The 2014 schedule for our 3-Day Hands-on Hydraulic Reliability and Troubleshooting workshops will be published in next month's newsletter and on our website. OK, so you've done everything your OEM has recommended and your machine still overheats, it's still louder that you think it should be, the hoses still jump more than you would expect them to, leaks still develop and the current draw at your drive motor is still higher than that of similar (or even smaller) machines. Usually, when pipes are straight, turbulence only becomes an issue when the pipe is too long.
Fluid velocity can be calculated by dividing the flow by the area of a cross section of the conductor.
Thus, we can reduce the velocity (and the associated turbulence) by either decreasing the flow or increasing the size of the pipe or hose. The schedule of pipe plays a factor, too, because higher schedule pipes have thicker walls to accommodate higher pressures. Similarly, sizing a return line, we see that a 1" schedule 40 return line can handle up to 40.6 GPM.
Jack Weeks entered GPM’s organization in January of 1997 as a CAD draftsman and hydraulic instructor. Al - From the President's DeskThe past two months have been the been the busiest and best months since I started GPM in 1994! Where's Jack?Since our last newsletter, I spoke at the IDCON conference in Raleigh, NC, made a consulting call at a plywood mill in Emporia, VA, taught a 2-day basic class plus a 2-day advanced troubleshooting class at a sawmill in Summerville, SC, a Press Troubleshooting class in Emporia, VA, a Maintenance Basic Hydraulic Troubleshooting workshop in Plymouth, NC, two back-to-back Shoe Press Troubleshooting workshops at a paper mill in Eastover, SC and a week-long consulting visit to an OSB mill in Barwick, Ontario. Alan's Back RoadsSince the last newsletter I taught twoTroubleshooting MDF workshops in Bennettsville, SC, a Reliability class at a flooring manufacturer in Ringgold, GA (and subsequently made a consulting visit to the same plant), a Troubleshooting Plywood Hydraulics workshop in Gurdon, AR and an Accumulator Safety class in Dudley, NC. While at the GPM headquarters, I have been working on the technical writing and drafting for several manuals to be used in upcoming workshops. Chris's BlogNow that I have completed my initial training phase, I have been staying on the move. Some of you may be aware that our Accumulator Safety DVD What You Don't Know About Accumulators CAN KILL YOU! Operators and technicians alike, anyone who works on or around a machine with an accumulator should see this DVD. The only preventive maintenance and reliability functions that most plants perform is to change the filters regularly and to check the oil level.
Checking the accumulators to make sure they are properly pre-charged which is necessary to achieve the desired speed to maintain production. Our Online Hydraulic QuizIf you are wondering if you or your maintenance techs should attend our basic class prior to attending a customized machine specific workshop, our online quiz can tell you quickly. November 18th – 20thDue to the distance from our office, the mobile lab will be unavailable.
This filter's container has a volume of about 65 gallons and is about 1 foot deeper than the other filter. Those who read this may be of engineering background, and many may be of other backgrounds and experiences, so I will attempt to present this for all who would take the time and interest to read this, to benefit to the degree that you choose. The first attempt to understand this art, was to make a quart jar generator out of an old mayonaise jar, as shown left. Now a new approach is tried with a piece of PVC schedule 40 pipe 18 inches long and 4 inches in diameter.
Now the new jar gets installed in the car replacing the mayonaise jar, and all the connections are made. While at the destination, I park, shut everything down, and maybe 5 minutes later start the car, and while leaving the driveway, I switch the jar on, in which a small explosion occurs, or a loud "POP" may be a better description.
Now let's upgrade the 18 inch PVC tube with 2 additional electrodes and a new control circuit as shown on the left. For the next step, the canister was removed from the car and 7 more tablespoons of electrolyte were added to the solution. As the amount of HHO gas was increased, the mileage has not exhibited better mileage, which does not conform the logic of expectations.
It's my opinion that the hydrogen and oxygen mixture ignites at a much lower temperature than a clear gasoline mixture.
One approach is to use a power transister, to be used as a current regulator, however, this will require a heat sink, and the heat ineffeciency factor returns.
Other considerations have become apparent, such as the required change of ignition timing due to a shorter combustion time of the hydrogen, oxygen, and gasoline mixture as compared to a longer combustion time for gasoline only. It now becomes obvious that the computer which considers all these things will require special programming. The following chart displays the various size engines, by displacement, and at different RPM's, the resultant air breathing capacity. In conclusion, it looks like the HHO gas generation is well within the range of gasoline used, and should be considered signifigant in the operation of the engine. The red bar displays the static current as controlled by the amount of electrolyte in the jar. He has trained thousands of electricians and mechanics in Hydraulic Troubleshooting methods. GPM’s customers know they can call whenever they have a troubleshooting issue they simply can’t resolve. I also performed a survey at a plant in New Bern, NC to develop a future troubleshooting manual.
These were just a few of many backroads my GPM travels have carried me in the months of October and November of this year.

I spent the month of August doing troubleshooting work at a sawmill in eastern North Carolina and an aluminum products manufacturer in central Georgia. When the machine fails, there is little or no information about the system to refer to when troubleshooting. A score of less than 80% suggests that our Maintenance Basic Hydraulic Troubleshooting workshop would save you downtime and better prepare you or your staff for the advanced workshop. Prior to this, projects were also experienced making hydrogen in pure form, that is to separate the hydrogen and oxygen during the electrolysis process. The car was filled with gas, and then proceeded from Hobe Sound, here in Florida, out Bridge Road, and to Lake Okeechobee.
The wires are hooked up to the controls in the car next to the driver seat as shown previously to the second switch and ground. We go up Rte.95, this is 65-75 mph driving, and we come back down US#1 all the way to Hobe Sound.
Now I have to run up the road halfway to Stuart on an errand, and the jar gets turned on for approximately a 20 minute trip. I look down, and the cap has blown off the jar and the top part of the glass jar is broken where the hooks on the electrodes hit during their exit.
The 4 inch PVC tube will now have 4 electrodes, 3 of which can be individually made (+) or (-).
Initial tests indicate with 2 electrodes (+) and 2 electrodes (-) yields maximum current, cold, approximately 15 amps.
After re-installation in the car, the current now jumped to drawing over 20 amps with just one electrode turned on from the control panel in the car. It may be time to consider the affects of the new combustion process with respect to the oxygen sensor. Disconnect the oxygen sensor, and replace the signal input to the computer with a separate control from inside the car.
The resistance reduction due to the electrode spacing in this configuration appears to be in a range of .25 ohms.
Other considerations are solar, small wind turbine generator, magnetic vibration generators, and static generators. It is now obvious from the test runs, that the timing of the ignition could be retarded as the percentage of hydrogen is increased in the combustion chamber. If I am up to speed at 35-40 mph I can take my foot off the accelerator and cruise with no added accelerator pedal. The purpose is to get an idea of the volume ratios of gasoline, hydrogen, and air and how they relate to one another by volume. Then connect the Generator, the big PVC tube electrodes, and make sure the output tube from the generator is producing bubbles in the old cut off plastic jug of water. This one displays the energy necessary to create 10 cubic inches of HHO gas as measured in Amp-minutes of energy vs. His computerized animations have made GPM's presentations and training CD's the recognized leader in the industry. With over 75 years' experience dealing with hydraulic failures, our consultants have the resources to help troubleshoot whatever hydraulic problem you encounter. I also did a site survey for development of a customized troubleshooting manual at the aluminum products plant. The hydrogen gas was hooked from the generator directly to an outdoor barbecue cooker, to the regulator on the cooker, and using hydrogen alone, it burned with a nice flame. When the hydrogen and oxygen from the electrolysis is combined, the volatility goes up and my experience is that a flame will not be produced. I drilled two holes in the firewall to allow a power cord from the battery, which had an in-line 20 amp fuse installed, and the output gas tube from the jar to the air intake. We went south to Canal Point, turned around and returned to Hobe Sound, where the car was refilled to calculate the milage. Now there are two generators, as the glass jar is still connected inside next to the driver. This driving was 200 miles of going to Winn Dixie which is approximately 4 miles down the road. See the photo at the left, notice a potentiometer mounted in the upper left of the control panel.
So if the voltage is set higher from the substituted control, the computer will be fooled into reducing the fuel fed through the injectors as it thinks the mixture is too rich. It becomes apparent that effeciency of HHO generation is inversely proportional to heat generated in the process. Now it will be impractical to connect this directly to the 12 volt car battery and generator. Also in the plastic jug is a qt jar, full of water, turned upside down to collect the gas from the generator. When the gas bubbles have replaced about 4 inches of water in the collection jar, check the time again.
However, the gasoline amount will vary all over the place, from an idle, to running 3000 RPM.
By adding electrolyte to increase the DC current in increments, the resultant gas (HHO) generation characteristics are exposed.
This has an effect on the process, but it's doubtful that it's the total cause of the phenomenon.

He received his education from the Georgia Institute of Technology School of Electrical Engineering and the Department of State Foreign Service Institute.
Whether you’re experiencing a total system outage, repeated component failure or need a professionally designed hydraulic reliability assessment, the consultants at GPM can help. Since the beginning of September, I have taught a plywood lathe troubleshooting class in southern Louisiana, as well as Maintenance Basic Hydraulic Troubleshooting seminars in northern Michigan, Oklahoma, northern Georgia and eastern Texas. Cover with plastic wrap, allowing wrap to touch mixture (no air pockets - this keeps it from turning brown), and let stand at room temperature 30 minutes.
I drilled a hole in the plastic air breather filter compartment and installed a "barb" to connect the gas tube.
The two generator hydrogen gas output tubes are connected in the engine compartment through a TEE so both can be working at the same time.
All the electrolyte dissolved in the water so I know that the solution was below saturation. Now I can control the current from inside with combinations of polarities of the electrodes. I should be able to estimate the heat factor by increasing current indicated on the ampmeter. A voltage divider, capacitor, and a zener diode were wired in a circuit with a 5K pot, to manually adjust what the computer would normally see from the oxygen sensor. After connecting the circuit, and starting the car, the effects of the control can be noticed listening to the motor. The load on the alternator will be 50 amps which will be out of a range for practical operation. The faster the car goes, the more energy delivered to the HHO generator, thereby increasing the amount of hydrogen generated proportional to speed. The present formula for electrolyte is 10% salt, 10% baking soda, and 80% ph adjuster for pools, as found at Lowe's or Home Depot.
The value listed below will be somewhere in the center of the range as it was calculated from 60 mph and 20 mpg. It seems that around 9-10 Amps a generation barrier is broken and the efficiency radically increases.
Jack is an experienced draftsman and taught telecommunications equipment operation and repair for the Central Intelligence Agency at American embassies overseas.
It's quite possible that this process causes a shorter "burn time" of the gasoline mixture in the cylinder of the reciprocating engine when introduced through the air breather on the car. Before installing in the car, a quick check on the bench with the battery charger and small 12 volt battery, yielded what looked like 16 amps and 17 cubic inches a minute of gas. Now, one electrode turned on, and 3 being used as ground, draws more current than previously witnessed with 2 on and 2 ground. In an effort to reduce the energy required to create the HHO the R (resistance in ohms) has to be reduced to as close to zero as possible.
This combination creates a solution that is roughly a ph of 8.5 which is alkaline, not acid. Also, because the battery is fully charged, the current indicated on the battery charger will indicate how many amps the generator is drawing. I’m looking forward to a busy November, training personnel in Cottonton, Alabama in the troubleshooting of their sawmill hydraulic systems during two separate 3-day classes. The photo on the left shows one installed, the other will go on the opposite side of the tube.
Even though the pollution is drastically reduced, I still think better mileage can be achieved. The fuse from the power line from the battery also has a 35 amp slow blow fuse, so that, presently, is the total current limitation. Sometime, maybe tests should run with variations of combinations to get the ph to 7.0 which is neutral.
The connections are made to the mounting bolts as they extend through drilled holes in the PVC tube as you can see in the right hand photo, and underwater, so they want to be sealed for prevention of leaks. It does make me remember the 57 chevy I used to have, it got 12 mpg regardless how you drove it.
Doing some research on alternators, I found that, for this car, they are rated for 105 amps.
The trip was an ideal condition to get the best milage possible, as the driving speed was 45-55 mph. This provides a good seal and the caps can be removed later, when we want to improve the system. The photo on the right is a bench set-up used to test the rate of gas production, I'll elaborate on that later. Do not be confused by the other PVC tube with the globe on top, as this is a completely different project.

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