To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today.
To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands.
I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful.
It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book.
8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe. Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position.
Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded. Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation.
Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people.
When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them. The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers.
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America.
As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value. Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter.
Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship. When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome!
The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow.
Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts.


In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods.
When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy. That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area. Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath.
Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed. Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth.
According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense.
In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for.
In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem.
Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem. Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem.
Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth.
Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time. Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615. The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard. When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe. The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership.
Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip. The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war.


Volunteer monitoring began at Bitter Lake in the 1980s and continued from 1997 through 2008 when it was discontinued. This bathymetric map shows contour lines of equal depth, similar to a topographic map would for mountains and valleys. At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations.
She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. During his time at Wests John went from a speedy, hard running and tackling winger into a very hard running, ferocious tackling Test playing second rower.But let us not get to far ahead of ourselves a€¦a€¦John was born at Kempsey (not Casino) on the 1-3-1947.
The collected data indicated this city lake (Seattle) was nearly colorfree and moderate in primary productivity (mesotrophic), with good water quality, and that it remained stable over time with no significant trends found.
Generally speaking, the larger a watershed is relative to a lake, the greater the influence land use practices on lake water quality. She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself.
Thermal stratification appeared stable through the summer, and sedimentary phosphorus release added to deep water concentrations. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios were occasionally below 20:1, which generally favored algae other than bluegreens. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement.
Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry. Bluegreen species were occasionally present, but never common.Bitter Lake has no public access boat ramp, but car top boats can be launched through the city park. Residents should monitor aquatic plants growing nearshore to catch early infestations of Eurasian milfoil, Brazilian elodea, or other noxious aquatic weeds. John was also playing rep football Group v Group.A 1965 A  Johna€™s life was about to change forever.
Eric organized for Billy Owens and Noel Kelly to visit and chat to John about playing for Wests in Sydney. He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors. He was told that he should play Rugby Union to beat the transfer fee that Smithtown might put on him.The story was if you played RU for 1 year you could move over to League and not incur a transfer fee. One of Johna€™s flatmates was trying out for Easts Rugby League and told John to come along and try out for Easts.John met with Roy Flynn, the Easts treasurer at the time and the conversation went like thisa€¦a€?No chance, bring him back when he grows up!!!a€? John had just turned 18.
This chat stayed with John and he always played that little bit harder when Wests played Easts.John, without a car, arrived at Ashfield park via public transport and trained with Wests. I cana€™t find out the score but John tells me the Water Board boys won.A A The main event.
One team, drawn out of a hat, would have the luxury of playing the winner of the first playoff match. One night Ned arrived to find me asleep on a park bench with a newspaper over my head and I was christened Sleepy which over time was turned into Snoozer.a€?A Below is a story about Johns life now at South West Rocks.
A A Ita€™s a bumpy, dusty drive beside the Macleay River just south of South West Rocks (home to Smoky Cape Lighthouse and a prison with a killer view, Trial Bay Gaol) to get to the big blue shed at Rainbow Reach, with potholes so deep you could fish in them a€“ but the drive is worth it.
John Elfords oysters explode in your mouth, salty and creamy, with a lingering mineral aftertaste.Hea€™s been oyster farming here for a dozen years, is passionate about his product and the river he works and lives by, and reckons he wouldna€™t want to do anything else. As aA  Wests fan in the 1960a€™s and 70a€™s John a€?Snoozera€? Elford was a player I would love to watch play. About Us Contact Us A Tribute to Ben Fisher and Jack Thompson Bill Keato the Lad from Liverpool Old Newspaper stories and photos from the 1960's VALE Laurie Bruyeres VALE Nev Charlton.
VALE Bill Keato VALE Vince Karalius VALE Bob McGuiness VALE Denis Meaney VALE Johnny Mowbray Vale Kel O'Shea Vale Mark "Snow" Patch VALE Bob Sargent Vale Ken "Nebo" Stonestreet. VALE Doug Walkaden 1966 Season 1967 Season 1968 Season 1969 Season Noel's Dream Team What a game Wests Photos from the Old Days Case of the Missing Goal Posts A Visit to Old Pratten Park Peter Dimond Book Launch Interview with ------ Noel Kelly Interview with ------ Tony Ford Interview with------- Mick Alchin Interview with Jim Cody Interview with ------ Colin Lewis Interview with ------ John Mowbray Interview with ------ Noel Thornton Interview with ------- Bill Owens Interview with John "Chow" Hayes Arncliffe Scots 1969 Un-Defeated Premiers Arncliffe Scots 85 years reunion 2003 Pratten Park Reunion 2007 Pratten Park Reunion 2008 Pratten Park Reunion 2009 Pratten Park Reunion 2010 Pratten Park Reunion 2011 Pratten Park Reunion 2012 Pratten Park Reunion 2013 Pratten Park Reunion.



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