Wikibon is a professional community solving technology and business problems through an open source sharing of free advisory knowledge.
At scale, CIO's will find that it's between 8-23% more expensive to place infrastructure function into application stacks than it is to manage storage function at the array level.
The Peer Incite discussion evolved around the topic of infrastructure and specifically, should infrastructure function reside in application stacks or hardware. Oracle, from a business resilience standpoint has a more credible approach but Microsoft is a force within the application development community, especially in mid-to-smaller businesses. Organizations that use chargebacks are much more receptive to an infrastructure services approach. Application heads have greater influence and decision-making authority in organizations pursuing an application stack approach. Both approaches are viable however at scale, application-centric strategies tend to be more expensive.
Figure 2 presents a model of infrastructure services developed by John Blackman and presented to Wikibon when he was an architect at Wells Fargo. Notably, this model will not satisfy 100% of applications in the portfolio-- 80% is a good target for practitioners. In no instance is Oracle DAS less expensive than SAN due to Oracle’s license fees at $20K - $30K per server. Includes incremental server and software license costs to accommodate increased compute requirements.
SAN is a fungible asset that can be shared across the application portfolio and is less expensive at scale. The Wikibon community agreed that pursuing initiatives that simplify infrastructure was commonsense business, however not having a simplification strategy (either application- or infrastructure-centric) was imprudent.
In addition, in smaller shops, the application-centric approach is sensible as it removes the complexities associated with shared infrastructure such as SAN.
Overcoming the challenge posed by the intermittent nature of renewable energy continues to be a major roadblock to high levels of renewable penetration and a stick with which doubters of clean energy can attempt to hit the sector. With 3 GW of solar PV and 2 million small scale renewable energy systems, according to the latest figures from the Clean Energy Regulator, it is clear that Australian households and businesses are adopting clean technology in a big way.
Some are now predicting that a similar dynamic will emerge with small scale battery storage systems.
For storage systems in homes, where weight and volume restrictions don’t apply as they do to cars, lead acid batteries can also be applied. Large quantities of storage systems could have a transformative impact on electricity demand from the grid. In fact, a proliferation of storage systems could actually make electricity grids themselves more unstable. However, distributed storage could also play a role in serving the grid – either through taking surges in PV-produced electricity off the low and medium voltage grids and even through frequency control. Researchers from Munich’s Technical University and the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Technologies (ZSW) in Stuttgart are currently developing such battery control strategies.
In short, by creating a dynamic strategy by which a battery charges itself from a PV array and at what time of day, surges of electricity flowing onto low and medium voltage grids can be minimised, with the battery still becoming fully charged to then be discharged in the evening and night. What is currently lacking for these strategies to be employed is an incentive or market mechanism to do so. So it looks like it will pay for utilities and regulators to take a close look at distributed battery systems closely. In an ideal world PV is allowed out onto the grid unregulated, which prefers clean PV generation – not some dirty, lossy and uncontrolled generation from large distances away.
I have Pv’s on my roof and get about $300 a quarter refunds ( at the Qld 44c refund rate).
For household use batteries make more sense, by getting entirely off the grid, you wouldn’t just get a poor feed in tariff, you would stop having to pay the horrible supply charge. I don’t know about where you live, but where I live there can be multiple days in a row without good sunshine. Before you talk about the wonders of going off the grid make sure you’ve covered the entire cost. Frustratingly, you make a very valid point, it can be cloudy for long periods, maybe we’re stuck with the utilities and large scale hydrogen storage.
The typical costs associated with storage units are heavily dependent on the size of the unit and climate control.
Usually, consumers will have to make a one-time purchase of some type of lock for their storage unit. If rent is not paid on time, the owners of the storage unit have the right to charge late fees. If you feel portable storage is a service you need, then Cool Box’s Storage costs cannot be beat.
Getting a quote for your portable storage is the first step in planning out the most efficient moving and storage plan. Our portable storage containers come in three convenient sizes to fill all of your storage needs. We have all-inclusive storage costs, no hidden charges, and four delivery movements for FREE when it is within 30 miles from our nearest storage facility. When you get a Cool Box Storage unit you can rest assured knowing you have acquired the best services for the best storage costs. IMPORTANT:We only service the states of California, Arizona, Texas, Nevada, Utah and Oklahoma.
Energy storage systems store energy for use at a later time, when electric power is most needed and most valuable, such as on hot summer afternoons. Energy storage has the unique potential to transform the electric utility industry by improving existing asset utilization, avoiding the building of new power plants, and avoiding or deferring upgrades to existing transmission and distribution networks.
More recently, energy storage has achieved recognition as a foundational element of the smart grid, and the technical community speaks of energy storage as a key enabling resource to facilitate the transition away from a fossil-fuel-dominated generation fleet to one that is cleaner, more reliant on renewables, "smarter," and able to accelerate the electrification of the transportation sector. To help illustrate the cost effectiveness of energy storage, we compared the cost of a kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity generated on-peak by a gas-fired peaker with the cost of a kWh of electricity provided on-peak by an energy storage system. Using assumptions taken from a recent California Energy Commission (CEC) study, our analysis found a levelized cost of generation for the simple cycle gas-fired peaker plant of $492 per megawatt-hour (MWh), or $203 per kilowatt-year (kW-yr). When these benefits are factored in and compared to the total installed cost for a range of energy storage technologies, energy storage emerges as a comprehensive, cost-effective system resource. The bars in the chart above represent the total installed cost per kWh of energy storage capacity by major storage technology, assuming four hours of capacity for each. Grid storage displaces less efficient, dirtier peaker generation by time-shifting more efficient, cleaner base-load generation to peak periods.
Modern energy storage technologies, some of which have been in existence for decades, cover a wide range of sizes, power (measured in MW), and discharge durations (measured in hours). Current California policy has not kept pace with advances in energy storage technology, yet energy storage can cost-effectively help address California's many energy policy challenges, such as greenhouse gas emissions reduction, renewables integration, transmission and distribution constraints, increasing peak demand and enabling electric vehicles.
Energy storage technologies are well established in other industries and market applications. The chief barrier here is neither the availability of a reliable energy storage technology nor its cost; the barrier is the current accounting of disaggregated benefits in a deregulated utility industry and lack of clear policy direction to utilities that energy storage is a superior alternative to gas-fired peakers.
The amount of data stored within corporate servers, workstations and user's machines continues to grow. A third trend in the rapid growth of stored data is the emerging role of information technology within firms. Drive read instability includes occasions where media corruption or degradation prevents access to the data on a disk. An episode of data loss will result in two outcomes: either the data is recoverable or is permanently lost. In cases where the data may be retrieved with in-house expertise, we must consider the internal resources that are encumbered. In addition to the cost of outsourcing the recovering data, users and companies are subjected to lost productivity. Understanding hard drive failure is important because it is the largest single explanation for data loss.
Most instances of hard drive failure do not destroy all of the data on the disk and much of the data on failed drives is often recoverable. The more valuable the data on the failed drive the fewer non-professional recovery attempts should be made.
The most thorough professional data recovery services are able to retrieve data from drives with mechanical, electronic, and firmware failures. As evidenced above, hard drive failure is the most common source of data loss which can lead to negative consequences for any business. If the failed drive is the system boot disk, immediately unplug the computer and remove the drive. Do not attempt to "repair" bad sectors or to read data from bad sectors by using data retrieval software on a failing disk. In cases of water, fire, or vandalism damage, do not attempt to power up a system that contains critical data. Stewart Buchanon, a€?Five Ways to Manage Storage Assets and Defuse Explosive Growth,a€? Gartner Research Report #G00149222 (2007).


DeepSpar Data Recovery Systems, a€?A Survey of Data Recovery Issues & Causes,a€? Unpublished working paper, (2007). Gartner Group, a€?CIO Survey Shows the Continuing Importance of Mobile Applications,a€? October 30, (2006). David Patterson, a€?A Simple way to Estimate the Cost of Downtime,a€? Proceedings of LISA a€™02: Sixteenth Systems Administration Conference, pp. Keith Regan, a€?Mounting Data Spurs Corporate Storage Spending,a€? E-Commerce Times, March 13, (2007). The combination of tape and flash will yield much better performance and substantially lower cost than spinning disk. For decades we’ve heard that the amount of capacity under a disk actuator will increasingly be problematic for application performance. Head technology investments, the lynchpin of disk technology for years, are in a long, slow, managed decline cycle. The lack of investments in spinning disk tech, the fact that spin speeds have hit their physical limits and the reality that track capacities aren’t increasing that fast, combine to give you slow as molasses disk bandwidth. These future flape architectures are delivering new business value for customers because they’re able to monetize complex and previously unattainable (in a decent amount of time) seek requests for information.
The implication is that the time it takes to scan a 5TB tape cartridge today will be the same as it takes to scan a 50+TB cartridge in 2023. The fact is disk is slower than tape when large files are involved because the internal bandwidth of disk devices are limited, especially as capacity grows. Our view is that in order to scale, flape needs leadership that can set standards, point the way for customers to develop metadata taxonomies, provide middleware technology to exploit flape and finally entice ISVs to recognize flape as a viable platform.
Like the famous boxer who once lost his luster, tape is re-inventing itself and can become a prominent mainstream player again.
This is not to say it doesn't make sense to pursue an application stack approach - but practioners should do so with an understanding of the costs and business value such a strategy will deliver.
Based on in-depth research with more than 20 practitioners and extensive financial modeling the Wikibon community debated the merits of a shared hardware-oriented infrastructure versus placing function in application stacks. Participants included CIOs, application heads, infrastructure professionals and technical experts. The model developed uses a return on asset methodology to capture metrics for installed assets as well as new gear. Generally, at scale an application-centric approach will be more expensive than a shared services (e.g. Further, organizations interested in pursuing a shared infrastrucutre approach at scale should obtain a clear roadmap from their vendors as to how existing infrastructure will be migrated and how organizational risks will be mitigated. Application-centric approaches should be pursued with a clear understanding of ROI and business value while infrastructure-centric strategies should be designed to facilitate technology migration. Battery and storage technologies are an obvious solution to this, but high prices have seen uptake and projects remain limited. With these economies of scale, system price reductions have also been a major consequence, with PV panel and system prices reductions having a transformative effect on the economics of solar power. With sufficient demand, a manufacturer of this size could supply 500,000 10kWh residential storage systems annually. Mike Sandiford, from the Melbourne Energy Institute, at Melbourne University, argues that NEM consumption data is already revealing falling demand, both in gross and peak terms. Large numbers of batteries being hooked up to PV systems in Australian homes would presumably accelerate this trend – which would be extremely worrying for utilities.
At the recent IRES conference in Berlin, these researchers presented the latest data from these approaches which reveal that PV feed in can be managed to minimise grid load, without affecting the PV-electricity self consumption capacity of the household.
Weather prediction data, household demand predictions and the grid condition itself are the data required for the formulate these battery operation strategies. Aachen University’s Sauer is hopeful that in Germany at least, utilities and policy makers are waking up to the potential of large numbers of distributed storage systems to provide a service to the grid, along with to the homeowner. They are good at regulating the signal that goes out, and switch off if they can’t find at least 6A on the grid. In an ideal world it should be possible to permit unfettered PV output on a grid, and the network manager be made to monitor and regulate outside sources of energy to stop cooking the grid. Think no electricity bill at all, as to hydrogen, a mix of refrigeration and compression, even storing in metal hydrides, as in vehicles, for bulk storage makes a lot of sense. One way around it would be using gas, in a fuel cell, but the initial outlay is quite a lot. Along with monthly rental fees, there are several other costs that consumers should consider before committing to a storage unit facility. According to Storage Locator, late fees are usually reasonable, but vary widely from facility to facility. We guarantee to price match with Pack Rat, PODS®, and all of our other comparable competitors’ storage costs. Our containers protect your possessions in a highly insulated environment that reduces the in-box temperature by 10-15 degrees. With our commitment to customer service, you can also be sure that any question you have will be addressed by one of our storage professionals, and it doesn’t get any better than that.
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We deliver a portable storage container right to your door and move or store the container when you are ready. Energy storage helps integrate intermittent renewable sources, can supplant the most polluting power plants, and enhances grid reliability. Scientists, utility CEOs, and policymakers frequently refer to energy storage as the "Holy Grail" for the electric power industry. The following analysis demonstrates the value of energy storage as an alternative to natural gas-fired peaker plants.
For simplicity, this comparison used a commercially available energy storage technology -- lead-acid batteries -- and used the cost and specifications similar to the large lead-acid energy storage peaking facility shown below. For example, by their nature, gas-fired peaker plants cannot be economically sized below 50 MW and therefore are not easily installed in a distributed footprint. The red dashed line indicates where storage costs are at cost parity with a natural gas-fired peaker.
An energy storage system can be either centralized or distributed and can be utility-owned, customer-owned or third-party owned. Grid storage, a key component of the electric power industry, represents a large new market application for both existing and emerging energy storage technologies.
Thus, while energy storage presents compelling social and economic benefits, California's current market structure has led to underinvestment. If this strategy does not recover your data you should contact a professional data recovery service for assistance. Gibson, a€?Disk Failures in the Real World: What Does an MTTF of 1,000,000 Hours Mean to You?a€? Proceedings of the 5th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies, Pp. This statement will prove true for long-term data retention use cases storing large data objects. Specifically, as disk capacities increase at the rate prescribed by Moore’s Law, placing more data under a mechanical arm will serve to relentlessly decelerate performance and eventually the spinning rust business will hit a wall. To be clear, we’re talking about the speed at which data comes off the disk internally.
An example might be give me all the Lady Gaga video clips where she performed live; with Crayon Pop opening for her between 2011 and 2012.
As implied in the points above, the time it takes (for example) to rebuild a disk drive on a failure is escalating with every new generation of capacity increase. The data below show an economic model developed by Wikibon around flape as compared with alternative spinning disk architectures. Flape may still be the way to go in such use cases because archiving software is often able to group smaller files into larger objects.
HP could also be a player, but Oracle in particular, with its StorageTek heritage, could emerge as an early innovator. Notably, small and mid-sized customers that don’t want to deal with complex infrastructure will often find it more effiecient and less expensive to place function into application stacks; underscoring yet another ‘it depends’ dynamic in IT. But business lines are all moving to the cloud and the trend toward outsourcing to the cloud has been accelerated by 12-18 month due to the economic downturn.
The cube presents a three dimensional model of 1) Infrastructure components; 2) Availability levels and 3) Performance Groups.
As well, users should push vendors to provide reference architecutures and proven solutions to further limit risk and speed deployment.
By accommodating these simple parameters, organizations will limit complexity, improve service levels and limit lock-in. Sauer says that economies of scale for both lithium ion and lead acid batteries will cut battery costs by one-half to two-thirds. And if batteries get cheaper fast, distributed storage could be set to make a big impact on Australian electricity grids and markets. The article discusses the results from everyone putting out large PV generation at the same time, which causes problems.


As the price per kWh of solar power gets dramatically cheaper, than carbon dioxide emissions based power, eg., desert concentrated cooled, high and low frequency solar power. A problem with sending power back to the utility, is loss over distance is up to 70%, still coal has exactly the same problem. If you still have more questions, or need more information, we keep an open line of communication with our current and potential customers. There are many ways to store energy, including chemically (batteries), mechanically (flywheels) and thermally (ice).
The California State Senate will soon hold hearings on AB 2514, an assembly bill to to promote energy storage in the state. A detailed version of this analysis, including all assumptions, is available in the full white paper. Energy storage systems do not have this limitation, opening up the potential for many technical and economical benefits available to distributed energy resources, such as reduction of transmission and distribution losses. The green dashed line indicates the grid system level costs that are avoided with energy storage -- in other words, this line is representative of other real system costs that are borne by electricity customers. For example, assuming Pacific Gas and Electric's base load electric mix as the off-peak source of electricity, energy storage would provide 55% CO2 savings, 85% NOx savings, and up to 96% savings of CO per MWh of on-peak electricity delivered.
Unfortunately, the electric power industry is a highly regulated industry that has historically overlooked using storage for grid optimization. It was a main reason Al Shugart bought Control Data’s Imprimis disk division in 1989. While time-to-first-byte is faster than tape, because disk is a random access device once you find the data, if it’s a large object like a video file or archived email blob, it takes a long time to get data off the disk.
Think about applying this to facial recognition applications or email archive blobs or any large object data set. To rebuild a 21TB disk could take more than a month which by the way is why no one should use RAID 5 anymore because during a rebuild you’re exposed for far too long, risking a second drive failure and data loss.
Wikibon spoke with several IT practitioners who have developed early instantiations of flape using a high spin speed disk metadata layer.
The example given was should recovery capabilities be designed into, for example, Oracle 11g or Exchange 2010 or does it make more sense to place that function in, for example a storage array. The intersection of the three dimensions is a service that is priced and delivered to the business. However an application-centric approach can often deliver outstanding business value, especially in the area of database recovery.
Then industry becomes interested, refrigeration is cheaper in bulk as it insulates itself more, a typical economy of scale effect, for liquid hydrogen, Australia, 75% desert as an island continent, with a tiny 23 million population.
You’re right, some form of distributed smart grid, using medium scale battery storage, wind, gas to medium scale high temperature fuel cells. Additional benefits include electric energy time-shift, voltage support, electric supply reserve capacity, transmission congestion relief, and frequency regulation. Finally, the blue arrow represents the total societal cost avoided by energy storage, including its ability to help achieve a smart grid, accelerate and facilitate renewables integration, and avoid GHG emissions.
As a result, current market structure does not allow for the buyer of the storage equipment to easily capture all the value streams provided by storage across the entire electric power system. Flash is cheaper and now more economical than the segment formerly known as high-performance disk drives. Another reason tape can be faster is file systems like Linear Tape File System (LTFS) and SAM-QFS. With flape, data and metadata would be written to the flash layer and the data moved asynchronously to tape. Tape’s superior economics relative to disk and its better performance for large files (when combined with flash) make it attractive for retention and big data repository apps.
Oracle, due to exceedingly high license and maintenance costs was not found to be lower in terms of TCO. Pracitioners are advised to ensure adequate business value when pursuing application-centric approaches and justify the added expenditure.
A quarter of our deserts could supply 2,500 times, as much power, as Australia consumes each year, that’s just 1,000 by 1,000 kms. Gas fuel cells in the medium scale are cheap to build, but expensive to fuel, so they make a good solution to intermittent loss, of sun based current. Ranges for each of these value streams have recently been quantified by Sandia National Laboratories, and are presented in the chart below.
Energy storage will also help optimize the use of existing transmission and distribution capacity, enabling the deployment of more renewable energy. Wikibon practitioners (several in media and entertainment) are writing metadata taxonomies and surfacing metadata to a high-speed layer. Well this turns out not to always be true especially where bandwidth is the primary measure of performance as it is for large objects (e.g. Tape file systems allow separation of metadata in a self-describing tape format providing direct access to file content and metadata, independent of any external database or storage system. Both IBM and Oracle sell flash storage products, IBM with the TMS acquisition and Oracle with the ZFS line of flash-first arrays.
A million by a million metres, or in other words a trillion square metres, say 1 kW per metre, 12 hours a day, 365 days a year, or 4 MWh per metre, times a trillion square metres. Finally, because of its ability to store locally generated power and be remotely dispatched, energy storage is an indispensable component of a more affordable, secure and reliable smart grid.
For a long time the storage industry somewhat masked disk performance problems by spinning the platters faster, increasing track capacities, using larger caches, writing better algorithms, creating massive backend disk farms, wide striping data and doing unnatural acts like short-stroking devices. This capability presents tape in a standard file system view of the data stored making accessing files stored on the tape, logically similar to accessing files stored on disk. From a cost perspective, HDDs have been unable to keep pace with the areal density curve of tape. In addition, several Oracle customers we spoke with are focusing the ZFS appliance on backup applications as an alternative to NetApp targets. The bit error rates for tape are two orders of magnitude better than spinning disk meaning tape is a much more suitable platform for long-term storage. More recently the industry began to jam flash into legacy storage arrays, which breathed new life into disk performance.
Tape heads are fixed – a stationary component that can more easily be replicated and staggered.
This infrastructure is connected to an application server, which writes both metadata and data directly to the high-speed layer. The slide below shows a comparison of disk versus tape bandwidth specifically the internal bandwidth of the device (normalized by capacity).
Second, can the application that may need to leverage the data that resides on tape, easily access the data that lives on the tape? In order for flape to be adopted widely however, the vendor community must step up to the plate.
Meanwhile, IBM with its Tivoli line of management software has a background in this market. If the industry steps up and buyers keep an open mind, flape is a winner that will cut costs for the bit bucket, improve archiving performance for large object workloads and deliver substantial incremental business value. 1915-25 peak decade of the 2nd IR, 2015-25 peak decade of the 3rd IR, the UNSW’s 40% efficiency concentrated cooled dual cell technology is revolutionary. The data is then grouped into objects that are categorized based on the taxonomy and trickled asynchronously to the backend tape for cold storage.
Tape of course is starting at a much lower cost per bit than disk and is likely to remain an order of magnitude cheaper. This is why a middleware layer is needed to be able to find the data in an appropriate amount of time.
These customers are also writing algorithms that fetch data intelligently based on the data request. We believe these types of innovations, combined with flash will breath new life into tape and solve a nagging user problem how to contain data growth, cost effectively.
Flash meanwhile is on the steepest price decline curve of the three storage technologies and is expected to continue to close the gap on disk. Clearly the market will be much better off with two suppliers and ironically, we feel IBM and STK will further collaborate on tape standards to accelerate market adoption.
Ironically, the very flash technology that has extended the runway of legacy SAN is the reason why tape, for certain applications, could grow again. For example, if the fifth request for a piece of data in a chain can be serviced more quickly than the first, they’ll complete the fifth request while in parallel servicing the first and then re-order the chain at the backend.
This metadata informs the system as to where the data lives and can retrieve it in the most efficient timeframe.
It would be in their mutual interests to do so as market leader EMC is vocal in its marketing about the death of tape. As long as an application can work in this fashion, a flape architecture can help any organization achieve the right balance between performance and cost which in turn helps to drive business value.



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