Good typography depends on the visual contrast between one font and another, as well as among text blocks, headlines, and the surrounding white space. Figure 8.5 a€” Use contrast and logic to create meaningful repeating patterns of contrast to help the reader quickly make sense of your page layouts. Margins define the reading area of your page by separating the main text from the surrounding environment.
Figure 8.6 a€” Always use flush-left text alignment for web and other screen displays and for long text passages in print.
Left-justified text is the most legible option for web pages because the left margin is even and predictable and the right margin is irregular. Figure 8.7 a€” The best alignment option for web pages is left-justified headings and left-justified text. Text on the computer screen is hard to read not only because of the low resolution of computer screens but also because the layout of most web pages violates a fundamental rule of book and magazine typography: the lines of text on most web pages are far too long for ideal reading. By using a fixed layout, you can attempt to restrict the text line length (see chapter 7, Page width and line length). A low-vision user with fonts set large will not appreciate being forced to view long pages with short lines of text. Figure 8.8 a€” Fixed-width layouts (left) offer some control over line length, whereas flexible layouts (right) expand to fill the browser window. Leading is the vertical space in a text block, the distance from one baseline of text to the next.
Figure 8.8a a€” In the book version of this guide we chose to set the type with indented paragraphs, as the high-resolution medium of print is easier on the reader's eye, and doesn't require the exaggerated paragraph spacing that we use on the relatively low-resolution computer screen. What fun to get the correct spacing for this particularly French punctuation in a reflowable eBook!
PagetoScreen - Want to be part of a collaborative authored project?  Penguin is asking for you. Here we see the example of the first footnote in the chapter and the reference number in the text.
Notes: Attention to detail - for PrintFootnotesThese need to be separated from the main body of the text, and are best set with a smaller size and possibly event a different typeface and colour. Only just finished washing the Christmas holiday dishes and I can already feel a Carnival coming on! Nothing attracts the eye and brain of the reader like strong contrast and distinctive patterns, and you can achieve those attributes only by carefully designing contrast and pattern into your pages. The first thing the reader sees is not the title or other details on the page but the overall pattern and contrast of the page.
Margins provide important visual relief in any document, but careful design of margins and other white space is particularly important in web page design because web content must coexist on the computer screen with the interface elements of the browser itself as well as with other windows, menus, and icons of the user interface. And when used consistently, margins provide unity throughout a site by creating a consistent structure and look to the site pages. We read from left to right, anchoring our tracking across the page at the vertical line of the left margin.
Unlike justified text, left justification requires no adjustment to word spacing; the inequities in spacing fall at the end of the lines. Centered headings pair well with justified text, but justified text should not be used on web pages.

So although leaving text free to fill the browser window may affect readability, following conventions may also affect the accessibility and legibility of your documents (fig. With standard text, this yields a line of about fifty characters, averaging about nine to ten words per line.
Leading strongly affects the legibility of text blocks: too much leading makes it hard for the eye to locate the start of the next line, whereas too little leading confuses the lines of type, because the ascenders of one line get jumbled with the descenders of the line above. You see that the text alignment (left or right), is automatic depending on recto or verso achieved by the paragraph style using Towards the Spine. The idea of any notes is that it is supplementary information and it is entirely optional that the reader even bothers to look, so setting in a style that does not distract from the flow of the reading experience is important.Footnotes are best numbered with an outdented figure, although (for technical reasons) the numbers are most often aligned to the main text block. If you cram every page with dense text, readers see a wall of gray and will instinctively reject the lack of visual contrast. The regular, repeating patterns established through carefully organized pages of text and graphics help the reader to establish the location and organization of your information and increase legibility.
They also add visual interest by contrasting the positive space of the screen (text, graphics) from the negative (white) space.
The ragged-left margins produced by centering or right-justifying text make that scanning much harder, because your eye needs to search for the beginning of each new line (fig. The resulting ragged-right margin adds variety and interest to the page without reducing legibility. Centered display type contrasts with the asymmetry of the ragged-right margin of left-justified body text and produces an unbalanced page. But a fundamental principle of the web is that users should be able to structure their own view. If you choose a flexible layout approach, use css leading controls to increase line spacing (see Leading, below). Robert Bringhurst doesn't need to bother with those little superscript numbers because the supplementary information is very much nearby for the reader.Still, tradition dictates that in some books, there are footnotes and some there are endnotes (either at the end of the chapter or the end of the book).
Patchy, heterogeneous typography and text headers make it hard for the user to see repeating patterns and logical content groups.
In print, justification is achieved by adjusting the space between words and by using word hyphenation. Fine adjustments are not possible on low-resolution computer displays and are impractical to implement in today’s web browsers. Until typographic options for web pages become more sophisticated, we recommend that you use left-justified text blocks and headlines as the best solution for most layout situations (fig. Wider lines of text require readers to move their heads slightly or use their eye muscles to track over the long lines of text. In conventional print layouts, columns of forty-five to seventy-five characters per line are considered ideal. Users with a large monitor may not want their text blocks circumscribed if it means that a large portion of their screen goes unused. Additional line spacing permits a slightly longer line length without sacrificing legibility. In print the general rule is to set the leading of text blocks at about 2 points above the size of the type: for example, 12-point type with 14 points of leading.
Blank line spacing between paragraphs, in contrast, makes a page easy to scan and provides extra white space for visual relief.

Most publishers will favour the numbers to begin again for each chapter, otherwise the numbers could get unweildy (superscript numbers of more than two digits could look ugly).
The chaos makes it difficult to predict where information is likely to be located in unfamiliar documents (fig.
Page layout programs use a hyphenation dictionary to check for and apply hyphenation at each line’s end and then adjust word spacing throughout the line. Readability suffers because on the long trip back to the left margin the reader may lose track of the next line. On the web we suggest more generous leading to compensate for longer line lengths and the lower resolution of the computer screen. Let's face it, book design and usability does not often win-out over commercial considerations.
But even with sophisticated page layout software, justified text blocks often suffer from poor spacing and excessive hyphenation and require manual refinement. Where footnotes are long, they can be split across more than one page, although this will compromise the usability somewhat.EndnotesNotes are often placed at the end of the chapter or even at the end of the book (before the index). Lots of space for the text to breath.How I dislike some books that give me less than a centimetre of margin. This approach means that the reader will need to 'hunt down' the note referred to in the text. This usually means that the endnotes will be sectioned by chapter or section.The advantage of endnotes is that the page composition in the vertical plane is not compromised for the sake of the note space. Ridiculous as this seems, we have seen books with footnotes that take more page space than the main text itself!Sidenotes (sometimes called Margin Notes)Clearly the page layout needs to provide the space in the margins for this to be an option.
In this we can set the way the references are displayed in the text (superscript etc), and how the footnotes appear at the bottom of the page. We need a paragraph style set up for the display of the footnotes themeselves and we can (optionally), use a character style for the reference figure in the text.As you can see from the first example spread the footnote list figure is aligned to the left edge of the text box.
You will often see this in the books on your shelves, however, a more attractive arrangement is to 'outdent' these listed figures so that the footnotes are are aligned to the text and the figures are offset from this text box.InDesign does not provide the means to set footnotes outside the text box, so we need to plan for this by indenting all of the text inside the text box by an amount that we then remove from the left margins. You will see from the image provided here that we are using guides to make sure that these items align. The one that I use here is called 'convert footnotes to (dynamic) endnotes' – meaning that the numbering will change if further notes are added.As always when using scripts to change content, save your work first! Scripts will often run through a long sequence of actions; you can always use 'revert' (from the file menu), to get back to the previous.
You will see from the image here that the endnotes have their own page(s) with a heading that matches other heading styles.
Using these we can control the width and position as the footnotes are converted to side notes.

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