacing can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references (but double-spacing is required between references), footnotes, and long quotations [this is sometimes referred to as block spacing]. Acknowledging the source of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission. This class explores some of our options as herbalists to bring our unique set of skills and medicines to a wider audience.
Symptom pictures range from full-blown chronic fatigue symptoms to multiple food sensitivities and brain fog. Included are foundational elements of working with the whole person and the whole plant rather than isolating or compartmentalizing either human or herb. Special attention will be paid to the differentiation and use of diaphoretics that stimulate, relax or do both at once.
The four pillars of evaluation and treatment - 1) energetics, 2) organ systems, 3) action and 4) specific indications. In nature typically in a piece of fruit, the sugar is a mixture of sucrose (glucose bound to fructose), free glucose, and free fructose. The glucose enters the controlled glycolysis pathway, but the fructose bypasses it, and floods the Krebs cycle and the related fat-building pathway in large amounts, symbolically like a -flood- into those pathways below the control point in glycolysis. A  You need to eat enough to provide your body with the foods you need.A  It is almost impossible to do this with two meals a day so your body begins to crave foods that will give it that quick energy fix.
There is nothing quite so satisfying as a healing soup simmering away slowly on the stovetop, while the flavors and properties of the herbs flow gently into the food.
A Dona€™t fight with yourself (or your family) to entirely give up a questionable food substance, just dona€™t abuse your body with it and use the healthiest form of the substance possible. A A vast majority of health complaints in this country; fatigue, mental fogginess, depression, etca€¦ are caused by your bodies natural response to incomplete nutrition. The elements of the citation provide a map that direct your readers to location of your sources. Additionally, always make sure you reference list is in alphabetical order and is the same font type and size as the rest of your paper. It will draw heavily from my 5 years working at a mixed modality (conventional and holistic) free clinic in my hometown as well as other places I have volunteered. Humans have no natural mechanism to deal with this, so the liver does 3 things, start making a lot of of fat and, if chronic, increasing the enzymes that manufacture fat, reduce the production of ATP via the Krebs cycle, and become resistant to the effects of insulin which would otherwise tell the liver to stop releasing glucose into the system. A A  EvenA  though that changed a bit when my parents moved us to town, my family hung on to a great deal of that lifestyle. Unfortunately in our society,A  candy bars and coffee are far more available than a leafy green salad or a whole-grain snack.A  You have to plan a bit more to provide yourself with healthy alternative but it is completely worth the effort. Prose works cite the page followed by a semicolon, then additional identifying information. A large piece of this class will be devoted to answering attendeea€™s practical questions about their personal situations and how they can bring their skills forward. If we would fill our bellies with fruit we would still only get a relatively small amount of free fructose. Current scientific A thinking on the adverse metabolic effects of sugar, the cluster of diseases that appear when the sugar trade emerges in a region, is that the overfeeding of the fructose pathway and the resulting consequences are responsible for the insulin resistance and obesity.
Most of it seems much like sucrose, 45 percent glucose and 55 percent fructose, not all that different. A  Once you address your eating patterns, you can begin to look at the nutrients your body needs to properly support your nervous system.
Bee pollen is an amazing nutrient which I should devote a whole blog entry to, but I do worry about our dwindling bee population and the availability of this nutrient.A A  Consequently,A  I use it sparingly and with a great deal of respect for the creatures who created it in mind.
If we digest starch that has fructose in the chain of sugars in the starch, that is really slow. The problem is that in HFCS, the fructose is -free- it does not have to be split from sucrose, and is not bound to fiber. The result is that in the Krebs Cycle, the entrance of glucose into the cycle is highly regulated by enzymes, when ATP is adequate to high, if forms a brake on the glycolysis pathway, but fructose, on the one hand, enters the cycle one step below the control point. Everything else is of an uncertain quality, something to keep in mind when drawing on casual sources from the Internet. Historically, anthropologically, evolutionarily, we didn’t need to evolve a control on the fructose metabolic pathway. A few years ago, the lead article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition proposed the introduction of unbound liquid fructose into the food supply as -the- cause of the epidemic of obesity and diabetes that began to manifest around 1980 and continues to expand today.A Free liquid fructose appears to be benign or even beneficial because there is no spike of glucose, or even of insulin after ingesting it. If the natural pathway for glycolysis is like water rushing down a white water canyon, with a dam at the bottom to prevent flooding, the natural fructose pathway is like a small stream that enters -below- the dam with no control on it.
There is instead a spike of fat in the form of triglycerides, but no one notices that (only fasting TG are even measured in routine lab tests). And as the liver adapts to habitual use of sugar or fructose, -then- insulin resistance is increased and insulin and glucose rise to higher levels than before and the individual becomes pre- or full blown diabetic.



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