Get online access to 5 of our best articles about choosing materials, venting, waterproofing, and installing a roof that will last a lifetime.
Learn how to install a self-adhering roof underlayment in vulnerable locations for extra protection from leaks and rot.
Get online access to 5 of our best articles about choosing materials, venting, waterproofing, and installing a roof that will las a lifetime.
RoofCalc gives you all the tools you need to estimate the quantity of shingles and other materials that you will need to complete your next roofing job.
Rats and mice cause serious damage to all kinds of structures if they are allowed access to them. In urban settings, rodents most often cause damage to older, inner-city buildings and utilities in poor repair.
Many types of land, air, and water transportation systems and their infrastructure also face serious rodent infestation problems. Rodents destroy insulation, electrical wiring, plumbing, and other structural components of buildings (Fig. Rodents also serve as vectors or reservoirs of a variety of diseases, such as salmonellosis, leptospirosis, and murine typhus, that are transmittable to humans.
Junctures where utilities (pipes, cables) enter structures require special consideration in preventing rodent entry. When inspecting sites for potential rodent entry points, look for rub marks, droppings, tracks, gnawing, or other rodent signs.
Many structures have inherently similar rodent entry areas due to similarity in design (particularly entry and service areas), utility sources, and building equipment.
Neoprene seals, spray-in-place foam, and similar products commonly used to close openings are not rodentproof. Specific problem areas include poorly sealed heating and air conditioning ducts; roof and wall vents installed without strong, well-attached hardware cloth screening (Fig.
Mice and rats are sometimes found using freezer and refrigerator compressor areas for harborage and water (from condensation on cold coils). Utility entry points include underground electrical and communication trunk lines, and exhaust vents for clothes dryers. Mice and rats often find easy access to garage areas through open doors or under and beside poor-fitting garage doors. Once a rodent gets into the attic, inside entry to the fireplace void is often easy because of poorly fitted sheeting or metal collars. Tile or shake shingle roofs allow rodent entry if the roof is not solidly sheeted with plywood or similar material and the tile is not properly fitted and grouted. Another source of entry to residences, and a source of harborage for rats and mice, are fireplacesa€”especially the newer preconstructed zero clearance sheet metal units that eliminate the need for concrete mortar and brick. Gaps or flaws in foundations and slabs, or where the wall framing meets the foundation or slab floor, may provide large enough openings for rodent entry. Overhead or underground pipes, conveyor belts, and augers commonly found in farm buildings and factories are often used as entry points and routes into and between buildings. Utility entry points must be constantly monitored for excess openings caused by equipment repair, installation, or modification. Buildings constructed with ribbed or corrugated metal siding allow rodent entry if the bottoms of the siding panels do not rest flat on a solid surface or they are not otherwise closed off.
Screens on windows, crawl spaces, and vents are often damaged in farm and industrial buildings.
One of the greatest challenges in farm buildings is preventing feed and seed from being a food source for rodents.
Excluding rodents from livestock and poultry operations is another challenge due to livestock and manure management and various animal husbandry practices.
To close larger openings or protect other areas subject to gnawing, use materials such as those listed in Table 1. Close openings around augers, pipes, and electric cables where they enter structures with Portland cement mortar, Concrete PatchA®, masonry, or metal collars (Fig. Right: Feed sheds, corn cribs, and other existing wooden structures can be rodent-proofed by installing hardware cloth topped by a band of sheet metal.
Avoid the use of slab-on grade construction techniques for agricultural buildings or bulk bin pads. If rats have gained access to crawl spaces under building floors, prevent them from getting into walls by using such modifications as illustrated in figure 16. Maintaining a clean, 3-foot-wide (1-m) weed-free area around building foundations, concrete slabs, and footings often discourages rodents from burrowing as well as eliminates a food source and attractive harborage. Feeders in livestock facilities should have flat bottoms and be designed and installed so that rodents cannot find shelter beneath or behind them. To prevent damage to perimeter insulation, use sandwich wall construction in which the insulation is placed within the concrete. Manure management systems in livestock facilities may be of a type that periodically drains manure or water from the building to a lagoon or other storage area.
The degree of a structurea€™s susceptibility to rodent infestation depends on several considerations that the architect, engineer, builder, and end-user should keep foremost in mind prior to and during construction.
Coolers and other food storage areas should be centrally located and, if possible, in sealed rooms, separate from other warehouse goods.
Earthquake safety joints can provide a route from the basement to the top floor of a building.
Double walls can best be protected near the foundation or floor area with galvanized sheet metal, hardware cloth, concrete, or other methods, as previously discussed.
Place vents on the sides of buildings at least 40 inches (1 m) above the ground level, fences, or shrubs.
In this Instructable, you will learn how to easily cut and strip heavy gauge wire, without using heavy duty or professional tools.
Have you ever seen a sidewalk poured with new concrete and watched someone finish the concrete?
You would think replacing a cracked toilet seat is easy, but nooooo, not for a one piece toilet ! Adding a heating appliance to your home can often cost more than the price of the appliance and its installation. In this instructable I will show you how to create extra space in your home for all the things you usually stumble over scattered on the floor. I have an older home, and found a Weslock door knob on one of my doors that I wanted to swap out with a locking knob made by Defiant. This instructable will teach you how to apply cool images of your choice to your electrical switchplates. A while back we had an unexpected forced kitchen remodel, a row of upper cabinets full fell off the wall one day nearly taking my wife out with it. It always frustrates me when I do a caulking or sealant job around the house to have to throw away a half used tube of caulk or silicon sealant or construction adhesive. The interior doors of my house have the original 1950's knobs - the old style with the long escutcheon plates and the knob-and-spindle doorknobs. Fluorescent lights from places like Home Depot look good and seem like a real bargain but the ballasts inside don't last. I recently moved into a new apartment and as a producer of electronic music, I wanted one of my rooms to have good acoustic properties. What do you do if you remove an old toilet and discover that the closet bolts are rusted out, there is no closet flange, and the waste line is made of terra cotta?
We were given a welder that has a big 240 volt plug, but our home doesn't have any 240V outlets already wired.
This outdated bathroom is getting fixed up, and I decided to do it myself, gaining experience and saving money. This is the finished bathroom I built a few years ago which includes a large walk-in shower. This Instructable will cover three ways to mix regular concrete, one way to mix glass-fiber-reinforced-concrete (GFRC), and instructions on performing a Slump Test to check the consistency of the concrete mix. Sign me up for free emails from Fine Homebuilding with the latest news, tips, and techniques. New housing developments may experience commensal rodent problems, but problems are more noticeable in neighborhoods 10 to 12 years of age or older. Infestations are of particular concern in the transportation of foodstuffs, feed, and other agricultural products. Additionally, they may be sources of swine dysentery, brucellosis, sarcoptic mange, and tuberculosis, all of which affect livestock or pets. Some earthquake design criteria require open spaces in important joints and other support areas, to allow for limited movement of tall structures. In areas where high rat populations exist, it is common for both roof rats and Norway rats to enter buildings through toilets and uncovered drains. Keep in mind the physical abilities and behavior of the particular rodents, especially their tendency to seek shelter behind, under, or in appliances, sinks cabinets, drawers, stored goods, wall voids, false ceilings, and other undisturbed areas. A tape measure is usually necessary when  preparing a plan and estimating materials needed for repair. Commercial buildings are constructed from types of materials and design methods that vary greatly in the degree of susceptibility to rodent infestation (for example, metal and concrete versus wood).
Even in new buildings, utility pipes, electrical conduit (often at meters or circuit breaker panels), water and gas lines, and communication cables generally have large openings that permit entry of mice and rats.
Scraps of food can often be found in floor drains, under food preparation equipment and stored products, and around refuse and entry areas.
Products in these categories should be kept in open, easily inspected areas, not in dark corners. Power lines have always been a favorite route of travel for commensal rodents, especially roof rats.
Rats occasionally enter buildings through toilet traps in inner-city areas with rat-infested sewer systems. Once in the garage, they may gain entry into the main structure along electrical lines, pipes, poorly sealed fire wall sheathing, or around furnace ducts, hot water heaters, or laundry drains.
Attics provide excellent harborage in winter, spring, and fall, but are often too hot during summer.
Entry to the inside of the fireplace is made from the damper area or cool air and warm air returns on units that provide for air circulation around the firebox. Older buildings commonly have cracked foundations, cracked plaster or mortar, warped siding, or broken and torn vent screens.
Outside walls and doors must also be monitored for damage from equipment or livestock and for damage or wear from heavy use. Sections of prefabricated buildings should be assembled tightly, and gaps at joints should be covered with metal flashing.
Steel pipes embedded in a concrete floor make good rodent-proof thresholds and allow doors to swing free when open. Gaps or flaws along building exteriors where the wall framing or siding meets the foundation provide easy entry for rodents.
The possible savings in initial construction may be quickly offset by the costs of rodent damage and control measures.Rats exert more effort to enter buildings where feed is available. The four last-mentioned products are specifically designed for repairs and have quick setting, good adhesion, and nonshrinking properties which make them ideal for exclusion work.
Where erosion of bare soil is likely, this buffer can be maintained by regular, close mowing of vegetation or by installing heavy gravel. When rats or mice are present in a building, attention must be given to interior as well as exterior rodent-proofing to remove all sources of shelter.
In occupied buildings, always trap the rodents before sealing interior walls to avoid odors, stains, and an influx of insects that feed on decaying rodent carcasses. Give special attention to storage rooms, closets, feed storage, or other areas where construction techniques may allow rodents access to walls, floor spaces, or attics. Insulation placed on the outside of a foundation wall requires protective- covering material. In such cases, a a€?floatinga€? metal cover or check valve-style closure at the open end of the discharge pipe, with a hinge at its upper edge, can be effective.
To prevent rodents from climbing or traveling along a particular route, install guards made of sheet metal or similar materials (Table 1).
Even when all of the holes are plugged, rodents seem to find a way into food storage and handling areas. Store food products in rodent-proof enclosures or on shelving at least 18 inches (46 cm), but preferably 30 inches (76 cm) or more, above the floor.

Rats typically burrow and nest under feed bunks that are placed directly on the ground or near ground level. All structures, but particularly those intended for human occupancy, should be built to be as rodent-proof as possible.
Office buildings with tight-fitting interior doors, tightly sealed wall voids and utility access areas, and no food or water sources are less attractive to rodents than food handling facilities, apartments, hospitals, and warehouses. This confines rodent exclusion to a small area and provides for better observation if problems arise. Use heavy (24-gauge or better) galvanized flashing, called a€?screed,a€? between the siding and foundation to close any openings created by warped wood or Masonite, board and batt construction, stucco, or corrugated metal siding. The Z-bar flashing is installed so that it is under the felt paper and then bends outward to overlap the roof-to-wall flashing that rests against the roof and wall in an L shape (Fig. Another method that can be used to prevent the build-up of rodent populations is the installation of permanent rodent a€?service access areasa€? around the exterior of buildings. You probably didn’t pay a lot of attention but you noticed someone down on their hands and knees with a trowel moving around the concrete surface. This is because there's no nut on the bottom side, so Kohler & others put anchors instead.
Working in my shop I realized that a window would allow me to have a breeze in the summer, and bring in sunlight in the winter.
Terrible tiles, missing wall mirrors and ugly countertops had me willing to try something different and fun, as well as cheap.
After mixing the first four cubic feet with a spade in a wheel barrow I decided I needed an easier solution.
At the local Home Depot, the only two brands of knobs that I saw were Defiant and Keystone. We had to replace them, and all the roofing companies said to do it ourselves, because its easy.Winds of 100km, the yard was a mess, garbage, shingles, toy pools, wishing wells and leaves everywhere. My husband built this mailbox in one day, although he is a 20 year masonry veteran, we believe anyone can do this with the correct tools, materials, and planning. I found a few spots where (in the bathroom) the floor joist had gotten soaked through and rotted. Just in case you do, I hope to create a foolproof guide containing all the information you need to do so. The lights come with a warranty but removing the light and returning it about once a year isn't worth the trouble. We can show you how to use diamond drilling kits made for the construction industry and used by professional installers, tilers, plumbers, builders, electricians and commercial shop fitters.
You could pay someone $$$$$ to jack hammer out half of your basement floor and connect up to the terra cotta. Taking out the sink and vanity was very difficult, so this instructable is to help any other do-it-yourself home improver's.
Since I couldn't find a great looking replacement that didn't cost a gazillion dollars, and since my fans still worked fine, I decided to just change their look.
When we moved in, the front door wouldn't open all the way; it drug the floor at about 70 degrees from full open. Ornamental plantings, accumulation of refuse, woodpiles, and other such sources of harborage and food are more quickly invaded and occupied by rodents when adjacent to an established rodent habitat. Insulation damage alone may amount to a loss of several thousand dollars in only a few years. A small dustpan, broom, and some lime, flour, or similar powdered material are useful in preparing an area for a follow-up observation of fresh tracks.
Low-profile wall vent with poorly attached hardware cloth, allowing for easy rodent entry. Most structures eventually become less rodentproof due to deterioration, alteration, or repair. Once rodents have entered walls, they generally have ready access to much of a building via holes for utility pipes and wires in the framing, and via overhead suspended ceilings or other types of construction adjacent to utility enclosures. 4b); and doors hung unevenly or too high, or lined with unprotected soft rubber weather stripping (Fig.
Area under food preparation equipment is raised above a smooth stainless steel floor, allowing for easy cleaning of food spills and open to prevent harborage. Outside doors are often left ajar or fit poorly due to heavy use, physical damage, or improper installation. Look closely at corners and edges of metal, or other material covering the insulation, for rodent openings. Regular and routine removal of such nonsalable or nonusable products should be standard practice to enhance cleanliness and safety and to reduce harborage.
Check all roof joints for tightness and presence of flashing, if rats and mice have access to the roof via wire, pipes, plants, or rough-textured walls.
Common attics, basements, or raised foundations in condominiums and apartments are a frequent source of rodent infestation. Poorly installed light-gauge roof vent, allowing easy access of rodents between roofing and base of vent. Wood or masonite siding is especially vulnerable to warping and cracking near corners and around the base of the building. Rodent barrier or guard used between steps, foundation, or other sources of rodent entry and the loading dock doors when doors must be left open at night. If work patterns require doors to be open during hours of darkness, when rodent entry is most likely, rodent barriers may be needed, such as a solid fence or wall or a metal wing wall between the foundation and adjacent loading dock areas (Fig. Many of the entry points already identified for other types of structures apply to farm buildings. Design or modify buildings with metal siding by butting siding panels or sheets against solid materials (metal flashing or concrete) so the openings are not present (Fig. Seal gaps or holes with rodent-proof materials where pipes, wires, or other similar objects enter buildings.
Metal siding may provide entry points for mice and rats where panel ends are left open (left). Pipe thresholds are especially useful where doorways are used by wheeled pallet jacks, heavy equipment, or livestock.
Left: A curtain wall made of concrete will prevent rats from burrowing under foundations to gain entry to buildings. Such openings can be prevented by well-formed and finished concrete work and installation of tight wall framing and siding, or installing metal screed-type flashing between the siding and the foundation. They frequently seek shelter under concrete floors and slabs, where they burrow to find protection.
Each, however, is made for a specific application: Pour StoneA® and RockiteA® are designed to be easily poured into cracks in floors or into holes to anchor bolts or machinery, and set hard in 15 minutes.
A combination of actions is required in such instances, as no single effort is likely to yield the desired result. Perimeter insulation placed on the outside of a foundation, curtain, or stem wall must be protected to prevent rodent damage. Use traps to remove the rodents, or place poison bait packets through openings in the floor or wall and then seal the openings with galvanized metal or hardware cloth and patching plaster as previously discussed. Stacks of wood and other stored items should be 18 inches (46 cm) above the floor and 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm) away from walls to allow for proper cleaning and inspection.
Suitable materials include cement board, high density fiberglass-reinforced plastics, troweled-on coatings such as Block BondA®, or SurewallA®. Guards can be used to prevent rats from climbing augers, pipes, or wires leading to buildings. The hinge must operate easily so that the cover will open when water or manure flows out but will fall back into place when the flow stops in a manner similar to a tide gate used on drains in coastal areas.
Guards must be wide enough and positioned to keep rodents from reaching their outer margins by climbing or jumping. Tubular supports (legs) for shelving should be a minimum of 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter to prevent rats from shinnying up from the floor.Keep all damaged goods and returns, as well as refuse, in a separate rodent-proof room. Properly designed concrete bunks that sit tightly on a concrete base eliminate rodent habitat. One consideration is the current and historical level of rodent problems in the general area of the construction site. Chimney with metal stack, heavy screen (animal excluder and spark arrestor), and tight roof to wall and Z-bar flashing joints.
Pallets commonly used in warehouses provide good harborage for rodents and should be rotated regularly. Even the clutter of machinery, parts, and nonfood stored goods may attract rodents as harborage if food and water are nearby.
Installation of fireplaces, especially zero clearance sheet metal types, poses a challenge when sealing the wall void created around and above the firebox to the roof. Tile and shake shingle roofs require the use of double jacks, one rigid and the other often soft or flexible. These cupboard- type areas can be built at ground level into walls or foundations near loading docks, trash areas, near utility service panels, corners, or rear alleys. This one is a good sample, when I need to crimp a CAT5 network cable in a Bank here in Brazil, but I haven't my crimper tool with me. Enough to squeeze by it, and you could force it all the way open, but it was rubbing the floor pretty good. Designing and constructing a rodent-proof building is less expensive than adding rodent-proofing later.
Heating, air conditioning, plumbing, electrical service, and fire sprinklers provide some of the most commonly encountered rodent entry points. Space under equipment (mixers, stoves, counters, or refrigerators) should allow easy cleaning and inspection, or be closed off completely with rodent-proof materials (Fig.
Also check roof and sewer vents for adequate screening and sealing, including presence of tight roof jacks (Fig. If the outside cannot be sealed, glass doors that seal the burn area are recommended to prevent rodent entry throughout the year. Old, unused holes where utilities formerly entered the structure are also common, especially in raised foundation and basement homes. Additional problem areas include insulated walls used for harborage, feed bins, and portable feed bunks. Hardware cloth used to cover gaps and holes can be filled with foam caulk, Fix-allA®, Quick-FixA®, or other fast-drying interior patching compounds.
Such screening is criticalin commercial and farm buildings and where high rodent pressures in residential areas are found. Install flashing or a metal channel on the lower edge of doors, particularly softwood doors (Fig. In old buildings, galvanized sheet metal (a) may be cut to fit and nailed into place between studs, joists, floor, and sill; in buildings under construction, noncombustible stops of good quality concrete (b) or bricks (c) are recommended.
Use of rodent-proof exterior surface materials such as concrete, plaster, or metal sheeting is also effective if properly installed so that all ribs or corrugations are closed. Concrete PatchA® is a mortartype material for repairing masonry surfaces and has a vinyl polymer to increase adhesion.
Warehouse stock should always be stacked off the floor on pallets and away from walls, and it should be rotated often to prevent development of infestations in undisturbed areas. In such situations, metal flashing should be used to prevent the potential for entry routes for subterranean termites. If the protective layer ends less than 36 inches (91 cm) below grade, add a horizontal ledge that extends outward at least 1 foot (30 cm). Footings or foundations for grain bins should extend into the ground to prevent rat burrowing.
Dock areas may need guards to keep rodents from jumping or climbing from foundations, pipes, steps, or rough exterior wall surfaces, and from infesting trucks or rail cars transporting goods. Though cattle traffic may discourage burrowing under the concrete slab, a foundation may be needed to prevent burrowing around the sides of the slab that do not receive heavy cattle use.
Food is often available to rodents around homes, kennels, and poultry and livestock feed storage areas because feed is kept in plastic or wood storage bins or hoppers. A project that is in an inner-city redevelopment area with a known history of rodent problems warrants more attention to rodent exclusion than a project in a new urban fringe area with little or no history of problems. This area must be solidly sheeted with sheet rock or dry wall, and a metal collar called a draft stop must be used at the ceiling and roof lines.
Roofs and eaves often have openings large enough for raccoons and pigeons, as well as for small rodents to enter.

The solid jack is installed over one layer of roofing felt and the sheeting or other substrate, and an overlapping piece of felt is then layered over the jack. The stations should be large enough to contain an automatic multiple-capture mouse trap (Ketch- AllTM or Tin CatTM) and a bait station containing toxic baits.
They're vented to the outside air in the summer (and in the winter if you neglect to close your vents) which can be very humid and this defeats the purpose of venting.
Rodent-induced fires from damaged electrical wiring or nest building in electrical panels cause loss of property and threaten human safety.
Nevertheless, poor maintenance or management practices, such as leaving entry doors and unscreened windows open, will make the best constructed building susceptible to rodent entry. Food disposal, refuse, and damaged goods areas are often located close to food handling or storage areas and are not sealed from rodents. This route usually occurs in older (20 years or more) established areas with poorly maintained sewer systems. Cracked and missing mortar, or poorly fitted siding or plaster, may allow entry through brick or rock fireplaces.
Window screens are often left off or fit poorly in older, low-cost apartments and homes, allowing rodent entry from exterior utility lines and pipes running along exterior walls. Rats and mice can easily climb up the space between the door and the inner wall or track to the top, where they gain entry and climb down the inside of the track. When given a rough surface or an edge to bite into, however, they can quickly gnaw into most materials.
When used on the exterior, concrete mortar, plaster, or Concrete PatchA® can be used to provide longerterm rodent-proofing (Fig. Caution: letting metal siding rest directly against concrete can lead to accelerated rusting and corrosion. For large openings or where the screen may be subject to abuse, add crossbars to support the hardware cloth.
13); a plastic door boot has been successfully used where the door receives low use and the edges are not easily accessible to rodent gnawing.
Rodents can gain entry into buildings with piers or shallow foundation walls by burrowing beneath the floor or foundation.
Rodents often gnaw into wall materials at corners or where joints in construction materials provide an edge. All top edges and corners must also be protected with a close-fitting heavy-gauge metal flashing (Fig.
A better method is to extend discharge pipes far enough over the bank or into the lagoon to prevent rodents from jumping or crawling into the open end.
These hidden holes are often below sinks, behind equipment, in false or suspended ceilings, and behind or under cupboards.
All outside doors should be self-closing, have heavy kickplates, and be checked periodically for excessive gaps. Concrete slabs on which feed bins are placed should have foundations extending 36 inches (91 cm) into the soil at the outer edge to prevent rats from burrowing under the slab. These storage containers are frequently open at the top, or may be gnawed through the sides. They are available through building supply stores or can be easily cut from 24-gauge (or heavier) galvanized sheet metal.
Many of these problems in single-family residences and apartments seem to occur where roof lines change angles or elevations, leaving an area under the eaves that is hard to fit with siding. Techniques discussed here apply both to new construction and to the modification of existing structures.
In older buildings, cracks in concrete slabs, brick and concrete block walls, or worn or damaged drain covers allow rodent entry.
Mice often enter under entry doors, through holes beside water pipes and electrical conduit, and through the cold air return ducts on forced air furnaces, especially those located in outside cabinets or garages, and underneath mobile homes. Runways going to window ledges are often observed on stucco and brick walls and in ornamental plantings next to buildings. Gaps between the track and the wall are also common, especially if the track has been installed on brick walls. To prevent rat entry by this route, extend foundation walls below ground at least 36 inches (91 cm).
Quick-FixA® is a durable patching plaster for inside use on plaster, drywall, or wood surfaces. Poor construction techniques may allow rodents to gain access through materials that are otherwise considered rodent-proof. If the sewer system is known to be rat-infested, a a€?Rat Guarda€? one way flap valve may be placed in toilets (Fig.
Rodent guards should be at least 14 inches (36 cm) but preferably 18 inches (46 cm) wide (Fig. Once in an environment having all the basic needs, rodents quickly establish viable populations.
In warehouses and storage situations, centralize highly susceptible foodstuffs into areas that can be securely rodent-proofed and closely monitored. Installing heavy gravel and maintaining a clean, weed-free zone around the perimeter of the slab will also discourage rat burrowing and permit easier detection of rat activity. Infestations at these times are common and sometimes even include larger animals such as skunks and opossums. It is also imperative that good, tight Z-bar and roof-to-wall pan flashing is properly installed around the outside of the chimney. Problems are especially common where the proper roof-to-wall and Z-bar flashing are not tightly cut and installed during initial construction.
Steel wool, copper gauze (Stuf-itA® brand) or  screen wire packed tightly into openings is a good temporary plug. If the siding is installed with the ribs horizontal, the ends must still be sealed or the bottom of the decorative corner trim flashed and closed. Close the gap at the top or sides of roll-up doors with conveyor belt material shaped to fit into the side channel frames and mounted on the top door jamb. Though wire mesh costs considerably less than concrete, its usefulness generally lasts only 5 to 10 years. The solution is to eliminate harborage and exclude rodents from food and water sources inside the building. These areas should also have rodent bait stations and multiple-capture mouse traps permanently installed around the perimeter.
A metal cap and secure heavy mesh screen should be installed to prevent bird or small mammal entry (Fig.
Shingle or tile roofs are sometimes a problem when they butt up against a wall or around roof vents and at roof edges. Many manufacturers are using non-galvanized hardware cloth or light screen wire, and others are simply shaping the wire into place with no fastening method used or using light spot-welding spaced too far apart, allowing the screen to be pushed away from the housing of the vent. When rigid metal is used for the upper (second) jack, gaps left between the tile and the metal should be grouted to prevent rodent or bird entry or nesting.
For additional information on the control of commensal rodents, see the chapters House Mice, Norway Rats, and Roof Rats. For long-term or permanent repair, mix a quick-drying patching plaster or anchoring such as FixallA® into a wad of Stuf-itA® before pushing the material into the hole, and smooth over the outside (Fig. A horizontal footing extension also may be added to deflect burrowing rodents away from the foundation (Fig.
With all of these types of repairs, the use of reinforcement with hardware cloth is usually needed on vertical or overhead horizontal surfaces to add strength and provide the necessary backing.
Placing insulation on the exterior of foundation walls subjects it to mechanical damage as well as infestation and destruction by rodents. All equipment such as large refrigerators, freezers, counters, dishwashers, and sanitizers should be raised and easily movable, enabling cleaning underneath and behind them.
Tile and shingles are less of a problem if solid sheathing underlies the roofing material and adjacent walls have properly installed metal flashing. I bark 4 u,I bark for you,better buys topsoil gravel and bark,better buy sand and gravel,gravel for paver blocks,sand for paver blocks,patio,patio installation,need help,looking for,pnone orders, text message orders, email orders,playground,ponds,playhouses,quarry,screened,opinions,second opinion,screened dirt,screened bark,screened compost,screened pit run,J.D. In some applications, power vents can be covered with hinged metal plates (louvered) that open with air flow and close when fans are off. Concrete damage due to inadequate reinforcement or poor placement practices should be repaired or the concrete replaced. Smoke producing leak detectors are often used by agencies checking sewer lines for leaks or openings. Used in combination with hardware cloth or other suitable material, they can make  a building essentially rodent-proof. Proper storage and disposal of household garbage and dead animals is a very important part of rat control. A viable alternative is to utilize a smooth-surfaced decorative band 14 to 18 inches (35 to 46 cm) wide around the structure above the rodent access height, in order to prevent rodents from climbing up exterior walls. Tile on roofs must be well placed to avoid gaps and the ends should all be sealed with pre-shaped metal (commonly called a€?bird stop,a€? Fig. This can easily be accomplished on roofs with smooth sheet metal raised 40 inches (1 m) or higher, constructed in a manner to avoid rough edge ribs or other surfaces that rodents can climb. These louvers are only effective if they fit tightly and the sides are recessed to prevent rodents from pushing through them. Otherwise, provide an effective temporary rodent-proof protective overlay until the concrete is fully cured.
These modifications are essential on pumping plants, water treatment facilities, power stations, and communications facilities. Openings are commonly seen in new stainless-steel work counters in supports under the work surface, or in areas provided for drains.
Bulk dumpsters are often left with the tops open, or the tops are badly bent, allowing rodent entry. Tightly rodent-proof sewer, electrical, communication, water, and natural gas services, as well as exterior doors and windows. They have also been used to make corn cribs, barns, and other older buildings in current use rat- and mouse-proof.
Loading docks should have exclusion devices, automatic door-closing devices, and good construction materials that preclude rodent climbing and entry. Delivered to Bellevue, Redmond, Kirkland, Sammamish, Issaquah, North Bend, New Castle, Renton, Maple Valley, Seattle, West Seattle, King County, Snohomish, Pierce.
In buildings where ventilation is already marginally adequate or inadequate, such further restrictions may be unacceptable. Equip doorways used for ventilation with rodent-proof screen doors, or if the door surface is too slick for rodents to climb, modify the existing door so the upper half can be left open for ventilation.
Stairs to the dock area should have a tight-fitting personnel door far enough from the dock that rodents cannot jump from stairs to the dock.
Always use a heavy kick plate and solid frame on screen doors in commercial and agricultural buildings.
Flat guards have been used to prevent rodents from traveling along horizontal or vertical pipes or electric wires (Fig.
Spilled refuse and juices from crushed contents often create rodent problems under and behind compactors and bulk dumpsters.
Dock bumper pads should be high enough (30 to 36 inches; [76 to 92 cm]) to avoid being used as steps by rodents. Inc.), a 6 x 6-inch (15 x 15-cm) sheet metal patch to cover holes up to 5 x 5 inches (11 x 11 cm).
Cones or discs act as rodent guards on suspended cables, rain gutter downspouts, conduit, ropes, augers, or pipes (Fig.
It has a self-adhesive backing and a mesh on the surface for better adhesion of the patching compound or other texture. They are constructed of 24- gauge metal and anchored in place by one or more arms on the side opposite to that accessible to rats.

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Comments to «Shed foundation drainage quebec»

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