Hutches should be as large as possible, bigger really is better and if you can afford a 5 or 6 foot hutch, your bunny will be happier for it. Please feel free to get in contact with us for any housing enquiries that you may have and we are always happy to help and advise. At times we do have animals in that suffer from long term illnesses or are maybe too old to consider for rehoming. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make? Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism.
However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law. In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism. And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany. Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires. Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders.
Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments. Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed.
Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D. In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution. Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern. Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another. The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people.
All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!).
The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image?
Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people.
After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages. In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots. Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated.
Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down.
Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state. The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe.
Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government. Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory.
England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta.
Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king.
Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament!
These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign.
With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began.
James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England. Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!).
By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel.
A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens.
In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them.
With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England. Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II. After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell.
He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship). His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England. Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism.
He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act.
James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament.
With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James. The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France. Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain.
William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne. In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth.
The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S.
The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria.
The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law?
How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism?
What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included?
Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants?
What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U. Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal. This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny.
In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia).
Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power.
In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports.
Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival. Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe.
Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers.
Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power.
Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants.
Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe.
The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory.
By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months.
After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558. 1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands.
1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688.
The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic.
List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism. Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay.
You may not post new threads You may not post replies You may not post attachments You may not edit your posts BB code is On Smilies are On [IMG] code is On HTML code is OffTrackbacks are On Pingbacks are On Refbacks are On Forum Rules All times are GMT -5. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography.
These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication.
Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date.
On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland.
THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St.
Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first.
A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square.
A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps.
An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. HUSH is a DUMBO-based design agency that specializes in building recognition and creating value for some of the most innovative companies in the world, including Nike, American Express and The New York Times. When we sat down to start the company, after a good deal of competitive analysis, we realized that every other agency looked and sounded relatively the same. We joined the cadre of some of the early movers to the neighborhood and then watched as things grew exponentially around us. The DUMBO Fitness Loop is a series of design-activated public spaces around the neighborhood, making them prime for physical activity.
Learn about the Brooklyn Strand and the plan to create a unified park network to connect DUMBO and its surrounding neighborhoods. Claire Weisz, a principal of WXY Design Studios, will present preliminary findings on a second phase of The Brooklyn Strand (labelled below as the BQE Connector).The project aims to create a vibrant network of linked open space. TunnelVision is teaming up with Smart Car this month for a music-and-art-filled day on Saturday, September 19! DJ mOma, the resident deejay for Everyday People, Harlem Nights, Dance, Dance, Dance and The Good Spot, is the embodiment of versatility. Wonderground is a party collective that includes DJ Internal Affairs and DJ Silence and hosts Cav Manning and Terry Bethel. On September 26th and 27th, Smack Mellon invites you to celebrate their fellowship artists, and two new solo shows in their gallery.
On September 26th and 27th, Smack Mellon is pleased to offer visitors the unique chance to enter the private studios of their 2014-2015 fellowship artists. Karin Giusti’s installation Honorem: Three Seasons at Black Forest Farm addresses the emotions of grief and mourning in the public and private sphere. Michael Kukla’s installation, Jeskyne (Czech for “cave”), also takes cues from the formidable effects of time and nature.  Exploring the elasticity and permeability of an object’s surface, Kukla creates an immersive web of cellular forms blended seamlessly into the gallery’s architecture.
For more information about the current Studio Artists, and gallery events, please visit Smack Mellon. Performances by Andra Day, runway show hosted by Dana Blair, Street Style Shops and Essence Eats and more! If you’re in Pearl Street Triangle on Tuesday, September 15 or Wednesday September 16 at dusk – look up! Technology has continually affected landscape and its reflections of contemporary life and values. With thousands of years of history behind and an unknowable future ahead, “Views” will reveal connections between rapidly evolving digital realities like gaming and glitch to analog representations of the terrestrial. September 15th at 8 pm: Artist talk with curator and artists, featuring Leo Kuelbs, Karl Erickson, Visakh Menon, Jeremy Couillard, Laura Ortman, Ryan Drag, Nina Sobell and others. This year’s PHOTOVILLE will host an exciting mix of photo exhibitions, outdoor photo installations, artist lectures, and professional development seminars! Immersion and interactivity are at the heart of what makes PHOTOVILLE such a successful and popular event – it has become the largest annual photographic event in New York City, and among the most-attended photographic events nationwide. All exhibitions are free to the public so bring your friends and family.
Did you know that responsible disposal of unwanted electronics not only safeguards the environment and your personal data, but is also mandatory? Note: The LES Ecology Center cannot accept home appliances (such as microwaves, refrigerators, or air conditioners), or ionization smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors (those that are labeled as containing radioactive material). The Made in NY Media Center by IFP opened its doors in October 2013 through a unique partnership between IFP, the Mayor’s Office of Media and Entertainment and the NYCEDC who are charged with the economic growth of New York City.
This mission is delivered through three main offerings throughout our 20,000 square foot space in DUMBO. The Media Center also produces events, professional development and programs for the public that aim to inspire, educate and provide access to the conversation around the future of Media. The Media Center is unique in its focus in bringing together a community of like-minded entrepreneurs across Media and Technology who support each other and exchange diverse ideas and insights.
Moving towards our second anniversary, we have been looking at the highlights of our first.
When IFP won the RFP from the City, the choice to place the center at the heart of DUMBO, was always a priority. Every Thursday through October, the Archway under the Manhattan Bridge in DUMBO comes alive with free performances! Live at the Archway – a curated series from the DUMBO Improvement District & The Lighthouse – showcases the best of DUMBO and Brooklyn talent, with music and more under the Archway.
Celebrating over 15 years of bringing live musical spectacle to the people of New York City and beyond is Hungry March Band, a brass, percussion, and performance ensemble which melds big band, traditional brass, and free jazz, with punk rock and global brass influences. Founded in Brooklyn in 1997 for the Coney Island Mermaid Parade, HMB embodies the spirit of NYC’s streets with an inimitable brass sound and inspired, eclectic dance. In 2011, Stacy Kovacs and Laura Torell traveled to Salvador de Bahia in Brazil to join Batala in the Carnival.
Capoeira Brooklyn, the borough’s only full-time capoeira academy, was founded by Mestre Foca, a native of Brasilia, Brazil. Eugene Tambourine draws on a musician’s background, expressing a deep love of rhythm and melody that spans tempos and genres.
It’s rare to define a child as a prodigy, but with the skills of those 3 times his age and a father who is a professional in the field, who taught him since the age of 3, DJ Kai Song has all the attributes of one. Those who have entered Cuba through Jose Marti International Airport in Havana will know that upon arrival, they are greeted by beautiful video images of Old Havana on TV screens and the sultry voice of Xiomara Laugart singing “Hoy mi Habana”.  And it is no coincidence because Xiomara “La Negra” Laugart is “The Voice of Cuba”. Pianist Axel Tosca Laugart, son of world-famous Cuban musicians Alberto Tosca and Xiomara Laugart, was born in Havana, Cuba in 1985. Sizzling Ambassadors of Cuban Folklore, Conjunto Guantanamo has arrived with a fresh interpretation of classic Afro-Cuban sounds, uniting the precision and cadence of traditional Afro-Cuban music with the raw energy and edge of New York City’s unique nightlife. Over ten years and through two award winning albums, Ola Fresca has evolved into a swinging, fearless tropical Latin sound directly from Brooklyn, New York.
Born in Costa Rica, Ernesto Palma began dancing at the age of 11, learning Salsa, Merengue, Cumbia and other dance styles.
GOLD is a driving bass and drums with three part harmony soulful punk rock quartet. Just back from a European tour this spring and releasing their debut record, GOLD is the musical project of songwriter, bassist, and vocalist Julie DeLano with musicians Christy Davis on drums and Leslie Graves and Susan Hwang on vocals.
American Anymen is an antifolk band that has been organizing DIY shows in New York City since 1999.
Born and raised in Jerusalem, Israel, AMi O began his first steps as a drummer at age four.
For over 13 years, Brooklyn based disc jockey Jesse Mann has been igniting dance floors across NYC and the globe with his eclectic and soulful take on dance music. 6 – 8pmThe Williamsburg Salsa Orchestra is a stunning, 11 piece band that plays innovative, astonishing salsa with a new, vibrant aesthetic.


An avid record junkie, Keat gets his hands dirty for any good dig he can find, and picks up anything he can nod his head or shuffle his feet to.
The JT Wildman Jazz Band is a New York-based band that plays New Orleans-style hot jazz and blues. Joining the JT Wildman band for their Live at the Archway performance is Mary Foster Conklin, a New York-based jazz vocalist who has performed throughout the United States and Canada.
The band’s self-titled album is the second full length album by the five members of Twin Sister, now known as Mr Twin Sister.
There was a new depth to the process as well- prior to 2010, when working on their EPs in much the same manner, the band had never before been in a proper studio. We are left with eight songs stretching 38 minutes, something far deeper, darker, and more substantial than anything they have done before.
However, as rabbits require a good deal of space in order to have a fulfilling life, even a large hutch may not be enough.
These can be good but bear in mind the internal ‘ladder’ does use up floor space, effectively making the hutch smaller.
Most rabbits adapt very well to using a litter tray and a neutered male is a must for a house rabbit, as an unneutered male will also spray urine. The set up should allow access for them to binky and explore like they naturally would in the wild. He has gone off to hopefully be bonded with a 3 legged doe who sadly lost her leg due to a bad break.
Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance. This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation. In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy. It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain. They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king. The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII.
Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection.
Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam. His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific. The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings. The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered. Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary. She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen. To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth.
He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights.
Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future.
Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I.
Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose).
Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband.
Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism.
With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy. He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists.
The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William. The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed.
But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands.
From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause.
In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France.
Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment. In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health.
The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact.
The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power.
The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them. The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany.
He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine.
Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe.
Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism.
England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223).
Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head. James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R.
The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3). 1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities.
Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created. In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G.
The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents.
The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text. Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them.
Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. Instead of trying to differentiate ourselves with a snappy mission statement or unconventional prose, we decided to focus on making our work amazing, and let it speak for itself. Our mission is to use design to build recognition, enact change, and create value for the most innovative companies in the world.
We capitalized on this growth, partnering with neighborhood companies, talent, consultants and organizations.
What was once a boarded up storage bin for the city has become one of the most unique architectural spaces around. Have ideas on how to better utilize the spaces Robert Moses left as he cut a highway through Brooklyn? There’s live painting by some stellar graffiti artists, tons of music and, yes, test drives. His sets combine funk, soul, r&b, disco, house, hip-hop, reggae, world beats and underground dance grooves with rare gems and modern-day bangers. The Brooklyn-based band is led by vocalist Bradley Valentin and guitarist Yohimbe Sampson, with drummer Brian Mason and bassist Daddy Longlegz. Wonderground gatherings are all about dancing, with classic and rare jams that get things moving. Starting at noon, the artists will have their latest work-in-progress on view, and visitors will have the opportunity to meet them in their studios all weekend. Using sculpture and photography, Giusti captures memories of her life at a remote farmhouse with her late partner Stephen G. Like large fossils, these hand sculpted monochromatic facades compress time into positive and negative space.
Chevrolet will partner with up-and-coming designers to create a capsule collection inspired by Chevrolet. The team behind Light Year is bringing an extra special, two-night projection to the Manhattan Bridge: views. Through the development and presentation of work from multiple platforms, “Views” explores new ways of “place-making,” while examining continuities and linkages between seemingly disparate periods of engagement. Watch Brooklyn Bridge Park’s Pier 5 transform into a pop-up village built from shipping containers re-purposed into photography exhibition space. As of January 1, 2015 it is illegal for NYC residents to dispose of their electronics in the regular trash, and residents now face a $100 fine.
The Media Center was created to connect, train and support innovators and entrepreneurs looking to redefine Media and Technology. The driving force is our incubator membership – a community of entrepreneurs working across new technologies and digital media who work in the space, access a network of expert resources, programs and perhaps most importantly, connect with each other. As a mission based, non-profit, the Media Center aims to provide access to the resources our internal and external community need – whether it is introductions to investors, feedback from some of the largest advertising agencies or training on how to pitch.
The area’s unique blend of innovative start ups, creators and digital media companies represents the values and community that the Media Center is supporting.
With beer, wine and bites from The Lighthouse, it’s the best place to be every Thursday. HMB has shared their creativity with audiences around the United States, South America, and Europe, where they’ve been embraced by a longstanding community of brass bands.
His smoothly-blended DJ sets segue from Tito Puente to Tears For Fears when the vibe is right. He loves singing almost as much as he loves DJing and regularly performs with the Grammy-winning Brooklyn Youth Chorus (arguably the best youth choir in NYC) at venues such as Carnegie Hall. Her interactive performances are full of vaudeville antics, boast impeccable comedic timing, and have been known to feature up to 75 hula hoops.
She has been representing her country and her people, performing at venues around the globe for over 30 years and with the greatest of international talents. As a young musician in Cuba, Axel performed and ecorded with many renowned musicians, including the great Cuban conductor Miguel Ceruto, Teresa “Tete” Garcia Caturla of the Afro-Cuban All Stars, Sexteto Sendito, and Bobby Carcases, as well as the Roots on their Cuba tour.
Since their founding in 2003, Conjunto Guantanamo has become highly visible on the NYC nightlife scene, performing at festivals, dance parties, and events and venues as diverse as The Museum of Modern Art and the grand opening of the IKEA store in RedHook (an all weekend affair!). Seventeen years ago, Nadia decided to pack her suitcase and move from her native Sydney, Australia to New York City to pursue her dream of being a jazz singer in the big apple. The band is comprised largely of musicians from Trinidad and Tobago, the country that created steel drums, (or “pans”) and produces the vast majority of the world’s best players. While his focus is on house, disco, and funk, he’s always searching for great sounds in every corner of every record shop in the city and the world wide web. An antidote to factional bickering everywhere in the world, Ola Fresca skillfully blends Cuban son, rumba, and timba, and Puerto Rican-style salsa, in a fresh sound that embraces the best of New York’s Latin scene. From their rustic Cuban roots-tinged 2004 debut Ay! At the age of 16, he was invited to join the National Folklore Dance Company of Costa Rica, thus launching his professional dance career. Their orientation towards art is that passion and creativity trumps expertise, and that what you have to say is more important than the equipment you own.
Cutting his teeth first in the NYC drum & bass scene, Jesse eventually found his way to the deeper side of house, disco, funk, afrobeat, Latin, reggae, and various electronic and bass-fueled rhythms.
The group came into being in the summer of the year 2000 in a Brooklyn backyard, founded by members of NYC’s Brazilian based musical phenomena such as Tigresa, Xodo, and Beat the Donkey.
With an ever evolving set list that includes covers by many of today’s popular indie bands, the WSO has taken the typical salsa form and infused it with a completely modern identity. Nelson draws inspiration from an eclectic range of artists such as Bjork, Nina Simone, & Joni Mitchell, and her performances aim to promote energetic empowerment for all who attend.
His DJ sets are an eclectic blend of musical genres that are funky & soulful, drawn from the fusion of cultures found in the record crates of NYC. With vital, visceral and virtuosic performances from a nine-member company “Eternal Now” is set to an electronic score by Marco Cappelli that reflects the hybrid essentialism fusion of contemporary composition music. WHITE WAVE Dance is one of New York’s most innovative contemporary dance companies and has performed at the New York’s most wanted venues including BAM, Dumbo Dance Festival, New York Summer Stage, Museum of Arts and Design, and internationally at the Hong Kong Academy of Arts, National Theatre of Korea and the National Theatre of Taipei.
The band has performed in venues in and around New York and New England and is currently in residency at Superfine, where it appears monthly. Conklin she has performed in all of New York’s jazz venues, and has a special talent for uncovering lesser known treasures of the Great American Songbook and performing them in nontraditional venues. Following their debut LP, composed largely in a studio, the band returned to the creative process they had employed on their first two EPs- working individually or in small, shifting groups. Now having spent time in one, they knew better how and when to use it, and were able to combine its benefits with a more methodical songwriting approach for the first time.
This page is designed to give you ideas if you do want to ‘think outside the box’ in order to give you and your rabbit the best pet experience possible.
A suitable sized run can also be attached to the shed to aloe extra space and also give access to sunlight as well. The only downside is getting an uncooperative rabbit out of it on an evening to be put to bed! He will be neutered before being rehomed and is currently being fostered in the Kingswood area of Bristol.
This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away.
These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life.
They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement.
The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean. If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne.
Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17.
Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic!
When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV.
King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740.
Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy.
After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city. The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship.
In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them.
The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed.
Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery.
Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them. It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes.
Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world.
They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map. Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories.
The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers. Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265.
A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them. The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries.
It’s been a great experience to build a business in this neighborhood and to feel some small sense of ownership around its success.
Design can transform through beauty, functionality, community, messaging, interaction, etc. Moore works to the credo of ‘range is conducive to growth.’ Like many artists of his generation, Matt’s background was in action board sports and the action art of graffiti, each with their core value of speed, do-it-yourself ethic, enthusiasm for new terrain, and sheer fun of collaboration. These musical visionaries pull freely from rock, soul, world and electronic music to create a driving, genre-defying sound.
Up and coming designers will be mentored by Street Style alum, designer Ron Bass.  In addition, attendees can experience SheaMoisture’s beauty lounge at the Street Style Block Party with trend-setting hair, makeup and skincare consultations via the SheaMoisture mobile beauty pod. Plus, back by popular demand, PHOTOVILLE is partnering with Brooklyn favorites Smorgasburg and Brooklyn Brewery to create an awesome space where you can eat, drink, and hang out with other photography lovers. In preparation for their performance at the upcoming graduation, DUMBO neighbors Saint Ann’s School‘s high schoolers and sixth graders will join HMB and celebrate with gusto a challenging classical repertoire for brass and percussion under the direction of Stephen Pickering.
Batala was started in 1997 in Paris, France by Brazilian percussionist Giba Goncalves; its infectious rhythms and dance has spread to more than thirty cites around the world.
Locally, Foca has spent a decade building a strong and energetic community of students that reflects the rich physical, social, mental, and spiritual elements of capoeira. Kai has also been playing the piano since age 5 and has been taking music production classes since age 7, getting his start at Manhattan DJ school Dubspot. Miss Saturn has performed her solo outdoor show at the World Busker’s Festival in New Zealand, Coney Island’s amusement parks (Astroland and Luna Park), and at Victorian Gardens in Central Park.
In 2005, Axel moved to Las Vegas, where he spent two years performing with “Havana Night.” In 2009, he received a scholarship to finish his bachelor’s degree at the New School for Jazz and Contemporary Music, and relocated permanently to NYC.
Led by founder Ulises Beato, along with Pepito Gomez, Sebastian Natal, Carlos Mena, Oscar Onoz and Mauricio Herrera, the band has inspired thousands of New Yorkers and visitors to swivel their hips in the name of Latin passion.
Five pop albums, appearances on Late Night With Jimmy Fallon, SNL and Good Morning America, and performances with music industry greats including Sting, James Taylor, Bruce Springsteen, Elton John and Billy Joel later…she has crammed a lot into her career as a singer. Jah Pan’s steel drum, calypso musicians and reggae singers have performed all over the world, at events ranging from backyard parties to Presidential receptions, on NBC’s Today Show, at the U.S.
They are thoroughly dedicated to undermining the classed based art that dominates our culture!
His experiences inspired him to infuse his Latin percussion set with electronic music, and form a unique, first of its kind live show.
Today, inspired by the 360 degree musical approach of tastemakers like Gilles Peterson and Mr.
Together with her six piece band, the ensemble conjures up a powerfully emotive live experience which is not easily categorized, but is nonetheless awe inspiring. The band features Ray Scro, an acclaimed reed player in New York jazz circles, and Whit Symmes, on keyboard and vocals.
When drilling or nailing into the pressure treated wood, one must be careful to use treated fasteners so as to not quickly rot out in the treated wood. It sounds obvious but rabbits grow quickly and your small bundle will soon out-grow a smaller hutch meaning more expense for you. So a 6 foot hutch would probably be better than a 4 foot tiered hutch as it gives the rabbit more room on one level.
Even the best litter trained rabbit will drop the occasional dropping around when exploring their environment. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow.


The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade.
If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period.
His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown. In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic. At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly.
Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government. Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors. But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament. But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary.
The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible. His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army.
The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult.
For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. I ended up making it 8'x8', 6' wall height with a 2-12 roof pitch, so Larkin, your drawing is more acurate than you think. A neighbor on one side already put up a new one, but due to code, I have to put up a wood fence right next to his cuz the finished side not showing the structure has to be on the outside so noone can use the 2x4 across the middle to climb over my fence and get in the pool. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god.
The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular.
Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus.
As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi. They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources.
Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
Our goal was to use large-format environmental design as games, messaging and systems to incentivize physical fitness and transform urban space. Pop out to Pearl Street Triangle to take in live painting demos all afternoon by local artists Elle, Meres and Peter Hoacs. Over the past decade, he’s applied those principles to his bold, graphic aesthetic in media both analog and digital, for projects both personal and commercial.
After their soul-stirring performance at TunnelVision last summer, we are thrilled to have them back. Giusti’s method of photographing the site in the round creates an enclosed space not meant for living organisms, but rather for memories alone. This year saw the completion of a three-month program with Berlin and the Fall will see a 10-day intensive program in partnership with the French Cultural Embassy, which will welcome 10 Parisian Start Ups to New York. This unique and breathtaking martial art combines music, dance, combat, and Brazilian culture into an exciting and physically challenging form of self-expression that is accessible to everyone. He now regularly puts his Ableton skills to use by creating Mash-Ups for his DJ-set and has started to work on original material as well, which he looks forward to releasing this year. She has graced the stages of La Soiree, The Famous Speigel Tent, The Box, PS 122, and the Bergen Music Festival. In New York, he plays with the legendary Pedrito Martinez Group, Gerardo Contino & Los Habaneros and his original ensemble, (U)nity, a collaboration with Cuban-American drummer Amaury Acosta. Sting, Demi Moore, Ashton Kutcher, Cameron Diaz, Mike Myers, Mickey Rourke, Leonardo DiCaprio, and other stars have made surprise audience appearances at places like the West Village’s celebrated Socialista, where Conjunto Guantanamo have previously played a weekly residency. In 2012, Nadia began to see her songs as images, and felt an overwhelming desire to draw her music. Scruff, Jesse takes it even further by progressing through tempos and genres seamlessly, building a vibe throughout the night. Scott Sokoloff (guitar), Gaku Takanashi (bass), Kirk Driscoll (drums), Tim Wildman (cornet) and Jim Wildman (trombone) round out the band. Some bloomed immediately, others matured slowly over the years, the rest demolished and rebuilt dozens of times in an effort to discover their ideal form. I wanted an internal shed area for feed storage, as well as a handful of tools for the neighboring garden. It really is better to start out with as large a hutch as you can afford as this will save you money in the long run. It is very important to remember that they will still act like rabbits as a house pet and one of their favourite pastimes is to chew things. With this kind of accommodation it is important to have ventilation so stable doors are an excellent idea. Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion.
This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII.
The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports. They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not.
The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage.
After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611).
James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son.
The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations.
The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development.
Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. So we'll have 2 6' wood fences up against each other and we'll each be able to climb over the fence and into the neighbors yard!
Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing.
Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward.
Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself.
The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events.
Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning. Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. There’s a lot of design complexity at that intersection and those are the best challenges for us.
The digitally stitched photographs are constructed into kaleidoscopic pillars lit from within; transforming Smack Mellon’s existing columns into rows of glowing sentinels, majestically standing guard within the darkened gallery. The Home Depot joins as a new sponsor sharing tips and tricks to organizing your closet with live closet activations and social engagement.
These might be some unwanted items taking up space in your office — or the back of your closet. Join Mestre Foca and Professora Rouxinol in creating community, training your body, and developing your sense of wonder.
Finally, as Kai is exploring acting and MC’ing, his magnetic personality led to National Geographic hiring Kai in February 2015 as a host of their new YouTube Kids channel. Axel has produced two records for his mother, Xiomara Laugart, and has performed internationally at her side.
He thrives on six hour sets.Jesse’s talents have taken him as far as Tokyo, Berlin, Paris, Vienna, Bristol, San Francisco, Miami, and Puerto Rico to name but a few. Progress was slow, coming in fits and bursts, accommodating the unexpected twists and turns of life.
It was completed on 1-16-08, and chicks will be arriving approximately 2-1-08: all 25 of them (I hope).
If this could be an option for you and your rabbits yet you’re not good at DIY, there are plenty of companies who will also erect the shed for you. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand.
Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire.
The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time.
Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ.
The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. Moore is taking over the plaza with a large scale live painting experience that will be projected onto the side of the Manhattan Bridge, to beats by Brooklyn-based electronic duo Tanlines. Having DJ’d for many charities of the years, Kai became an ambassador for the Childhood Foundation (alongside fellow DJ Tiesto). In the late 1990s, Xiomara relocated to the United States, and in 2003 became a founding member of the Grammy-nominated fusion band Yerba Buena. He has worked with many celebrated musicians and producers, including George Clinton and Parliment Funkadelic, Michael Moog, Gary Haus, Jeff “Tain” Watts, James Genus, Ron Blake, Roy Hargrove, Luques Curtis, Giovani Hidalgo, Luis Salinas, Candido Camero, and Pablo Milanes. Conjunto Guantanamo brings you the origins and essence of what music lovers today mostly know as Salsa.
At Natchie Art, Nadia draws each of her songs; each piece of art comes with lyrics and a free download code to own the song. He has won numerous awards, include the 2014 Gay Games World Professional International Same Sex Latin Dance Championship, and the 2015-2014-2010 USA International Latin Same Sex Ballroom Championship. Todd Doyle (Box, Vox) and Ryan Jacob Doyle (Vox, Axe) grew up in a household that was constantly filled with audio influences. He’s graced the decks of legendary clubs like Cielo, Limelight, APT, Watergate, Batofar, Roxy, Le Baron Tokyo, and more?alongside legendary jocks like LTJ Bukem, Matthew Dear, Afrika Bambaata, and Robert Hood. All wires should be suitably housed to avoid this issue and obviously more importantly any injury to rabbits.
This then leaves you to arrange the inside with suitable forage options, hidey holes, climbing structures, etc.
The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna!
Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. In December, Kai was honored for his contributions by his local community in Brooklyn and named one of the Dumbo Dozen. He credits his teachers Miriam Valdez (sister of the famous Cuban piano player and virtuoso Chucho Valdez) and Rosa Maria Tolon, as well as Amadito Valdez, the famous timbalero of the Buena Vista Social Club, with putting him on this path. For than 7 years, Jesse acted as resident DJ promoter, and booking manager for Body Music: Sundays at Bembe, a weekly party in Brooklyn featuring a rotating lineup of live music. And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land.
This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims.
Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Graphic design projects often inform the Monumental Murals he paints in city neighborhoods around the world. She has performed internationally, and recorded and performed alongside Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Roy Hargrove, Femi Kuti, D’Angelo, Erykah Badu, Busta Rhymes and many others.
On a typical night at Body Music Jesse traded off back and forth with the bands, seamlessly blending between live and DJ-led selections?building the vibe together. I know that your love will last for all time, that your faithfulness is as permanent as the sky.
Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. His annual series of Watercolor Paintings in black and white might inform future Logo Designs.
They have honed their sound into spirited songs with accessible but often uncommon arrangements and share a good natured rapport both on and off stage and in the studio. Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. Cross-pollinating between disciplines allows him to constantly refresh his perspective and produce unique work. Xiomara has recorded and released three original records, Xiomara (2006), La Voz (2010) and Tears and Rumba, which is due out this summer. 15: But you, O Lord, are a merciful and loving God, always patient, always kind and faithful. The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs. Applying his vision to new surfaces or in collaboration with others always proves his credo.
If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank. The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity. 8: But God has shown us how much he loves us a€“ it was while we were still sinners that Christ died for us!Hebrews 13, vs. I would come home from work and plop myself in the chair for A? hour or so, wash up, change my clothes and eat dinner. I can count on my one hand the number of times I played ball with my boy or took my daughter shopping. I feel sorry for my children for not being there for them and sorry for my wife because she raised the kids pretty much on her own and she did a great job of it. I am sorry for myself also because the moments that I missed with my children can never be recovered.
I thought I was doing my best by beingA a goodA provider but in my older wisdom I know that being a Dad was the most important thing they needed.
He created us, molded us, watches over our lives, provides for us, and when we die He brings us into His kingdom.
It was customary at that time for Rabbis (Jesus was onea€”it meant teacher) when they were among a crowd to say the first verse of a Psalm.
What He most likely was doing was wanting the rest of the people, and us, to say the rest of the Psalm.
Kendall===============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop June 12, 2010. Lost loves, friends, jobs, disagreements with others, death of relatives, and depression are just some of the reasons we lose pride and hope in one self.
We could go on with this forever so today I am just addressing those qualities in single people. With single people, it could just be the problem with finding the right a€?someonea€? to love. The delay or loss of a past love (among other things) could send someone spiraling downward into a loss of respect for themselves. Nationally, there are 85.6 unmarried men for every 100 unmarried women and the birthrate is approximately 53% women over men.
They have the a€?TV-ADa€? looks, drugs, drinking, sex, and instant communication (cell and text).
Some people give up on themselves and become self destructive with over eating and drinking or hibernation. From a mana€™s perspective, if a man is looking for a quick date, sex, or just a temporary girlfriend he will frequent a bar.
If a man is looking for a long term loving relationship or wife, he will look around church, a library (or book store), coffee bars, or social groups. Dona€™t settle on things that go against you conscience whether it is with yourself or a mate.
People with multiple divorces fail in relationships, drinkers are good drinkers, abusers (physical or mentally) are just abusers and players, and cheaters are cheaters.
People rarely change and never enter a relationship with the thought that you can later on change that person to your expectations.
If a person you care for ever poses this statement ----- A a€? If you want me (or love me) you need to do a€?this or thata€™.a€? ----- then walk away and dona€™t look back. The following religions or faiths consider Jesus as an enlightened spiritual teacher: Jehovaha€™s Witnesses, Mormonism, Unification Church , Christian Science, A? of all Wicca, New Age, Nation of Islam, Bahaa€™i World Faith, Hare Krishna, Hinduism, some of Judaism, and Islam. It is funny that all these listed above recognize him as a great spiritual teacher but do not follow His teachings. The other half of Wicca, Transcendental Meditation, Scientology, and Buddhists either do not mention Him or He is not important to their way of thinking.
Genesis Chapter #1 in part of verse 2 says, a€?and the Spirit of God was moving over the watera€?. He won trophies for the best in class in New York State for horseshoes and archery (before compound bows) for several years running. He hunted and fished and always, it seemed, brought back his limit no matter what game, fish, or bird was in season.
He joined the Navy Sea Bees in WW2 and ended up getting drafted in the Marine Corps on an Island in the Pacific during the conflict.
The only way there is through His Son Jesus so I accept Him as my Lord and Savior and try my best to follow His ways.
A ====================================================== ==============================================Note: If you have not seen the movie "Left Behind" with Kirk Cameron, now would be the time. Well to begin with; this promise from God is only for believers and followers of Jesus Christ.
Paul was talking about believers and inserted the condition of a€?for those who love Goda€?. You see, when you accept Christ as your Lord and Savior and ask for forgiveness and confess to Him your sins --------- you are washed clean with the blood of Christ.
However, sometimes you carry the baggage of the memories of those sins in your mind and heart. This verse in Romans assures you that your guilt is unjustified because God will make it turn out in the end for good. Jesus did not promise that this life would be easy but that He would walk through those troubled times with you. Although it was a good one, it caused me much stress and sometimes aspects of it violated my conscience. I do believe that God is making this bad thing turn out to be good and I think He has a better job for me in the near future. If you believe in God and love Him and believe in His promise, these too will turn out for the better. And leta€™s not forget that even though what his brothers did was a€?wronga€?, God made it into good when Joseph forgave them and helped them. His promise does not make wrong right but makes it turn out into something good for his glory, for us believers. We know that Jesus will walk with us through the valley but God will get us to the mountain top when we get through it. I am sure there are many stories out there of how this verse helped many people weather their storms. Kendall============================================================Pastor Pop-Pop July 31, 2010. Do not make for yourselves images of anything in heaven or on earth or in the water under the earth.
Do not bow down to any idol or worship it, because I am the Lord your God and I tolerate no rivals.
I bring punishment on those who hate me and on their descendants down to the third and fourth generation.
It tells us His personality, words, likes, dislikes, rules, commands, pleasures, and all the things he has done. So any god or image of him that does not conform to or match the one described in the Bible (the word of God) is not the God of Israel that we are to worship.
Let us be clear that making images of anything is not a violation of the commandment but actually worshiping it as a god. Some churches within the body of Christ have pictures or statues of saints or even Jesusa€™ mother.
That is not a violation unless the statue (or the person) a€?itselfa€? is being worshiped as a god or the statue is believed to have some sort of power within itself. Wearing a Jewish star or a cross is also not a violation unless the emblem itself is worshiped. If they are decorations that is OK but if you actually place or believe some hope or faith of luck in them, it is a violation of the commandment.
People now seem to create their own god to worship in a€?their own minda€? and not within the scope of the Word of God (the Bible). The one I hear the most is, a€?I am a good person so that is all that is needed to go to Heaven and be saved.a€? That is not what the Bible tells us.
Matthew 7:21 (ESV) says, a€?Not everyone who says to me a€?Lord Lord,a€™ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father in heaven.a€? What is the will of the Father? People go around saying god is this or god is that or that is a€?not what I believe ina€™ but if their beliefs are not in line with the Bible, they are in violation of the first commandment. God is OK with working on a Sunday (or having your place of business open), God is OK with Homosexual and Gay behavior, I dona€™t have to go to church and worship Him, I dona€™t have to give, I dona€™t have to forgive everyone, it is OK to kill unborn babies, He is OK with pagan rituals, I can be rude to people, God did not make the earth a€“ and on and on and on. The pastor said that this church was saying the Holy Spirit told them this was OK but another church said that the Holy Spirit was against this and yet another one had a different view point from the Holy Spirit. We all violate them in some way or another but that is why Jesus died on the cross to wash us clean in His blood and absolve us of our faults. He scribed it on stone tablets and gave them to Moses on the mountain top to give to His people. That is the translation that she likes to use.===============================================================Thou shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous Goda€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦. Leta€™s take one at a time and discuss:We discussed this command last sermon (review if you want to). Have you ever created another God in your mind or worshiped another god of a different religion or faith?
Jesus said that if you even lust in your heart (or mind) for another that you violate this commandment. Covet is defined in the NIV dictionary as: To want for yourself something that belongs to another person. Whether you take it or not, take it and not return it, or just desire it ---- you have violated this commandment.
If you believe in Jesus and accept Him as your Lord and Savior, you are forgiven of your sins and you are washed in His blood clean and white as snow. A Timothy McVey the mastermind on the Oklahoma bombing defied God and declared that he alone was the a€?master of his destinya€?. A ==============================================================================Pastor Pop-Pop August 24, 2010. Having a good relationship with your spouse, family, friends, or co-workers is usually based on a good two way conversational attitude.
To render Him praise and glory through prayer, actions, good deeds, following His laws and commandments, and accepting Jesus as our Lord and Savior. He knows what we need before we ask but He likes to hear it from us also with some praise and worship attached. Your Mom knows you need food and gives you healthy meals but approaching her and asking for a snack also tells her you would like some cheese doodles too. Prayers can be from a book, made up by you, from the Bible, or just general conversation between you and God. They can be on your knees by your bed, in Church, or just during every day activities or work.
I try to concentrate not on an earthly or worldly fixture or thing but temporarily close my eyes (not while driving) or look up when I talk to Him. I find one (or a paragraph or verse) that I derive comfort from and say it as a special prayer to the Lord.
What can flesh do to me?Psalm 121(NLT): I look up to the mountains-does my help come from there? Go to a good book store and page through some and see which ones are comfortable for you personally. They are good Bibles but one is paraphrased and one is in a so called modern language that, for me, does not read real well. I highly recommend The New Living Translation (NLT), The New Century Version (NCV), or the New American Bible (NAB). The first two are used a lot with Contemporary Christian Churches and the third contains extra books as it was designed to meet the needs of Catholic Christians.



Metal building contractors georgia
Self storage units ypsilanti mi hours
Storage places in honolulu
Table saw for fine woodworking youtube


Comments to «Shed set up ideas freshwater»

  1. Ruslan145 on 21.02.2014 at 16:53:22
    From garden and garden equipment.
  2. VoR_KeSLe on 21.02.2014 at 10:17:14
    Has fairly the ease and if it is simply garden and garden supplies.
  3. LADY_FIESTA on 21.02.2014 at 19:34:41
    Configured to "trick" the OS X install that has an actual change in seasons you.
  4. RONIN on 21.02.2014 at 14:32:22
    Chopping, however is molded to look just a few of the many benefits that you would two people.