Get FREE Home Tips & Hacks Join us to get great money-saving tips, cool ideas, and valuable advice from home improvement expert Don Vandervort! If you’re adding an overhead to an existing deck, you can bolt the posts to the substructure of the deck, placing them directly above or adjacent to the deck posts. The posts support beams and rafters.If the overhead is attached to the house, the ledger takes the place of a beam, supporting the rafters directly. Still others—glass, steel, built-up, and tile—are best left to professionals.The illustrations below show several types of patio roofs and two methods of building a gazebo roof—one with open sheathing, the other with solid sheathing. If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly. Overhead rafters can be left open or can be covered with any one of a number of patio-roof materials.
248 CMR 10.00 is founded upon certain principles of public health environmental sanitation and safety through properly designed, acceptably installed, and adequately maintained plumbing systems. Some of the details of plumbing construction may vary but the basic sanitary and safety principles desirable and necessary to protect the health of people are the same everywhere.
As interpretations may be required, and as unforeseen situations arise which are not specifically covered in 248 CMR 10.00, the final interpretation shall be made by the Board. The following principles shall comply with all Articles of the State Sanitary Code and Titles of the Environmental Code.Principle No.
All premises intended for human habitation, occupancy, or use must be provided with a supply of potable water. Such a water supply shall not be connected with unsafe or questionable water sources, nor shall it be subject to the hazards of backflow, backpressure, or back-siphonage.Principle No. Plumbing fixtures, devices, and appurtenances must be supplied with water in sufficient volume and at pressures adequate to enable them to function properly and without undue noise under normal conditions of use.Principle No. Hot water must be supplied to all plumbing fixtures which normally need or require hot water for their proper use and function.Principle No. Plumbing must be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper performance and cleaning.Principle No. Devices and appliances for heating and storing water must be so designed and installed as to guard against dangers from explosion or overheating.Principle No. A washing machine connection that consists of a piping arrangement that includes a cold water supply, hot water supply and a sufficient drain connection shall be provided in conformance with the following: One and Two Family Dwelling.
In multiple dwellings that are not restricted to the elderly, at least one washing machine connection for every ten dwelling units or fraction thereof that do not have a washing machine in the unit.Elderly Housing.
The plumbing drainage system must be installed, designed, arranged, constructed, and maintained to protect against fouling, deposit of solids, and stoppages.
The drainage system shall incorporate adequate cleanouts placed in a manner that the drainage system may be readily cleaned.Principle No. The piping and other components of the plumbing system must be manufactured of durable material, free from defective workmanship, and designed and constructed to provide satisfactory service for its reasonable expected life.Principle No. Every fixture directly connected to the drainage system must be equipped with a liquid-seal trap.Principle No. The drainage and vent system must be designed to provide adequate circulation of air in and throughout all piping. Trap seals shall be protected from the dangers of, siphonage, leakage, aspiration, momentum, oscillation, back pressure, evaporation and capillary action under conditions of normal ordinary use.Principle No.
Vent terminals shall extend to the outer air above the roof line and be installed to prohibit the possibility of vent obstruction and the return of sewage gases into the building.Principle No. The plumbing system must be subjected to such tests as will effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the work or the materials.Principle No.
No substance that will cause or exacerbate clogs or stoppages in pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their joints, or interfere unduly with the sewage disposal process shall enter the building drainage system.Principle No. Indirect drainage piping installations shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, ice, sterile goods, and other similar products.
When the potential of a backflow of sewage event is possible the fixture, device, or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the building sanitary or storm drainage system.Principle No. No toilets, urinals, bathtubs, or shower facilities shall be installed into a new or renovated room, space, or compartment that does not incorporate proper illumination and mechanical exhaust to the exterior of the building. This Principle does not apply to the removal and replacement of existing fixtures.Principle No. Where a plumbing drainage system is subject to back-flow of sewage from the public sewer system suitable provision shall be incorporated to prevent the potential of overflow into the building.Principle No. Plumbing systems shall be maintained in a safe and serviceable condition from the standpoint of both mechanics and health.Principle No. All plumbing fixtures shall be installed in a manner with respect to clearances for spacing and accessibility for their intended use and cleansing.Principle No. Plumbing shall be installed with regard to the preservation of the strength of structural members and the prevention of damage to walls, floors and other structurally sensitive surfaces when performing fixture installations and through fixture usage.Principle No. All discharges to ground or surface water must meet all local, state, and federal water quality discharge standards.Principle No.
All waste discharge materials that may become detrimental to the health and welfare of the general public, that enter the sanitary drainage system of any building, shall be carried within hazardous waste piping systems. The hazardous waste shall be collected and disposed of or treated prior to entering the sanitary drainage system in accordance with the requirements of 248 CMR. In a room that accommodates more than one toilet or that incorporates a urinal and a toilet, each toilet shall be enclosed and each urinal shall be side shielded for privacy.Principle No.

The installation of a drinking fountain in a rest room that incorporates toilets or urinals is prohibited.Principle No.
In addition, for the purposes of 248 CMR 10.00, the following terms shall have the meanings. Having access thereto that may require the removal of an access panel, door, or similar obstruction.Air Break (Drainage System).
A piping arrangement wherein a drain from a fixture, appliance, or device discharges indirectly into a fixture, receptacle, or interceptor at a point below the flood level rim of the receptacle.Air Gap (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which the waste discharges.Air Gap (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood level rim of the related receptacle.Alkalinity.
The opposite of acidity.Anti-siphon Vacuum Breaker-Non-pressure Type (Back-siphonage Preventer). Not to be used under continuous pressure.Anti-siphon Vacuum Breaker-Pressure Type (Back-siphonage Preventer). A diaphragm type spring loaded device that prevents unwanted siphoning or over pumping of a chemical into a potable supply of water. The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from any source or sources other than its intended source. An assembly of differential valves and check valves including an automatically opened spillage port to the atmosphere.Back-pressure. Pressure created by mechanical means or other means, causing water, liquids or other substances to flow, or move, in a reverse or opposite direction than intended.Back-pressure Valve.
A spring loaded one way check valve to prevent over pumping or unwanted siphoning of a chemical into a potable supply of water.Back-siphonage.
The flowing back of used, contaminated, or polluted water from a plumbing fixture, vessel or other sources into a water supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such pipe.Barometric Loop.
A vertical loop of pipe, rising to a height sufficient to prevent back-siphonage from occurring in the potable water supply pipe.
A room equipped with a bathtub or shower stall, toilet and a lavatory basin or any combination thereof.Bathroom (Half-bath). Waste water containing fecal matter and other human waste that is flushed or discharged from toilets or urinals.Boiler Blow-off. A vessel designed to receive the discharge from a boiler blow-off outlet, to cool the discharge to a temperature of 150EF or less, and permits the discharge to flow safely to the drainage system.Branch.
A distance along a soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a story height, but not less than eight feet in vertical height, and wherein the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected to the stack.Branch Vent. A structure used for the housing, shelter, enclosure, or support of persons, animals or property.Building Drain. A building drain which conveys storm water waste or other clear water drainage.Building Sewer.
A building sewer that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.Building Sewer -- Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys storm water waste or other clear water drainage except that it does not convey sewage.Building Subdrain.
The portion of a drainage system that cannot drain its discharge into a building sewer via the force of gravity.Building Subdrain - Sanitary. The portion of a drainage system that cannot drain its sewage discharge into a building sewer via the force of gravity.Building Subdrain - Storm.
The portion of a drainage system that cannot drain its storm water waste, clear water discharge or other subsurface clear water discharge excluding sewage, into a building storm sewer via the force of gravity.Circuit Vent. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more plumbing fixtures or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe. A vertical vent that is a continuation of the vertical drain to which it connects.Critical Level. In the potable water supply piping, the minimum elevation that a backflow prevention device or anti-siphon vacuum breaker is installed, above the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle it is to serve.Cross Connection.
Any actual or potential physical connection or arrangement between a pipe containing potable water from a public water system and any non-potable water supply, piping arrangement, or equipment, including, but not limited to waste pipe, soil pipe, sewer drain or other unapproved sources.
A branch leading from a soil, waste, or vent pipe, building drain, or building sewer, and terminating at a developed length of two feet or more by means of a plug, cap or other closed fitting.Decontamination.
The reduction or removal of microbial or hazardous chemical contamination from surfaces, liquids or spaces.Dedicated SystemsDedicated Acid Waste and Special Hazardous Waste Systems. All acid drainage or special drainage and acid vent piping or special vent piping normally associated with exterior or interior acid neutralizing or hazardous waste treatment devices.Dedicated Gasoline, Oil and Sand Systems. All drainage and vent piping normally associated with exterior or interior gasoline, oil and sand Separators.Dedicated Grease Systems.
Includes all piping, valves, pumps, meters, retaining tanks for exterior or interior gray water collection points.Dedicated Waste Water Recycling System. Shall be considered the assembly of all piping, valves, pumps, meters and retaining tanks for installation at exterior or interior waste water recycling system locations that shall include but not be limited to collection points and points of use.Developed Length.
The length of a pipeline as measured along the center line of the pipe or fittings.Diameter. Two changes of direction that are or have been installed in succession or series in a continuous pipe.Domestic Sewage. A horizontal pipe that carries waste water or waterborne waste in a drainage system.Drainage System.

Includes all the piping contained within a public or private premises that conveys sewage, rain water, or other liquid wastes to an appropriate point of disposal. It does not include the mains of a public sewer system or private or public sewage treatment or disposal plant.Drainage System, Building Gravity.
Soil or waste systems where all piping is threaded pipe that uses recessed drainage fittings to correspond to the types of piping.Dwelling -- Single.
Three or more single dwellings that are not independent buildings, that share exterior walls, a roof, and a foundation and where a common sewer connection and water supply are contained within the premise.Dwelling -- Two Family. Two single dwellings that are not independent buildings, that share a common exterior wall, a roof, and a foundation and a where a common water supply and sewer connection are contained within its own premises.Effective Opening. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of (a) if the opening is circular as the diameter of a circle, or (b) if the opening is not circular, as the diameter of a circle having the equivalent cross sectional area of the opening.Existing Work. A system of pipes and equipment used exclusively to supply water for extinguishing fires.Fixture (Plumbing Fixture).
The water supply pipe that connects a fixture to either a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water supply pipe.Fixture Unit. When the liquid in a fixture or receptacle rises to the flood level rim.Flow Pressure (Residual Pressure). The pressure in a water supply pipe as measured at the faucet or water outlet when the faucet or water outlet is wide open and flowing.Flush Valve. A device that is located at the bottom of a tank and that is used for flushing toilets and similar fixtures.Flushometer Valve. A device used for flushing purposes that discharges a predetermined quantity of water into fixtures and where the device is closed by direct water pressure.Genetics.
In drainage it is usually expressed as the fall in a fraction of an inch per foot length of pipe.Gray-water. Used water out-flowing from a clothes-washer, shower, bathtub or bathroom sink and reused on the same site for below ground irrigation only.
A waste, or combination of wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics may cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health, safety, or welfare or to the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, used or disposed of, or otherwise managed. Wastes which require special treatment before entry into a normal plumbing system.Hazardous Waste Pipe.
A drain branch pipe that extends laterally from a soil or waste stack or a building drain, that may or may not have vertical sections or branches, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and that conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building drain.Horizontal Pipe. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45E in reference to a horizontal plane.Hot Water. A system for disposal or treatment of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank or sewage treatment plant wherein the system is designed for use apart from a public sewer and serves a single establishment or building where a public sewer is not available.Indirect Waste Pipe. A waste pipe that does not connect directly with a drainage system, but discharges into a drainage system through an air break or air gap into a properly wasted and vented trap, fixture, receptacle or interceptor.Individual Vent.
It connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates at a point above the roof level.Individual Water Supply. A water supply, other than a public water supply, that serves one or more buildings, dwellings or structures.Industrial Waste Water. Water that has been contaminated with by-products of industrial manufacturing processes.Industrial Wastes. Liquid wastes that result from the processes employed in industrial and commercial establishments.Insanitary.
A device designed and installed to separate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual (passive) means deleterious, hazardous, or undesirable matter from normal wastes and permits normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.Installed. A system of water distribution piping used to wet or moisten the landscape.Leaching Well or Pit.
A pit or receptacle having porous walls that permits the contents to seep into the ground.Leader. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm water from a roof or gutter drains.Liquid Waste.
Discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or appurtenance that does not contain human or animal waste matter suspended in a solution.Load Factor. The percentage of the total connected fixture unit flow which is likely to occur at any point in the drainage system. It varies with the type of occupancy, the total flow unit above this point being considered, and with the probability factor of simultaneous use.Loop Vent.
All piping, tubing and fittings, drains and receptacles, interceptors and protectors, hangers and supports, covers and coverings, appliances and other devices and appurtenances used, or referred to, in the definitions of Plumbing, Plumbing Fixtures and Plumbing Systems.Mezzanine. An intermediate or fractional level between a floor and a ceiling that projects in the form of a balcony over the floor and wherein the aggregate floor area of the intermediate or fractional level is less than 33% of the area of the floor over which it is located.Non-potable Water. A combination of elbows or bends which brings a pipe out of line with one section of piping but into a line parallel with another section of piping.pH.
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration used in expressing both acidity and alkalinity on a scale whose values run from zero to 14, with a lower value of less than seven indicating increasing acidity and values greater than seven indicating increasing alkalinity.

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