There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions]. According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China. These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85). This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography.
On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event.
This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map.
In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc. This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character. From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.
There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries. From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century.
A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi.
The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.
We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps. Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater.
The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature. Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century. There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers.
The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it. Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa.
But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.
Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world.
There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book.
This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa].
In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion.
But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period.
A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality.
The unit is available in three sizes with the smallest starting at $299.99 for 60" x 60" x 78".
It is great for visitors to see the shed you are reviewing to get an idea of what it might be like near their home. Suncast Extra-Large Storage Shed 5'6"W x 5'D x 6'11"H (Assembled) We bought this shed about 6 months back, when there just wasn't space in the garage for all the garden tools and other junk!
Suncast Storage Building 7 x 3 My husband and I bought the Suncast Mini Storage Building at Sears about two years ago, to get some extra room for yard tools, car stuff, and the like. Being an avid meteorologist by hobby, I originally purchased the Suncast A01B12C01 to store my equipment. Lane January 21 - 23, 1991 No sound files are available for the interview with Justice Coleman. The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji. This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India. Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country. Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective. They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture. Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?. The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992.
Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions. A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent. Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced. It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty. Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean? But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty.
When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody. This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613. The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa. He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea. Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp.
According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original.
Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent. The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast. Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective. Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map.
This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world.
Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty. In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa. Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha. They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World. The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha). Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map.
China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map.
Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England). Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H. The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters. Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period. Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China.
Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map. But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented. But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them. Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically. There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common.
The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map. But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another. Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral. Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki.


But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed.
Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions. Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners.
Focusing on whole foods such as grains and fresh fruits and vegetables while minimizing processed foods, establishing and maintaining adequate hydration, and being aware of potential adverse reactions to food and food additives contributes to wellness. The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo. During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years.
From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim]. Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India.
Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways. Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world? The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east. It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map.
Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch. In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence. In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death. In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan. In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible. The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time. In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map.
The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility. Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map. There is no magic potion involved to instantly make you slim and fit, only a little bit of learning and practice.A The Body Mass Index (BMI) is the accepted measure for assessing weight most accurately.
A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?. Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent. In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa. Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan. Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.
Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.
Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works.
Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664). This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map.
We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period. At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala. According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do. So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world. The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita. Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected. The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography. For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith.
This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield. And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world.
Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account. The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea.
But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated. Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan. The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea. The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map. It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography. To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew. As body fat increases and lean body mass decreases, the risk for cardiovascular disease increases. Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress.
At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?.
The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon. This ratio is calculated by dividing the waist measurement in inches by the hip measurement in inches.
North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America. It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form. It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms. Your goal should be to take your body and make it as healthy, strong, flexible and well-proportioned as you can. Thin or plump, young or old, you will be more beautiful, have a prouder carriage, healthier glow and a supple flow of movement which says that you are comfortable and confident about your physical self.i»?The fastest, healthiest, and most effective, interesting and rewarding way to lose weight is by combining 300 minutes of cardio exercise a week with a healthful diet. The best results come when you simultaneously cut down on caloric intake and increase the calories you burn up through exercise.A A Some of what you'll learn is basic common sense, but hopefully you'll gain some insight into how you can change your bad eating habits into good eating habits so you can lose weight and keep it off. In this guide I'm going to give you straight talk about what it takes to rapidly lose weight and get fit in a healthy way.
I'm going to show you exactly what you need to do, step-by-step, so you can reach your weight loss goal and keep that weight off for the long term. If you are going to lose weight and stay fit, you have to think i»?long term lifestyle changesi»?.
You can't eat a banana or a bowl of cabbage soup for three days and think you've succeeded in your weight loss goal.
You've only developed a nasty habit of yo-yo dieting.A I know that's probably not what you wanted to hear. Most people want instant gratification when they make that all important decision to get fit and lose weight. Granted, obesity does run in some families, but that doesn't mean you have to sit back and accept your overweight as a kind of family curse.
More than likely it's simply the result of careless or naive eating habits and far too little physical activity - lazy habits passed on from generation to generation. Diet properly and you'll not only look better, but you'll eat better than you probably have in years. In that case, he's either being overly kind, or he's overweight himself, or he's simply telling a big fat lie!
Let it show you how to add not as much as a single pound though you add five, ten, twenty, even thirty candles to your birthday cake. It doesn't motivate many people to even try to lose weight because a vast majority of those who diet and lose even a little weight will eventually put all that weight (and many times more) back on as soon as they stop dieting.A Therin lies the problem.
Diets are doomed to fail right from the start because most people view diets as a short term solution, something they can follow for a set period of time to get the desired results and then just stop. But unless it's a diet plan they can follow for life, they're doomed to fail.A It doesn't really matter if you believe it or not. You wouldn't be reading this article if you did.A If you want to lose weight and keep that weight off, you need to stop thinking of a diet as a temporary fix. Unfortunately, most people follow an "unhealthy" diet which leads to weight gain, high blood sugar, and for some, obesity, high blood pressure and heart disease.A Weight gain is the product of not paying attention to what you put in your body, how often you do it and when. They also produce long term health problems, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, constipation, fatty liver, heart disease and more.A You may be feeling great because you've lost a few pounds.
But I guarantee you this - If you stop following that diet, and go back to your old eating habits, very soon you'll find yourself on the wrong side of that diet failure statistic.A When you crash diet, you put your metabolismon a roller coaster ride. Instead of speeding up and giving your body more energy, the lower calorie intake that normally goes with a crash diet puts your body in "famine" mode. Your body doesn't want to let go of what it knows it needs to survive.A You need to think i»?long term, healthy eating i»?that will help promote a healthy metabolism, not send it into shock. Some people are unable to digest dairy products because their body doesn't produce an enzyme called lactase. However, because the culture in yogurt produces its own lactase it can be enjoyed by most people. Eating yogurt can combat the bacterium that causes stomach ulcers.Eggs- Skip that stack of pancakes and get a fat-burning boost with a plate of eggs.
Eating the right meal within an hour or two after exercise can make the biggest difference you've noticed yet.
That's the time when your body needs -and most effectively uses- food to turn your effort into stronger muscles and increased energy levels.


Starting a meal with half a grapefruit is an old diet trick that does seem to work, according to scientists.
In 2006, they found that this simple change helped a group of very overweight volunteers to lose weight. Grapefruit is full of flavonoids that repair cell damage, combat cancer, and protect the heart.Avocados- They have a hunger-halting hormone called leptin. Scientists have found people are more relaxed after a higher-fat meal, and even feel less pain. Some fat is also necessary for the body to absorb nutrients that can improve your mood, such a vitamin E.
Avocados are the healthier alternative: instead of saturated fat, they provide healthy monounsaturated fat.
They are rich in tryptophan, along with vitamin B6 and folate, which helps the body turn tryptophan into the feel-good chemical serotonin.Mushrooms- Try swapping out meat for mushrooms in your favorite recipe. A recent study found that mushrooms were just as filling, but of course don't have the saturated fat that's found in meat. Mushrooms are one of the richest sources of a powerful antioxidant called L-ergothioneine, which combats cell damage. They are also rich in vitamin B3, which might slow the onset of age-related dementias, and potassium, which helps to regulate blood pressure. Research is being done into their cancer-fighting properties, including reducing the risk of breast cancer.
Mushrooms might also help to slow down age-related muscle loss, as they provide protein in a form that the body can easily use.
Shiitake mushrooms, in particular, are rich in iron.Olive Oil- With all of its heart-healthy qualities, olive oil contains a hunger-busting acid too.
These three nutrients are associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, which becomes increasingly common in later age. Together, these nutrients protect cells from the damage that can lead to cancer, as well as causing heart disease, hardening of the arteries, and skin deterioration. The vitamin E content can reduce the severity of hot flashes.Whole Grains- To whittle your middle, go for the whole grains. Folks who eat more whole grains have less belly fat.Red Pepper- Do you love crushed red peppers? The heat-inducing compound (capsaicin) that's found in pepper actually cuts your appetite.Fava Beans- Bring on the fava beans if you want to cut that belly fat. So it stands to reason that the first step in weight loss would be cutting back on your food intake.
You don't want to starve your body.A When you don't eat enough food, your body will begin to take whatever it needs in the way of nutrients from other parts of your body in order to survive. That means taking nutrients from your bones, teeth, and vital organs, leaving your body depleted. Your metabolism will shut down in order to reserve energy and your body will only use enough energy to stay alive. So while you may think that by starving yourself you'll drop weight quicker, what you're actually doing is sabotaging your metabolism.A The operative word when thinking of food is "healthy". It's not enough to simply eat enough food to keep your metabolism running at optimal performance.
You need foods that will give your body energy while allowing it to function with a minimal amount of effort.A It is true that there are no bad "foods" if you eat them in moderation and balance them with healthy foods.
No one wants to feel deprived of having their favorite dessert or a fast food burger every so often. However, if you have that fast food burger every day of the week or eat that piece of triple chocolate cake before you go to bed every evening without giving a thought to how your body will react to it, you've established a bad eating habit.A A The trick is to balance the amount of food you eat with whole grains, fresh vegetables and fruits, along with lean meats. That means that whatever it is you're eating is sitting in you while you relax rather than being burned off as you go about your day.A A Furthermore, when you skip a meal, you're famished by the time you finally do get to eat later in the afternoon or early evening. By then end of the day, you've already burned most of the calories you are going to burn during the day. Your body ends up storing those excess calories in your body fat and keeps them in reserve for the next time you skip a meal.A A This can become a vicious circle of you trying to desperately cut back calories by skipping meals and your body is desperately trying to hold on to whatever nourishment it can get. Instead of eating 3 big meals a day, eat 5 or 6 smaller meals.A A Start your day with proteins and any carbohydrates you might want to have during the course of the day. That fat contributes not only to weight gain, but other health issues that are detrimental.A A But not all fats are created equal. Monounsaturated fats can be found in foods like almonds, walnuts, peanuts, avocadoes, and olive oil. Not only are they good for weight loss, as an added health benefit they help to lower your bad LDL cholesterol.A A Polyunsaturated fats also help lower LDL cholesterol levels as well as aid in weight loss.
Foods rich in polyunsaturated fat are salmon, cod, corn and sunflower oils, flaxseed and other fish oils. Foods that contain polyunsaturated fat also contain omega 3 fatty acids, which help aid the body in weight loss.A A You want to avoid saturated fats such as foods fried in vegetable oil or prepackaged foods that add fat for flavoring.
I say changing lifestyle habits instead of focusing on just the kind of food you eat and when you eat it because losing weight, getting fit, and staying that way is not a short term gig.
Stored calories are held in fat cells.A A Break this bad habit by replacing your sedentary lifestyle with exercise in the late afternoon or early evening. A Another reason why exercising later in the day is good is because not everyone has the time during the morning before work or the day gets underway to do justice to a solid workout.
If you are a busy mom of two and need to get your kids off to school or to daycare before you head off to work, when is there time to get to the gym to workout? More times than not the workout gets bumped from the daily schedule and all the efforts at eating right and trying to lose weight are reduced significantly.
A Get around this by scheduling your exercise at a time you know you won't have any conflicts that will interrupt you. Most people make the mistake of only writing down the foods they eat during a planned meal. But they forget about the cream they put in their coffee, a spoonful of ice cream they snuck when serving dessert, a few crackers they popped in their mouth because they suddenly had a sugar craving.A A Some people will find themselves disciplined enough to resist mindless eating. But if you're just starting out in your diet, or not sure how your willpower will hold out, the best thing you can do to kick this habit is to keep a small notebook tucked away in your pocket or in your purse. Every time you get the urge to bring food to your mouth, pull out that notebook and write down what you are about to eat. That one small move will snap you into the realization that you might be consuming calories that will negatively affect your diet.A A There are a whole lot of reasons why people eat mindlessly. That depression can range from life changes or even frustration over your current health and happiness.
It could be anything from a sluggish thyroid to faulty genetics to just not having enough time to think about weight loss.A A I'm here to tell you to knock it off!
The only way you will lose weight and keep it off is stop making excuses for why you're not succeeding.
In fact, having a sluggish thyroid or other genetic problem may be an additional barrier to how fast you can lose weight. People with "bad" genetics and even health problems do manage to lose weight when they put their mind to it. The thing that keeps them from losing weight is falling back on the reason it is so difficult for them.A A Use symbols of physical activity to represent your new lifestyle. This takes your attention away from food and refocuses it on the new behaviors that will make you feel good.
Put an apple, or a copy of diet books on your desk, put your walking shoes in a conspicuous place rather than in your closet. Buy some books on walking, yoga, or other physical activities and place them on tables in different rooms. Each time you lay your eyes on them, you can give yourself a quick pat on the back for all the changes you are making. A visible token of the new you in every room of the house will stimulate you to keep up the good work, keep your eating under control, and remind you to keep up the positive dialogue with yourself.A A Deposit a certain sum of money to a savings account for the successful completion of your behavior change strategy each day. If you deposit a dollar for every mile walked you will soon have enough to buy the new clothes you are going to need. You deserve a good new wardrobe.A A Learn everything you possibly can about your "excuse" for not losing weight.
For instance, if you have a sluggish thyroid, talk to your health care provider about being put on medication to regulate it, if needed. Learn what foods interfere with thyroid hormone production.A Allowing yourself to use excuses for why you are unable to lose weight will only be self-defeating. Empower yourself to change those excuses around and become proactive in your desire to lose weight.A A You may not lose weight as fast as someone else who does not have the same issues you have. And I can guarantee that you won't lose any weight if you continue to use your excuses as a crutch.A If it were really that easy to lose weight then everyone would do it. We wouldn't be a society of overweight people.Weight loss takes dedication and a conscious effort to eat healthy foods and exercise regularly. It may not be intentional but most people underestimatethe amount of calories and fat they eat in any given day. If you're supposed to exercise for 30 minutes and you only exercise for 20, you're not giving yourself the truth. Anyone would argue that 20 minutes of exercise is still better than zero minutes of exercise. But you will go further over the long haul and make more progress towards reaching your goal if you are honest about exactly what it is you are doing.
If you're eating something healthy like fresh garden greens and lean meats it may not make a difference. But there will come a time when you've reached your weight loss goal where you'll start introducing higher calorie foods occasionally.
Not everyone in your household will be on a diet and not everyone will want to eat the same foods you need to eat to lose weight. It's also tiring to have to make two different meals to satisfy different people.A A Remember that no one is going to keep you on track but you. When there are differing menu choices for the family, make sure you incorporate your diet menu into the overall meal plan. For instance, if everyone else is having tacos for dinner, instead of using high calorie, high carbohydrate tortillas, make a taco salad for yourself.
For every hour of the day, enter in what chores everyone in the family wants to do and needs to do for an entire week.
Occasionally, you will find that you have cheated on your diet or skipped your exercise program and think you've blown it.
Instead of getting right back on the wagon after you've fallen, you continue cheating and then decide to start back up eating right and exercising the next day.A A While I applaud you for getting right back on that wagon and getting back into your weight loss and fitness program again, I need to caution you about the mindset of blowing it all the way. But there are mistakes, and then there are disasters.A If you overindulge one evening or cheat on your diet, the best thing for you to do as soon as you realize your mistake is to stop right there and make yourself get right back on track. But as soon as you recognize it, then make sure you stop and get right back on the program to prevent further damaging your momentum. It's not enough to say that you'll do an extra set of crunches or an additional 15 minutes of aerobics. In this guide I'm going to give you straight talk about what it takes to rapidly lose weight and get fit in a healthy way. I'm going to show you exactly what you need to do, step-by-step, so you can reach your weight loss goal and keep that weight off for the long term.
Granted, obesity does run in some families, but that doesn't mean you have to sit back and accept your overweight as a kind of family curse.
More than likely it's simply the result of careless or naive eating habits and far too little physical activity - lazy habits passed on from generation to generation.
Some people are unable to digest dairy products because their body doesn't produce an enzyme called lactase. Eating the right meal within an hour or two after exercise can make the biggest difference you've noticed yet.
That's the time when your body needs -and most effectively uses- food to turn your effort into stronger muscles and increased energy levels.
It's not enough to simply eat enough food to keep your metabolism running at optimal performance. You're body is only going to use what it needs at that particular moment and nothing more. By then end of the day, you've already burned most of the calories you are going to burn during the day. Sure, popcorn has a high amount of fiber, something that is good when you're on a diet. A Get around this by scheduling your exercise at a time you know you won't have any conflicts that will interrupt you. But if you're just starting out in your diet, or not sure how your willpower will hold out, the best thing you can do to kick this habit is to keep a small notebook tucked away in your pocket or in your purse.
It could be anything from a sluggish thyroid to faulty genetics to just not having enough time to think about weight loss.A A I'm here to tell you to knock it off! The only way you will lose weight and keep it off is stop making excuses for why you're not succeeding. If you're eating something healthy like fresh garden greens and lean meats it may not make a difference.



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