Among those who are devoted to the preservation of the Sorraia-type mustang, Lynne Gerard and Kevin Droski are running a project on Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, Ontario, Canada, which is pretty special and actually without equal in all of North America. It all started in 2006, when they imported a grullo Sorraia stallion from the Springe game park in Germany, to cross on the two grulla SMR mares they had previously acquired.
By the time the first mating season had come around, the band had been increased by a grulla Kiger mustang mare. On Ravenseyrie, the horses have the run of 360 acres of nicely varied land - pasture, woods, rocks, and the shore of Lake Huron.
Up until Altamiro turned four years old (and had his second foal crop arriving), the Sorraia mustangs ran together with the domestic horses and mules.
The very first foal by Altamiro, and out of one of the SMR mares, was Animado, a grullo colt of good Sorraia type. This was just the first one in a long row of interesting observations regarding the behavior of the horses, and in particular, of Altamiro's behavior. There are some other horses on the place and some older mules, and it is significant how Altamiro keeps his harem apart from the rest of the equines on the property. Very few breeders are as committed to the preservation of the Sorraia Mustang as Lynne Gerard and Kevin Droski are, and so far, no other have set up a preserve like Ravenseyrie.
In order to offer an x-ray facility complementary to the neutron tomography station ANTARES, the FRM II and the Chair for Biomedical Physics at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen have started to operate a new computer tomography facility. The neutron source had an anniversary in 2010: The FRM II has been operated in its 25th cycle since its commissioning in 2004.
The construction of the new irradiation facility to produce molybdenum-99 has taken an important step forward. The research neutron source has again taken an major step in its long maintanance break: The beam tube no.
Recent work by researchers from the University of Manchester, along with colleagues from FRM II at TU MA?nchen have managed to provide a detailed description of the magnetic interactions between cobalt(II) ions for the first time. Data measured at the high resolution spectrometer TRISP at the neutron source FRM II contradict a theory about one-dimensional spin ladders.
The new coordination committee for the scientific use of the neutron source has met for its constitutional meeting on June 6th. Researchers at the TUM have developed a new treatment method based on the Terbium-161 radionuclide to treat smaller tumors and metastases in a more targeted way.
The German Federal Ministry of Health has awarded more than one million euros in research and development funding for the efficient production of an important cancer diagnostic agent at the research neutron source FRM II.
A physicist of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen has examined tissues using neutrons at the FRM II and found, that the antidepressant lithium is more dominant in some areas of the human brain than others.
In approximately 50 contributions, the cooperation partners FRM II, JCNS, HZG and HZB have enriched the European Conference on Neutron Scattering (ECNS) in Prague. For the first time, the international Advanced Summer School in Radiation Detection and Measurements took place in Munich. The apprentices for IT service at the FRM II, Alexander Lenz and Christoph Kick, have finished their school with grade 1. Josef Waronitza has finished his apprenticeship in mechatronics at the FRM II with an excellent grade. A successful specification test: The sample environment group of the instruments operated by the JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at the FRM II offers an vertical 5 Tesla cryomagnet in the near future.
After the long maintenance break the neutron source produces neutron beams for research, industry and medicine since October 29th.
For the first time, members of the Green Party "BA?ndnis 90 - Die GrA?nen" visited the neutron source on Tuesday, November 8th. Engineers and physicists around the ANTARES Neutron Imaging Team at the FRM II research reactor have invented a reusable shielding material for neutron- and gamma-radiation. Using small angle neutron scattering at the instrument MIRA at the FRM II and V4 at the Helmholtz Centre Berlin, Tim Adams of the TU MA?nchen physics department has delivered the missing microscopic evidence for the topological characteristics of a long reaching skyrmion lattice. A workshop on subject of micromagnetic theory and related experimental aspects of small-angle neutron scattering is held on 21-22 of June 2012. The worlda€™s strongest neutron beam is produced by the scientific instrument PGAA at the FRM II. For the second time, the neutron source receives financial support of the7th European Framework Programme. Our neutron source has been taken back into operation on February 23rd after the exchange of a bearing had been completed successfully.
We kindly ask all our users to participate in the current user survey regarding sample envirnoment.
The popular seminar for teachers in natural sciences in Zwiesel, Bavaria, which is partly organized by Professor Winfried Petry, will focus on electromobility this year.
After a short fluctuation of current of the external supply, the FRM II was shut down on Saturday, March 24th. At the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) work begins for a foundation on which a connecting building between the experimental hall and the future neutron guide hall east will be erected. The Reactor Safety Commission confirmed the high safety standard in the framework of a stress test for research reactors. Discovery of skyrmions in an electrical non-conductor promises a new lossless magneto-electronics.
During a visit at the Research Neutron Source in Garching a high-ranking official of the Federal Research Ministry emphasized the great importance of science with neutrons for future technologies. Neutrons reveal how the oxygen-transporting protein adapts to the body temperature of different species.
By using neutron scattering experiments, researchers expect to have observed the typical characteristics of a phase transition based on the Higgs mechanism.
Using neutrons, researchers observed new effects between magnetic and superconducting materials. Neutron experiments show, that the theoretical concept of superfluids by Nobel Prize winner Lev Landau must be corrected in details. Nearly 500 people took advantage of the opportunity to tour the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II).
The new multi anvil press of the Bayerisches Geoinstitut of the University of Bayreuth was delivered and put into operation in the new East Hall of the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). By means of neutron scattering, the crystallographic structure of a novel material with amazing phenomena at low temperatures was unraveled. By means of neutron scattering, scientists observed an important process that contributes to fatigue in current Li-ion cells.
Again, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) supports the development of high-precision experiments with ultra-cold neutrons.
The 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications is held at the FRM II from 15th to 20th September 2013.
Nowadays lithium ion batteries are commonly used as storage media in portable electronic devices like laptops, smart phones, cameras, etc. JA?rgen Allgaier from Forschungszentrum JA?lich tested a new class of surfactants, which is now applied in commercial colour removers. The first International Conference on imaging with neutrons in archeology and cultural heritage will take place from 9th to 12th of September 2013 at the Physics Department of the Technical University of Munich (TUM, James - Franck -Str.
The German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) supports again the construction and upgrade of scientific instruments at the MLZ..
Experiments with neutrons at the Technische UniversitA¤t MA?nchen (TUM) show that the antidepressant lithium accumulates more strongly in white matter of the brain than in grey matter. 123 delegates from 21 countries accepted our NEPOMUC research groupa€™s invitation to the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 and joined at the Technische UniversitA¤t MA?nchen from 15th to 20th September.
Using high resolution neutron scattering at the instrument TRISP of the Max-Planck Society at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), the lifetime of magnetic spin waves was measured and, for the first time, a correct theory was developed. Researchers of the Centrum Baustoffe und MaterialprA?fung at the Technische UniversitA¤t MA?nchen (TUM) have obtained new insights into the bonding of water in calcium silicate hydrate by using neutrons on the instrument TOFTOF of the MLZ.
MLZ and FRM II wish happy holidays and a healthy, happy New Year to their staff, users, partners, sponsors and friends. 15 students of grade 12 at the Carl-Orff-Gymnasium UnterschleiAYheim have successfully finished their "W-Seminar" at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum. The polarized single crystal diffractometer POLI has seen neutrons at its new beam line SR 9a for the first time. The Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) celebrates its 10[^th^] anniversary on March 2[^nd^]. For exactly ten years the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet MA?nchen (TUM) has been providing research, industry and medicine with neutrons.
A typical neutron scattering experiment may last some hours, especially for low concentration biological samples. The MLZ is present at this year's FrA?hjahrstagung of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in Dresden until April 4[^th^].
The JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science organises a laboratory course in neutron scattering with experiments at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum. It does not always take a huge accelerator to do particle physics: First results from a low energy, table top alterative takes validity of Newtonian gravity down by five orders of magnitude and narrows the potential properties of the forces and particles that may exist beyond it by more than one hundred thousand times. NEUWAVE-6 has now returned to its place of origin in Garching, where 42 experts from 13 different countries discussed recent developments and future plans in an open atmosphere.
Ten years after its first criticality regulations require the FRM II to do extensive tests on its main systems. The JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) celebrated its extraordinary achievements with a colloquium on the JA?lich campus.
The batteries for electric mobility used today are not yet powerful enough, they load too slowly and the range, they provide is still too small for electric vehicles. Two instrument scientists of the MLZ will be part of the eight delegates of the German Neutron scientists: Dr. Start of the 35[^th^] operating cycle: Since today the FRM II provides users and customers from science, industry and medicine after a thorough review again neutrons and irradiation services. Lithium-ion batteries are seen as a solution for energy storage of the future and have become indispensible, especially in electromobility. 55 students from 13 different countries participated again at the JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science Labcourse at MLZ.
Today, several hundred members of the European scientific community gathered at the European Spallation Source (ESS) construction site in Lund, Sweden, for the ESS Foundation Stone Ceremony. Recently the Solid State Spectroscopy group in Max-Planck Institute (Stuttgart, led by Prof.
South of the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory a hall in wood construction is currently being built. The German TV station Sat 1 Bayern broadcasted a documentary on retina implants on December 29 at 17.30h, where research undertaken by Dr. Measurements at the three axes spectrometer PUMA have now been published in the renowned journal Nature Communications.
The registration for the Master's program MaMaSELF for the years 2015-2017 runs until 31 January (non-European), 27 February (European students) and 30 April 2015 (without scholarship).
For the development of a new fuel with lower enrichment, Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) embedded in an aluminum matrix is a promising candidate. Worldwide, battery research is one of the most intensively studied research fields, because a€“ for various reasons a€“ the need for energy storage devices is growing rapidly. Forschungszentrum JA?lich receives around a‚¬ 4 million from the EU to develop a more efficient detector system for research with neutrons. The scientists were able to detect structural changes using a model system of phospholipids from soy plants with the help of neutron scattering techniques at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum in Garching near Munich.
This year the event is dedicated to the International Year of the Light and will therefore deal with the laser and quantum physics (in German only). An international group of scientists studied these small pea plants with neutrons to watch them during photosynthesis. The journal Acta Materialia published the results of an experiment with the instrument SPODI at MLZ that allows developing a faster method for structure determination of shape memory alloys of nickel-manganese-indium. The first external user was Klaus Habicht of the Helmholtz Centre Berlin, who carried out experiments on the instrument TRISP on May 4, 2005. The popular and well-known open day on the research campus will be replaced this year by a long night, which starts on 27 June at 6 pm and ends at midnight. In combination with other methods of investigation, scientists have recently made amazing results with the instrument BIODIFF at MLZ.
As of today, the European Union rises the neutron source European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden, which is under construction, to a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Manganese silicon is the preferred crystal of scientists going in for magnetic research: it can be manufactured for some time as relatively large single crystal, and is particularly suited to investigate the magnetic properties. Today a new cooperation project starts, which is headed by MLZ partner JCNS: CREMLIN (Connecting Russian and European Measures for Large-scale Research Infrastructures) shall promote the EU-Russia cooperation in the planning, construction and scientific use of large scale facilities. On September 13 -17, 2015 the 35th International DyProSo (Dynamical Properties of Solids) will take place at the Education Centre Freising. The MLZ group "Structure Research" invites to a free workshop titled "Solution of Crystal Structures using FOX".
The FRM II is one of 13 TUM departments and institutions working together with Varta Storage, Kraftwerke Haag and the ZAE Bayern in the project.
The first JA?lich Workshop a€?Soft Matter and Neutrons GO Energya€? took place in Feldafing from 08 - 09 October. Usually, harvesting energy and raw materials from plants requires many process steps and aggressive chemicals. The new detection system is characterized by a dead-time constant of 25ns and a count rate as high as 5MHz at 10% dead-time. An international workshop with more than 30 researchers in attendance was organized by the JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) on 27-28 October to discuss current and future options for compact accelerator-driven high brilliance neutron sources to serve the international scientific community. The Institute of Physics (IOP) and the German Physical Society (DPG) have jointly awarded the Max Born Prize to Christian Pfleiderer of TUM's Physik-Department.
On 24 November 2015 the G7 Non Proliferation Directors Group visited the Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) and the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Centre for Neutron Research (MLZ).
Physicists of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Centre and the Technical University of Munich have shown the enormous benefits of the Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) in the exploration of surfaces.
Forschungszentrum JA?lich has begun to develop a concept for cost-efficient neutron sources which could replace mid-sized facilities. The combination of different neutron methods allowed measuring the complete spectrum of magnetic excitations. Scientists of the Technical University of Clausthal succeeded the first time using neutrons at FRM II and the PSI to measure the self-diffusion in amorphous silicon. With the aid of neutron spectroscopy, dynamic processes have been detected in so-called "LOV photoreceptors" by scientists from JA?lich, Aachen, Dusseldorf and Garching.
In their latest publication Friedrich and Ursula Wagner have examined the high temperature method more closely by the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) method to find the optimal conditions for preservation of Iron Age's artifacts.
Publication on the catalytic layers of high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells is published online: M.
The American and French political wars of the late 18th century, while on the surface appearing to be very similar, were, in fact, quite opposite in their foundations, processes used to achieve freedoms, and in their ultimate consequences. The French saw the Americans as being willing to put the dreams of the philosophes into practice and gave them hope to do the same in France.


The French Revolution (1789-1815) looked to the secular theories of the Enlightenment for its guidance and legitimacy. France suffered through a century of turmoil, revolutions, and political upheaval, in contrast to the stable government and society that was established in the United States.
The absolutism of the kings Louis XIV, XV, and XVI, the central figures of the French monarchy leading up to the French Revolution, led to the events that precipitated the Revolution that began in 1789. The numerous and extensive wars conducted under Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1715) in the previous century had weakened the economy of the nation. In similar fashion, Louis XV took the throne when he was five years old (ruled 1714-1774), succeeding in 1715 his great-grandfather, Louis XIV.
Increasingly the nationa€™s economy was built upon borrowed money obtained from loans granted by private financiers. From the reign of Louis XIII and his primary counselor, Cardinal Richelieu, continuing through the reign of Louis XIV and his finance minister, Colbert, a severe absolutism controlled the nation. In addition, the growing merchant and middle classes resented being excluded from participation in government, and during the reign of Louis XVI (picture right) there was no apparent change in sight.
Increasingly the monarchy lost its charm, sense of loyalty, and honor among the French people. As an indication of how little Louis XVI understood his nation and how unaware he was of the dynamics sweeping France, in 1788, when members of Parliament complained of his dictatorial ways, he issued the Lamoignon Edict, abolishing the power of parliament.
Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the i??French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV.
Essays and books by Descartes, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire and others were more widely read in France than in any other place in Europe (see Unit 20).
The philosophesa€™ general disdain for the Roman Catholic Church resulted in a widespread suspicion of the clergy. This led to a requirement that all Catholic clergy sign an oath of loyalty to France (Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790) or be expelled from the country. The peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society.
The third estate was comprised of the middle class (Bourgeoisie): merchants, lawyers, physicians, government workers, and everyone else in society, including the peasants. The social and economic gap between the peasants the land owning nobility, including the monarchy, grew greater.
In lean years 90% of the peasants lived below subsistence levels and were hardly able to survive. 10,000 female market workers (a€?the Paris fish market womena€?) marched the thirty-five miles from Paris to Versailles in 1788 to protest the high cost of bread. Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the north of Paris. Eventually Louis XIV built a huge palace at Versailles and transferred the seat of government from Paris to Versailles. The French nobility resided in and around Versailles in order to be found daily in the French court. Riots had broken out in Paris over economic failures, the escalating price of bread, and the fear and frustration resulting from the two-year famine in many areas of France. The Bastille, an ancient prison now turned into a military armory, in 1789 was stormed by Parisians seeking guns and ammunition for their protests. To appease the growing unrest and to convince them, however, that new and higher taxes were necessary to address the nationa€™s problems, Louis XVI, called into session the Assembly of the Notables.This was a weak ruse by the king to gain their support for higher taxes. The weak king, counseled by strong-willed Maria who held to a strict absolutism for the monarchy, refused to share government with the nobles. The Assembly then demanded that Louis call into Session the Paris Parlement, which had not met since 1614! In desperation, Louis then called into session the Estates General, composed of representatives from each of the Three Estates.
In frustration and anger, the Third Estate walked out of the meetings and refused to reassemble with the other two estates. When the third estates walked out, the king arranged to have the meeting place conveniently shut down a€?for repairs.a€? The third estate then took over the kinga€™s indoor tennis courts and held their own assembly, which became known as the Tennis Court Assembly. The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch. Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings.
It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. Thomas Paine, author of the pro-independence piece, Common Sense, during the American War for Independence, had left America for France.
The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people. The king and queen were brought to Paris and placed under palace arrest so that the French people could a€?keep their eye on them.a€? In 1791 Marie had attempted a secret flight from the country with her husband and children through a secret plan arranged with her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austrian. By Spring 1792 three things were evident: (1) attempts to fashion a constitutional monarchy under Louis had failed, (2) civil unrest was everywhere in France, and (3) the Revolution was going badly. Counter-revolutionaries in France in Austria were at work to restore an absolute monarchy under Louis and had the financial and military support of Leopold II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Vienna.
Furthermore, there was wide-spread speculation that the king, himself, was on the side of the Austrian and Prussian armies that were driving from the north towards Paris. The National Convention, now controlled by the more radical members, viewed King Louis XVI as an enemy of the state, who would be, if he continued to live, even abroad, as a catalyst for enemies of the revolution. On January 20, 1793 the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was i??executed the next day. His wife, Marie Antoinette, during a purge of other suspicioned enemies of the revolution, was executed in October 1793, nine months after the execution of her husband. Marie Antoinette gave birth to four children.A daughter died in infancy, a son died at age seven of tuberculosis, a daughter survived and was sent to Austria in a prisoner exchange, and the heir to the throne, Louis-Charles, suffered a horrible death.
After his fathera€™s execution, Louis-Charles, born in 1785, stayed with his mother in prison. By June 1793 the crowds in the street, impatient with what they perceived to be the slow progress of the National Convention in pushing forward a radical reform, rioted. In September 1773 the street crowds again rioted and demanded that even terror be used to bring about the social, political, and economic revolution that the street crowds envisioned.
Maximillien Robespierre had long argued for the abolishment of the monarchy, promoted the ideas of an assembly directly accountable to the people, promoted the end to the death penalty, and opposed war with Austria.
Although initially an idealist committed to the rights of man as elaborated in the writings of the philosophes in the Enlightenment, Robespierre resorted to terror to maintain the course and direction of the revolution. In May 1794 Robespierre supported a decree that established a new national religion in France, the Cult of the Supreme Being. The French calendar was changed to include a new ten-day week in order to abolish from the minds of the nation a€?Sundaya€? or the Christian a€?first day of the weeka€? in order to eliminate all references to Christ and the Resurrection.
The French also devised a new clock which measured not a 24-hour day but a 10-hour day, each hour divided into 100 minutes and each minute containing 100 seconds, with exactly 100,000 seconds per day. By 1794 most French churches were closed, 30,000 priests were either deported, killed, or shipped as prisoners to French Guiana, and no priests remained to conduct the sacraments.
Finally, the treachery and evident emotional and mental imbalance of Robespierre was so apparent and the Reign of Terror so horrendous, that Robespierre himself was condemned to death. With the death of Robespierre, the nation was governed by a new team of leaders, The Directory.
Napoleon ordered his cannons to fire into the protesters and quickly brought order to the streets of Paris. Considered to be one of the great generals and military strategists in history, Napoleon Napoleon defeated the army of Austria and proceeded to conquer Italy.
Napoleon secretly had the desire to become the next Alexander the Great and saw Egypt as the first step towards establishing a new empire.
Within a few short years the goal for a free France ruled by a representative government would again slip into absolutism. A French hegemony existed in Europe almost to the very eve of 1789.A  A hegemony is the strong influence of a people, culture, or nation over others. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian princess, a nation resented and disliked by the French from the days of the anti-Austrian French foreign policy devised by Richelieu and promoted by Louis XIV. TheA  peasants were growing more aware of and were less content to remain in their disenfranchised state at the bottom of society.
Versailles had first been the site of a hunting lodge built by Louis XIV about ten miles to the northA  of Paris.
1.The nobility was abolished and a constitution was drawn up which would maintain a constitutional monarchy, with a strong Assembly and a weak monarch. 1.Promoted the concept of a free market economy and abolished the former mercantilism of the prior kings.
1.It approved and adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man which featured for all French a€?liberty, equality, property, security, and resistance to oppressiona€?. 1.The National Assembly dissolved itself in 1791 in favor of a new Legislative Assembly with representatives elected by the people. On January 20, 1793A  the National Convention condemned Louis to death and he was executed the next day.
Increasingly he became more radical, sought to eliminate all opposition to his leadership and ideas. The young Sorraia stalliona€?s import from Germany to Ravenseyrie on Manitoulin Island in Canada by Lynne Gerard and Kevin Droski was a breakthrough, as he has sired foals with mustang mares which look very promising. What began as a dream has become a reality by now, and has already yielded foals that put Ravenseyrie among those who exemplify the progress made in the breeding of Sorraia Mustangs, with several youngsters registered in the Permanent division. The Sorraia stallion, called Altamiro, was a long yearling when he came over, and he started to assume the role as harem sire and to breed the mares at the tender age of two - the earliest known or documented of a Sorraia stallion. Later, when the opportunity came to acquire a Sorraia Mustang mare that is half Sorraia (by Sovina and out of a SMS-registered Sulphur Springs mare), Lynne and Kevin jumped at it, so that Altamiro's band got another new addition.
It's a horse's paradise, and allows them to feed off of different kinds of plants, seek shelter either among rocks and banks or among the trees, exercise well, roaming the preserve. It was after the first foal of his second crop was born when Altamiro laid down new rules by forcing the domestic horses and mules to separate from the family band - which was a significant behavior to observe, as it does shed light on how mustangs of a certain strain and ancestry managed to retain their type and genetic make-up. His birth provided a rare glimpse at social behavior among wild horses, and in a natural social setting. Not only will he see to it that his mares are grouped together, he will also make them pay attention to their foals if he feels they got a little sloppy. They nevertheless would be an asset to many a breeder's herd, as they are all of good Iberian type, resp.
Since the beginning of February, the new thimble has been integrated into the moderator tank of the FRM II. To celebrate his birthday, the FRM II honours the great physicist and co-founder of the physics department at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) by organizing a colloquium. The length will be defined by the exchange of the bushings in the cooling system of the heavy water tank. Karl Zeitelhack of the FRM II had co-organized the school and guided the students in the neutron source. But that is not all: During the long maintenance break in 2011, the PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis) was improved to give it the best ratio between usable neutrons and noisy background radiation worldwide. Together with his son Lawrence he established a new research branch: the analysis of crystal structures using x-ray and neutron diffraction.
It was his final work as part of his training in mechatronics at the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II). Many others caught up with information at the stands of the neutron source and MLZ and listened to the talks. During that time some delicate samples might degrade and consequently lead to questionable results. The technical premises for this measurement was developed at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum by Researchers of theTechnische UniversitA¤t MA?nchen.
Physicists at Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) have now found interesting results using fast neutrons from the Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum. Wolfgang Marquardt, has visited the outstation of the JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) in Garching on 23 July.
Their key advantage is that they are able to store large amounts of energy but are still comparatively light and compact.
They learned neutron scattering in lectures in JA?lich and based on experiments at the research neutron source FRM II. Marc Janoschek has received the Wolfram-Prandl-Prize 2014 of the "Komitee fA?r Forschung mit Neutronen" during the "German Conference for Research with Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons and Ion Beams at Large Facilities". Bernhard Keimer) published in Physical Review Letters their results of inelastic neutron scattering under collaboration with scientists at PANDA and PUMA. From next year on, it will house the mock-up for the cooling systems of the ultracold neutron source at the FRM II.
Matthias Rossbach and his team of the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum JA?lich GmbH designed and constructed a new instrument for prompt and delayed fission neutron induced reaction Gamma spectrometry.
Hsin-Yin Chiang of MLZ has tested several coatings of UMo and qualified the most suitable materials combination. Also at the MLZ, several research groups work in this field and try to gain a better understanding of how batteries work by various neutron methods. Dieter Richter of the Research Centre JA?lich not only retires, but also passes his position as MLZ Director to Prof. Kazuhisa Kakurai, this year's winner of the Helmholtz International Fellow Award, just arrived at the MLZ. Now theoretical and experimental physicists from the TU Munich, the MLZ and the University of Cologne managed to pull off a special coup with this material. The workshop will be held on December1 from 9-17 in the gate Garching (LichtenbergstraAYe 8, 85748 Garching).
Neutron researchers at Forschungszentrum JA?lich have now found a much easier and more accurate way of investigating the often decisive lateral deflection of molecules. Twenty-five scientists exchanged ideas in an interdisciplinary environment on topics related to soft matter and neutron research for sustainable energy supplies. To make these processes more efficient and resource saving, researchers are looking for suitable enzymes.
This visit took place in the framework of the G7 presidency of the Federal Republic of Germany and upon invitation of the Federal Foreign Office.
Dieter Richter of the Forschungszentrum JA?lich (JA?lich Centre for Neutron Science) and the Institute of Complex Systems has been awarded the Staudinger-Durrer Prize of the ETH ZA?rich for his work in the area of soft matter. The deadline for non-EU students ends on January 31, 2016; EU students have time until February 28, 2016. Khaneft et al, Structure and Proton Dynamics in catalytic layers of HT-PEFC, Fuel Cells 2016.
The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point, the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. The persecution of French Protestants forced most of their capable leaders to flee France, to the benefit of Holland, England, and the United States where they found new homes.
French nobles had revolted against the Bourbon royal family and the early childhood of Louis was spent with his mother in hiding.


And the French military effort under Louis XVI to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France.
Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies ini?? Europe in order to stamp out dissent. He dealt with dissenters harshly by means of lettres de caches (indefinite imprisonment without benefit of official charges, trial, or jury -- or the total absence of the English habeas corpus).
She was the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, Marie Antoinette married Louis at age 15 and by the age of 20 was queen of France. Their works championed social justice and participatory government and their ideas stirred up the middle and merchant classes to an intoxicating quest for some form of democracy.
The big question asked whether the Roman clergy was loyal to France and the French Church or were they loyal to the pope in Rome? 50% of the clergy refused to sign the oath of loyalty, including the majority of the local, village priests.
They owned 20% of the land, were 2-3% of the population, had access to the kinga€™s court, participated in government, and paid no taxes. They made up 96-97% or the population, but owned only 40% of the land, AND PAID ALL OF THE TAXES! But a severe drought in the spring of 1788 and a devastating hail storm in July ruined the wheat harvest. The march turned into an ugly protest and the women armed with knives, shovels, and rakes, stormed Versailles seeking the hated queen.
It was soon discovered, however, that his trips to Versailles were not for the purpose primarily of hunting but for secret rendezvous with his mistress. It was considered an architectural masterpiece and during the period of the French hegemony was copied in many European capitols. One of the great honors of a nobleman during the reign of Louis XIV was to assist him to dress and to empty his chamber pot (the kinga€™s a€?toileta€?). The French lost their reverence for the monarchy, gained new understandings of the worth and the basic rights of the individual in a more just society. Hearing of the success of the Parisians in this takeover, the peasants revolted against the land owning nobility, destroyed fences, records of land ownership, seized manors, and killed many of the nobility. It did not work, however, because his new proposal included the taxation of the nobility, something from which they had traditionally been exempted! Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the Paris Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. The Estates General was in actuality the Parlement which had not been assembled since 1614. Their appeal for a€?one person one votea€? was rejected by the first and second estates because the representatives of the third estate represented 94% of the people, and the first and second estates were not about to give up their traditional power.
The Communes invited representatives from the First and Second Estates to join them and to boycott the Estates General. They were captured at the border by French soldiers and taken back to Paris as virtual prisoners. The National Assembly abolished the monarchy, the French Republic was proclaimed, Increased in-fighting, civil war, regional disputes, and the eventual lack of an emerging strong leadership, opened the door for a small group of representatives, the Committee of Public Safety, to take control of the Assembly. In response, Revolutionary leaders on the other side declared war in April 1792 against the Holy Roman Empire with the hope that war against Austria and the Empire would unite France in a new national spirit. In August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. He was tried for crimes against the people and the National Convention declared France a Republic.
The Committee of Public Safety passed the Law of Suspects, giving it broad freedom to seize and arrest anyone suspected to be an anti-revolutionary.
In the 1793-1796 civil war in western France between conservatives opposed to the excesses of the revolution and revolutionaries, it is estimated that up to 450,000 combatants from both sides died.
He lead one of two major political factions in the National Assembly, the Mountain (so-called because they sat to the rear of the Assembly in rows higher up from the floor level), which was the more radical of the two. He purged the Committee of all opposition and conducted the execution of hundreds of remaining noble families. The house arrest of the king was the final sign on the wall of their own future if they stayed in France. In fact, each of the new months did not contain actual a€?weeksa€? but three decades of ten days each.The names of the months were also changed.
A grateful Directory rewarded Napoleon and approved his plan to build a stong military with the goal of invading Italy and Austria, Francea€™s two hated enemies--Austria because of its constant threats of invasion and Italy because of the Popea€™s constant attempts to interfere in Francea€™s politics. Instead, he convinced the Directory to allow him to invade Egypt as a first step to conquering India, as an attempt to break the financial and political empire of England which occupied both India and Egypt in its vast British Empire. The French Revolution ultimately enthroned, at one point,A  the Goddess of Reason as its central cult. Styles of dress, architecture, literature, music, theater, vocabulary, technology are all avenues through which a hegemony develops. And the French military effort under Louis XVIA  to assist the American colonists gain their independence from Great Britain virtually bankrupted France. Louis XIV established one of the first secret service agencies in Europe in order to stamp out dissent. Out of fear of a major uprising, Louis called into session the ParisA  Parlement in 1789, made up of representatives from the 13 French provinces. InA  August 1792 a battle between revolutionaries and monarchists was fought at the royal palace in Paris and the monarchy was overthrown. The event itself was turned into a major display and triumph for the Revolution.A  1,200 armed horsemen accompanied him from the prison to the place of execution, two hours away, with crowds lining the route. Diane Pinney, a dedicated breeder of Sorraia Mustangs in Oregon, mostly of Kiger extraction, can also be happy with the results her program is yielding. This was no doubt made possible by the absence of an older stallion, and because the mares were still adolescents when he first met them, and the group of youngsters matured together and formed their relationships without any outside pressures.
It offers space enough to go out of each other's way if necessary, and allows for the behavior of the horses to develop, socially and otherwise. A month later, a yearling filly left the family band by her own choice and hooked up with this band as well.
Altamiro the first-time father took an interest in the new-born foal that almost exceeded that of the first-time mother, licking it, nudging it to get up, pushing it even toward the mother if he thought it necessary. At one time, when the band had wandered off and had left a foal behind, sleeping in the tall grass, he didn't just go to pick up the foal and drive it back to the band a€“ instead, he showed some quite remarkable behavior: He chased the foal's mother back to the foal, so she fetched it, then drove both back to the group, teaching the mare a lesson! Lynne is socializing with them pretty much on a daily basis, immersing herself in the herd, enjoying being accepted as one of them, and observing how they feel, how they function, how they get along, when they go where, when they eat what, etc. Christian Pfleiderer at the chair of experimental physics E 21 of the TUM physics department receives a European grant for the research on stable magnetic vortices using neutrons.
Tobias Unruh and his team (Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU)) have demonstrated with neutrons how long-chain molecules in their liquid melt move.
A team of researchers is working on an in-situ set up to control the sample quality along time so that the data used to sum up to form a scattering curve can be selected and false data can be discarded.
The stay and the experiments he will conduct here at the research neutron source are part of the award. They use ring-shaped molecules as probes, which wrap themselves around the polymer chains and follow their lateral motion. Using neutrons, researchers have now investigated the reaction mechanism of an important class of enzymes a€“ the glycosidases. And it produced a weakened Catholic Church which rapidly lost the allegiance of the masses to the spirit of humanism and secularism. France was at war three of every five years during his reign and participated in four major European wars. Defeat at the hands of Great Britain in the Seven Years War and the humiliation of the Treaty of Paris (1763) was blamed by the nation on Louis XV.
The French hatred for the Austrians (resulting in wars under Louis XIV) and the British (Louis XV) drove France to the brink of national bankruptcy.
The situation was so dire that lenders were no longer willing to loan the French monarchy money. But by the time of the reigns of Louis XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses. Flour for bread, the sustenance of the French diet, became very scarce and drove the price of bread extremely high. It began to dawn on the more educated of the third estate that they could agitate for greater access to the government and that perhaps they could, in an organized effort, bring reforms to France. The nobility refused to consider any new taxes unless the king gave them a major share of the government. He gave them the same sales pitch for higher taxes and got from them the same negative response. This was then reformed to become the National Constituent Assembly and existed from July 1789 to September 1791.
A new government, the National Convention was declared in September which immediately declared that France was no longer a monarchy but a republic. Marie was tried by the Committee for Public Safety and accused of holding orgies at Versailles, sending funds secretly to her brother, Emperor Joseph of Austria, and even committing incest with her son, so intent was the Committee on establishing guilt worthy of execution. But after his mothera€™s execution, Louis-Charles was given to a shoemaker and his wife to oversee him in a small prison cell.
This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria and Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. Armed militia from Paris spread out into the other provinces to root out whomever they determined to be an enemy of the revolution. The instrument of death was an invention created just for this period in the Revolution, the guillotine. Earlier the Paris Cathedral had been stripped of all Christian symbols and in November 1793 a large statute of the Goddess of Reason was erected in the cathedral. It was not a popular move, however, because under the new calendar there were nine days of work separating each day of rest which occurred at the end of each decade, rather than after six days under the Christian calendar. The Rulera€™s Law of the Corsican general would merely replace the Rulera€™s Law of the Bourbon kings.
It eventually reverted back to a dictatorship under Napoleon, not very different from the a€?rule from the top downa€? of the French monarchy against which they had revolted. But by the time of the reigns of LouisA  XV and XVI, rule by terror and military might could no longer control the masses. This opened the door for a committee of twelve to take control of the government, which shrewdly called itself a€?The Committee of Public Safetya€? to give leadership in the war effort against Austria andA  Prussia as well as to bring order to the streets of Paris. The measurements were made at the neutron sources in Los Alamos and Oak Ridge (USA), as well as at the research neutron source FRM II of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). Scientists from the Department of Technical Electrochemistry and the Research Neutron Source FRM II at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now come a step closer to identifying the causes in their latest experiments. Over 30,000 priests and nuns were eventually either killed, exiled, or sent to prison in French Guiana. Those early experiences embittered him against the nobles and resulted in his building an absolute monarchy. She had a distain for French culture, refused to learn or use the French language, was highly materialistic, vain, and considered by the nobility to be a snob. Crowds in Paris stormed the prisons and executed 2,000 prisoners, including many priests, nuns, and nobility. War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government in Paris. Even former close friends and colleagues of the Committeea€™s leader, Maximillien Robespierre, were executed by the guillotine. When 32 of the Girondist leaders were imprisoned, supposedly due to fear that they would work to reinstate the monarchy, Robespierre became the undisputed leader and virtual dictator. Louis requested and was accompanied by an English priest living in France, Henry Edgeworth, who Louis requested be with him prior to his death.
War raged not only with Austria and Prussia, but a full-scale civil war was being fought against provinces in western France who rejected the radical government inA  Paris.
BrA?ckel, however, has already taken the job as MLZ director at the beginning of this year. A disease created by abuses of power and neglect of the peasants class was eating away at the inner core of the the nation.
However, he was also a man of the arts and culture, and during his reign French culture blossomed and became a hegemony throughout Europe. Furthermore, to strengthen his position militarily he had aligned France with its hated neighbor, Austria, and lost the economic benefits of a valuable alliance with Frederick the Great of Prussia. She hosted lavish parties at the palace, promoted gambling, and filled her closets with expensive clothing. The first and second estates traditionally voted in tandem, and usually against the third estate.
By 1794 The Committee went so far as to deprive those accused of being not supportive of the revolution from legal counsel and the requirement that witnesses be present to give testimony against them. While several factors led to the escalating price of bread, the government received the blame.
For this he was also called a€?the Sun Kinga€? because French language and culture dominated Europe.
I pardon the authors of my death, and pray God that the blood you are about to shed will never fall upon France.a€™ The executioners seized him, the knife struck him, his head fell at fifteen minutes after ten. Government buildings generally sought to copy the architecture of Versailles (pictured below). Donovan is earmarked to go to the Black Hills Wild Horse Sanctuary to start the Sorraia Mustang herd there. However, she was the strength in the royal marriage and was a major source of energy and direction for Louis. The Committee of Public Safety had hoped to use him as a pawn to trade to the Austrians in a prisoner exchange, as they had done earlier, with his older sister.
Sharron Scheikofsky and Dave Reynolds in South Dakota have produced a number of horses that made it into the Permanent and Foundation books of the Sorraia Mustang Studbook. All of the problems that developed within France over the previous 100 years became his when he took the throne.
Higgins, editor, The French Revolution as Told by Contemporaries, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966, pp. Sheri Olson in Cheyenne, Wymoing, has aquired stock that will give her Sorraia Mustang program a headstart.
Susan Watt from the Black Hills Wild Horse Sanctuary near Hot Springs in South Dakota is putting together a group of Sorraia Mustangs for another preservation project.
The Sanctuary will be a spectacular place to visit and see Sorraia Mustangs in a natural western setting.



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