Finally got around to finishing this up and am putting it to good use today.Bought a clock from Aldi for a few quid, tore the guts out and used it for the body. For all we know, Peugeot's upcoming 208 GTI may yet turn out to be a worthy successor to the 205 GTI. Get some proper wheels and you're awayAn outfit I used to work for gave 1.6 GTIs to its staff photographers. Whoever said 'the camera never lies' obviously had little experience of the internet, but this '91 specimen looks like a well cared for car that's had all the right mechanical attention in the last 12 years from an owner who clearly knows his XU engines. As we speak, Peugeot has just received what can only be described as a 7bn euro bung from the beleaguered French government in exchange for not closing one of its factories. Sorry all, my fault, I was all excited about the £550 one till I realised it was SORN'd and therefore ineligible, forgot to switch the ad copy to the grey fella. Also, several of the species listed are not valid but junior synomyms of other of the listed species, like D, platycentrus belongs to D. Could have got them if they washed up, or if the bone bed was a chaotic mess of critters chased in by a fire, could be the sharks just got churned into a misleading position. There is a third smaller wire with a seperate connector which i assume is for attaching to a motherboard so you can monitor output.I'm no electronics wiz, so I wanted a simple way of wiring a basic on off switch as well as an 'in' for a 12v DC adaptorwow! All the gubbins with the fan is wired up and working and with the help of the Dremel are securely fitted. The jury's definitely out on that one, but the gavel of doom was banged long ago on PSA's last two pretenders, whose main achievement was to stoke up fond memories of a much-missed car - and to ramp up their values. Or save yourself the bother by accepting a simple truth, which is that both GTIs were brilliant in their own ways. Seems a mad choice now, and the accountant back then certainly thought so, but one thing's for sure; you never saw happier company car drivers. With just over 100K miles up, the next owner would be well within their rights to expect at least another 50K of fun. Thanks to GranCab for stepping in with the right one, normal service will be resumed as soon as possible. I always remember the white one of the two, had cotton buds strategically places all over the dash, to hide squeaking! This is not a study on Dimetrodon in particular, but it analizes its whole environment, which mostly consisted in shallow and brackish water.
The principal reason I thought Dimetrodon was a semiaquatic predator is the fact that it preyed on xenacanthus.
Due to its incomplete nature, assessment of the taxon’s systematic position within a cladistic analysis had never been performed.
Chia, Brisbane, Australia, February 2015BACKGROUNDThe tiny house movement arose in the USA after many people lost their houses in the wake of the subprime mortgage scam.
I remember one trip a snapper and I made to St Moritz, carried out at silly speeds in pea-souper January fog, but despite the car's reputation for off-throttle twitchiness, neither of us ever felt insecure behind the wheel. Sure, the odd bits of plastic will fall off, you'll want to check the rear suspension before buying and the usual corrosion checks will apply as they do to any 20-year-old French car. This means you are limited to certain areas of the board and there are some features you can't use. Paleontologists have unearthed a nearly complete fossil of a dimetrodon, a reptile-like predator that roamed the Permian landscape 287 million years ago. At page 104, figure 49, there is a reconstruction of the trophic web of Lower Permian small lakes in Texas and Oklahoma.
It has long been thought that the transition to nocturnality occurred at about the same time as mammals evolved, around 200 million years ago. However, recent recognition of the phylogenetic utility of tooth characters in sphenacodontids now allows for a modern phylogenetic evaluation of B. My motivation for designing an off-grid passive-solar tiny house on wheels arose from various frustrating delays and impediments experienced when trying to obtain council approval for a cottage, particularly with respect to the composting toilet system. The DPDT will have 6 contacts, but it will do the job, if you just wire 2 of the pins (a middle pin, and one of the end pins on the same side). That'll have to wait though, as I needed a starter to get my yeast kicking ready for my latest mead (as the first pitch never woke up).Here's hoping that this one has more luck! That was down to the delicate balance of the car, feelsome steering, a friendly gearbox and the snap of the light-flywheeled 115hp engine, all of it underlaid by the GTI's uniquely metallic exhaust note. But if all that passes muster, and the interior is as clean as the exterior, your only job will be to think about replacing those aftermarket alloys with some correct pepperpots. In the meantime, let's celebrate an accessible classic which for many will always sit in the shadow of the 1.9, but which arguably comes closer to the definition of 'peppy' than just about any other car. I used to love the spluttery idle and the way it gathered revs as quick as you could flex your ankle.On many a Sunday afternoon jousts, the 205 had more than enough pace to sit with my Sunny. If you join our community, you'll be able to access member-only sections, and use many member-only features such as customizing your profile and voting in polls.
Other reasons people may choose a tiny house may be affordability, short build duration and transportability.
The conventional wisdom has always been that they were active during the day (or diurnal), but we never had hard evidence to say that this was definitely the case," says Kenneth Angielczyk, a curator at The Field Museum.
Personal involvement with the build enables future ease of maintenance by the owner whether it be electrical (which anyone can perform with a low voltage DC system1), plumbing or structural repairs. Gas connections however must be done by certified gas fitters.This particular design arose from my views regarding the drawbacks of living aboard a boat or a standard caravan, while also adopting some of the space saving innovations of such mobile dwellings.
The first dimetrodon fossils were discovered in the late 1800s, but the new find is the most complete skeleton of the species found in 100 years, said Robert Bakker, HMNS curator of paleontology and the director of the dig that uncovered the fossil. Living mammals lack scleral ossicles, but they were present in many of their ancient synapsid relatives.
Allowable length of the trailer is apparently up to 12.5 metres, however that is far longer than is needed in practice, a trailer base length of less than 8 metres being sufficient for most folks2. As Bathygnathus has priority over Dimetrodon in the scientific literature, we suggest a reversal of precedence is required to preserve the familiar name Dimetrodon and to maintain universality, thus recognizing the new species Dimetrodon borealis.Dimetrodon borealis fossil shows a close up of a tooth with serrations (tiny bumps along the edges of the teeth).
However, by scouring museum collections in the United States and South Africa, and with help from other paleontologists, Angielczyk and Schmitz were able to collect data on scleral ossicles from 24 species that represent most major groups of synapsids. 8 metres (or even 7 metres, depending on materials used for construction) may be the longest practical trailer base, without having to resort to a Mack truck. The synapsid data were then compared to a large dataset of similar measurements for living lizards and birds that have known daily activity patterns, using a statistical technique developed by Schmitz.The technique revealed that the eyes of ancient synapsid species likely spanned a wide range of light sensitivities, with some consistent with activity under bright conditions during the day and others having eyes best suited to low-light conditions at night.
Of particular interest was the fact that the oldest synapsids in the dataset, including the famous sail-backed carnivore Dimetrodon, were found to have eye dimensions consistent with activity at night.
For countries with traffic on the right, presumably their regulation will require at least one door on the right hand side or at the rear of the structure.This is not just an article about a type of house. Based on the ages of the rocks in which these fossils are found, the results indicate that nocturnality had evolved in at least some synapsids by about 300 million years ago, or 100 million years earlier than the age of the first mammals. Also, the combination of denticles on the mesial and distal carinae and elongate tooth roots lacking plicidentine are only known in D. It describes the special components which make up the house and the (trivial) lifestyle modifications required to drastically reduce one’s ecofootprint. David Temple, the associate curator of paleontology at the Houston museum, was digging a drainage ditch in the fossil site when he came across the dimetrodon's jaw, full of steak-knife teeth.
For those who purchase the building materials (rather than salvage offcuts from building sites) the upfront cost may seem a little high, however never having to pay utility bills will result in huge lifetime savings3.
More importantly, if and when the central utilities fail, you will be living comfortably while others are suffering.Freedom from a mortgage. In the context of Sphenacodontidae, we identify the large facial exposure of the septomaxilla in ANSP 9524 as an autapomorphy of B. This article promotes ongoing use of (low energy) electronic gadgets and electrical appliances for as long as we are able. The owner of the ranch where Willi was found has visited the fossil a half-dozen times, as have the cattlemen who run cattle on the property, Bakker said. Given the lack of other cranial or postcranial material from PEI, and the geographic and temporal separation between B.


However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. If everyone in the rich world had vigorously pursued this principle twenty years ago (combined with reducing the rate of human reproduction) we would not be headed for global catastrophe now4. The sail, which may have been supplied with numerous blood vessels, may have been used to regulate body temperature; the extra surface area provided by the sail may have allowed the animal to warm up or cool off more rapidly than without a sail. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. This adaptation might have been important because it would have given the animal a head start over its prey in the morning, thus providing more time to hunt cooler, slower prey. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal activity was not an innovation unique to mammals but a character that appeared much earlier in synapsid history, possibly several times independently. The sail may also have been used as a display in mating rituals and to warn off other predators. The 24 Carboniferous to Jurassic non-mammalian synapsid species in our sample featured eye morphologies consistent with all major diel activity patterns, with examples of nocturnality as old as the Late Carboniferous (ca 300 Ma). It does involve some degree of lifestyle modification, however as will be shown, there need be no reduction in your quality of life, particularly as we are now able to access brilliant technology such as high output LED lights, photovoltaic panels (which have markedly fallen in price) and evacuated tube solar hot water heaters. Carnivores such as Sphenacodon ferox and Dimetrodon milleri, but also the herbivorous cynodont Tritylodon longaevus were likely nocturnal, whereas most of the anomodont herbivores are reconstructed as diurnal.
Furthermore living in a small space is immensely liberating because it forces you to dispose of all non-essential crap in your life so you are no longer a slave to your possessions.
With the addition of the first Canadian species, this increases the total number of recognized species of Dimetrodon to 13 (Brink and Reisz 2012).The recognition of Dimetrodon on PEI is not unexpected, given the paleogeographical location of PEI in the Early Permian (Brink et al.
Having said that, storage space in the tiny house is limited, hence it is expected you should also have a large external community lockup shed (at least the size of a triple garage) which may also serve as a workshop, a meeting place, a place out of the rain for your clotheslines and a storage place for boxed items (winter bedding, valued books, long term food stores, gardening tools etc).
Whereas reptiles hardly chew their food - they mostly gulp it down - synapsids like Dimetrodon developed teeth to help shear meat into smaller pieces for easier digestion.
All major Early Permian terrestrial fossil bearing localities, such as the ‘four corner’ states and Texas in the USA (Olson and Vaughn 1970) and the Bromacker quarry in Germany (Martens et al. 2005) are situated around the Early Permian paleoequator, and all share a similar paleofauna, including temnospondyls, diadectids, parareptiles, and other synapsids (Brink et al.
You may wish to intermittently refer back to them as you continue reading, to better understand the ideas being described. The presence of Seymouria and Dimetrodon suggests a close affinity between the Orby Head Formation of PEI and the Arroyo Formation of Texas (Brink et al.
I have invented none of the items described here but have merely put things together in a package I deem most logical, efficient and suitable for my purposes. Readers are welcome to adopt any or all the ideas here for their personal use for free, but obviously need to conduct their own research and due diligence. This is completely untrue with regard to the modern well designed urine separating composting toilet.
Re-evaluation of the Historic Canadian fossil Bathygnathus borealis from the Early Permian of Prince Edward Island.
Old designs which mix urine and faeces in one chamber generate foul smelling pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, due to decomposition in an unaerated, liquid medium with a low carbon and high nitrogen mix (this can be useful if the intent is to harvest methane in a biodigester, but that is beyond the scope of this article).
Immediately after deposition, the mixture is churned by a turning handle, then sawdust or wood shavings (preferably mixed with wood ash to reduce clumping and to aid smell neutralisation) are sprinkled on top, to seal off smells and increase the carbon content. Continuous exhaust ventilation by an ultralow energy (computer type) fan promotes aeration and expulsion of odour to the exterior.
On the rare occasion odour occurs, this can be abolished by sprinkling sugar in the bottle. When the tiny house is permanently sited, the urine tube can be connected directly to the gray water piping for immediate drainage to the exterior, perhaps to a gravel bed. Ideally however gray water should be biologically processed in a reed bed then used to irrigate plants.
Urine, being nitrogen and phosphate rich, is an immensely valuable fertiliser and should not be wasted.High volume use is not a problem. Even though the solids bin looks small it has ample capacity for continous use by a couple, especially because no liquid is stored within and the faeces compacts down as it decomposes. Bin 1 is covered by a lid with a vent and is put aside (outside the tiny house, say, in the shed) to quietly continue composting,. If bin 2 fills up after a couple of months but bin 1 has not completed its composting duration (at least a year) then waste from bin 1 (now quite innocous with an earthy consistency and odour), is tranfered to a heavy duty rip-proof waterproof bag and allowed to continue composting. Composted waste more than a year old can be used to fertilise plants eg fruit trees but never applied directly to edible crops eg the veggie patch. The only limitation to the volume of usage is the number of heavy duty bags available (high quality bags must be obtained which can be reused).Being a non-flush toilet, fresh water savings are immense.
In the case of a urine separating composting toilet, if flecks of faeces fall on the rim of the solids aperture, they are easily dispatched by a spray of fresh water with a water pistol, no more than 100ml per use. Some amount of fresh water in the solids bin is helpful to enable a slightly moist environment for biodegradation.Warming the solids bin. This last point is one I am personally addressing by a method not mentioned by the toilet manufacturers nor councils as far as I am aware. Some systems (eg certain SunMar models) use electrical heating elements which may consume 100 Watts, a huge drain on one’s precious electrical resource and completely unviable for the offgrid low energy system. One way to overcome this is to configure your toilet cubicle such that the solids bin is directly heated by the sun’s rays through a large double glazed window. This mandates that the cubicle be sited on the North side of your tiny house in the Southern hemisphere (South side if you live in the Northern hemisphere).
When parked long term, weight should be taken off the tyres by placing multiple jackstands under the chassis.
If the wheels are removed, Council will regard it as a fixed dwelling, subject to all Council regulations and approvals, hence leave the wheels on.
Footings can be concreted into the ground near the corners, with anchor points to chain the chassis down and render the structure cyclone resistant.Sited on a fixed location, the design can and should incorporate solar principles.
Orientation of the broadside of the house toward the sun is key, North facing if you live in the Southern hemisphere and South facing if you live in the Northern hemisphere. Hence my design will have to be laterally inverted for Northerners (unless you like the evening rather than morning sun in your lounge).It is important to have a tree free margin around the home for many reasons. Shading will defeat the aims of passive solar heating6 and reduce insolation for your PV panels and evacuated tube array. Leaves falling on your roof and sliding into your gutter may clog your rainwater collection system and promote bacterial contamination. Perhaps most crucial of all in the Australian context, nearby trees may pose a high risk of bushfire damage in the summer.The three main aspects of passive solar heating are high insulation, large double glazed windows and thermal mass within the house. Extreme passive solar house designs in Scandinavia and Canada demand near airtight sealing to prevent hot air escaping and cold air entering – which will result in suffocation unless there is also heat recovery ventilation (which requires energy). We will not delve into such an extreme design here.Traditional passive solar houses have depended on concrete floor slabs for thermal mass, which is obviously not feasible for a mobile house on a chassis with limited weight capacity.
Furthermore, copious use of concrete, with its high embodied energy and carbon emissions during manufacture, may be anathema to the readers of this article. The thermal mass used in this design takes the form of water contained within the internal tanks of the house. Any of you who have a greenhouse with a huge tub of water sitting in the centre will appreciate this feature. Optimally the water tanks will be made of stainless steel (rather than, say, fibreglass) and painted matt black to facilitate rapid transfer of heat to and from the air of the cabin. The lounge seats will be located over the tanks but no weight will be borne on top of the tanks. The market for such appliances is however much smaller than the mains voltage AC appliance market and you will still need a pure sine wave inverter (rated at, say, 3kW) to intermittently power certain other appliances eg washing machine, home theatre system etc. Use of portable electronic devices (smart phone, tablet and laptop computer ? which, with a USB tuner can double as a TV) is encouraged as they consume little energy. Even though inverters these days are fairly reliable with good longevity, the central inverter powering everything does represent a single point of weakness in the system, failure of which will render the entire household paralysed.


Furthermore there is continuous drain of power from the inverter in the form of heat loss, even when all other appliances are off. Additionally, AC appliances themselves tend to be ultimately DC powered (AC power goes into the device, eg an LED light, then is rectified to DC, which then powers the light). AGM is preferable if you can afford it.8The lead-acid capacities cited above are around 3 to 4 times that of most sailboat electrical systems.
The system specified here should suit the needs of any cautious users, apart from those enduring the prolonged darkness of winter at very high latitudes.
However if only used once or twice per week and only during sunny days, it should not significantly deplete the batteries.
Obviously you should choose a front loading machine with the best energy and water savings ratings.Rooftop PV panels can be angled during the Spring equinox to suit the summer sun and during the Autumn equinox to suit the winter sun. Abuse will kill it within two years.If one has access to a a stream which never runs dry, then a microhydro system providing a continuous electrical supply will be more than sufficient to run your space heating, electric hot water heating, a microwave oven, electric toaster, electric kettle and induction cooktop10.
In the absence of this rare luxury however, it seldom makes sense to convert precious electrical energy to heat.
The area of the roof and the size of the internal watertanks may or may not provide sufficient fresh water for the inhabitants, depending on how the water is consumed and the amount of local rainfall. An additional 2000 litre external rainwater tank will be useful and any alternative backup sources of fresh water eg dam, streams, springs, bore water etc will always be welcome. Your external shed (which should have a much larger roof area, being a communal building) should also have the largest feasible rainwater tanks attached, perhaps 40,000 litres, which will be needed for permaculture purposes.
Australian council regulations specify that for offgrid properties at least 10,000 litres must be preserved for firefighting in a separate tank.
In some council areas the 10,000 litres can be preserved at the bottom of the drinking water tank by having the off take for drinking above the preservation level.The first principle must be to reduce consumption. Ever since the severe drought affecting Brisbane some years ago, I have adopted a method which uses less than 3 litres for a complete, thorough hair and body wash. The hair is wet first, then thoroughly scrubbed with soap or shampoo, then rinsed, the soapy water from the hair now wetting the entire body.
The wash cloth is now wet and impregnated with soap and the whole body is thoroughly scrubbed with this cloth. Less than 3 litres in total easily!What if the first flow of water from the shower is uncomfortably cold? Some may wish to boil their drinking water if there is concern of contamination from the roof or tank. This will obviously only be deployed after the house has been transported to its permanent destination as the tubes are fragile and easily broken during transportation. Rather than locate the heavy hot water cylinder atop the tube array, which may require rooftop reinforcement, it is best to keep all heavy items low in the house, to ensure a low centre of gravity and improve stablility, which is important when encountering strong winds.The tubes are best permanently angled steeply to suit the winter sun to prevent them overheating in summer. In locations with excessive insolation eg the outback or desert, tubes can overheat and explode and a flat panel system may be more suited there. With exponential global warming, living in the outback or desert, even if you have a borehole with limitless water, is probablly inadvisable.
This PV panel is dedicated to run a small electric pump which is active only when the sun shines sufficiently.
Water is pumped from the cold water tanks to the evacuated tube array then to the hot water cylinder. I am unaware if a thermosiphon system which does not require an electric pump has been invented (and proven to be reliable).
Conventional gas (not shale gas or coal seam gas) is the least CO2 emitting of the fossil fuels. Just as greenhouse solar heat can be transferred to the water tanks in the day, heat from the wood stove can also be transferred to the water tanks at night and enable residual cabin warmth after the fire is out.Safety considerations are vital. Apart from designing the setup such that heat from the stove can never ignite anything indoors (eg heatproof tiles under and around the stove, safety sleeve around flue as it passes through the roof etc), it is essential to ensure there is never any risk of oxygen depletion or CO2 poisoning within the cabin.
External intake of air into the combustion chamber will prevent the former and an airtight vertical flue will prevent the latter. If there is risk the flue may serve as a lightning conductor, it is simple to ground it externally by means of a broad copper strip. This was originally designed to benefit people in the third world by reducing harmful smoke emissions and increasing combustion efficiency (it uses less than a quarter the amount of wood of a conventional fire).
To me, the novelty of a ladder wears thin after a couple of uses and I much prefer the convenience of simply walking up broad steps. The substantial area under the steps must not be wasted and is used to house the washing machine, hot water cylinder and shelving for pantry items.
Needless to say, quality components must be chosen for longevity, durability, strength and the structural flexibility to cope with road journeys. Optimal strength to weight ratio must be considered, both for the sake of towing the tiny house, as well as avoiding excessive long term load on the chassis, even when stationary. Caravan windows tend to be double layered acrylic rather than double glazed glass, for good reasons.
It may be advisable to build the house to basic lockup stage only, then transport it to the final destination as an empty shell, where it will be properly fitted out (heavy batteries, washing machine, fridge etc only installed at final location).Those of you who may know house builders may have access to the excess offcuts from their building sites. Furthermore separate dwellings ensure that residents take responsibility for their own resource consumption and will face the consequences of their own profligacy and carelessness. For example if one irresponsible individual in a large communal household depletes the cooking gas, depletes the batteries by leaving appliances on, or depletes the water supply, this affects everyone and could lead to disaster and major conflict. Whereas I do view the eventual collapse of industrial society as inevitable, the process is likely to be stuttering (short of global nuclear war). As long as we are able to utilise LED lights, fridges and washing machines etc with minimal carbon emissions, it will be foolish not to do so. Access to the second loft will have to be by ladder rather than a second set of space consuming stairs. A larger family (a couple with up to six children) can build two tiny houses which will still cost far less then half of a standard small house, even using the best quality materials.Mass adoption of tiny houses will result in the councils and local utilities going bankrupt from lack of revenue, which is why in the near future governments may outlaw or over-regulate them. It is not some inviolable natural law but a historical observation about the behaviour of certain people, behaviour which can and will inevitably change.
Jevon himself was obsessed with the idea that economic cycles coincided with sunspot cycles and when this was disproved, he insisted that the astronomers had got their data wrong. He was a pioneer of trying to quantify economics mathematically, assuming perfectly free markets, perfectly free information and rational participants. Wouldn’t it be better just to have black coloured thermal mass on the outside of the bin? My answer: On another project where the solids bin is located in a separate chamber under the toilet cubicle, I am indeed turning that chamber alone (which has thermal mass within the black coloured chamber walls) into a minigreenhouse. Due to the design of the caravan model of the Nature’s Head toilet, this is not possible for the tiny house project.
Insulating the bin won’t work because the ventilating fan ensures that air in the bin is constantly changed, which will rapidly dissipate any heat buildup in the bin. However, if the air of the toilet cubicle is heated up and that is drawn into the bin for ventilation (then expelled to the exterior), that should keep the composting temperature several degrees higher than it would otherwise be (compared with if external cold air is drawn in the bin then expelled).The exception being if you live in a high latitude and have a deciduous trees in front of your sun-facing windows, hence providing shade in summer.
It is important to only shallowly discharge lead-acid batteries for the sake of longevity (discharge by not more than 30% on most days, occasionally discharge by 50%, where the 24 volt system will show 24 volts at rest). However they require an electronic battery management system to ensure proper voltage balance between batteries, which is an additional layer of complexity.
Even if the wind turbine produces high voltage alternating current at source, which is then rectified to DC after the dump load resistor, I have been advised that these AC turbines are specifically designed to ultimately feed either only 24V or 12V DC systems and the two types of turbine are mutually exclusive and not interchangeable.



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Comments to «Shed of doom forum»

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