About usCampbell Plant Hire (Lochaber) Ltd is an independent plant and tool hire company based in Fort William.
The company was established in 2006 and works alongside our associate company, Campbell Plant Hire Ltd in Inverness, which was established in 1970. Dear All,Solid suspension and dispersion in a liquid is an important operation carried out in mixing systems. Dear All,My earlier blog entry on heat transfer in buried liquid pipelines related to temperature reduction of the flowing liquid at a certain distance from the pipeline inlet.Let us think of a buried pipeline or pipeline section where the liquid flow has been stopped and the liquid is now in a stagnant condition in the pipeline or pipeline section. Today's blog entry is dedicated to my dear departed father who passed away to his heavenly abode on January 05, 2016. Any natural gas processing installation is normally bound to have a gas dehydration unit for the purpose of removal of associated water and dew-pointing it to pipeline sales gas specification.
The purpose of this blog entry is to provide a brief troubleshooting checklist which can prove useful to TEG dehydration unit field operators and maintenance personnel. I hope to receive some comments and observations from the learned members of "Cheresources".
Dear All,Today's blog entry relates to heat transfer from liquids flowing in long-distance buried pipelines. I have developed a spreadsheet for temperature drop in a buried crude oil pipeline based on the above methodology.
The water containing the dispersed hydrocarbons enters the hydrocyclone through a tangential inlet atthe top of the swirl chamber. Dear All,Refinery storage of raw materials (mainly crude oil) and finished products is a complex study and involves concepts of linear programming and Monte Carlo simulation.
Dear All,Today's blog entry relates to pressure drop in fixed bed reactors.Let us examine the components that contribute to the calculated pressure drop in fixed bed reactors. Dear All,Today's blog entry gives a brief overview of zeolite-based molecular sieves for physical adorption operations in the chemical process industry.Since the 1960s, molecular sieve adsorbents have become firmly established as a means of performing difficult separations, including gases from gases, liquids from liquids and solutes from solutions.
While making an attempt to make this blog entry as short as possible, I feel the information provided is a bare minimum to get an overview of how zeolite based molecular sieves are useful in adsorption processes. Just like most other business, the fireproofing business has a code of conduct and some established standards which are mandatory for all the fireproofing companies to follow while conducting their work. The primary objective of solid-liquid mixing is to create and maintain a solid-liquid slurry, and to promote and enhance the rate of mass transfer between the solid and liquid phases. Let us consider that the time at which the pipeline or pipeline section contents are completely at rest (stagnant) is zero i.e, t = 0 seconds. He was a man of literature and whatever little writing skills I possess, it was he who inspired and encouraged me. In the United States, sales gas transmission pipelines have water specifications of a maximum of 7 lb per MMSCF, while in Canada it is <= 5 lb per MMSCF Dehydration using TEG as a liquid desiccant is the most common and economical means of bulk water removal from natural gas.
While the attached checklist does not proclaim to be the one-and-all troubleshooting guide for TEG dehydration units it certainly gives an overview of the most commonly encountered problems and the general checks and actions required to eliminate them. For a set of conditions that I have used and for a pipeline inlet crude oil temperature of 55a?°C, the temperature drops to 48.5a?°C at a distance of 50 km for a 16 inch NPS pipeline based on the above method. As the liquids swirl along the hydrocyclone, the centrifugal forces genarated promote the separation of the hydrocarbon and water phases, with the hydrocarbon phase forming a thin core at the centre of the hydrocyclone.By maintaining a suitable pressure ratio between the clean water outlet stream and the reject oil outlet stream, the geometry of the hydrocyclone will result in the thin hydrocarbon core flowing in a reverse direction, exiting from the top of the swirl chamber. Use of the equation and these constants for a given unique shaped particle can sometimes result in significant error in the pressure drop prediction.
Today's blog entry talks about validation of in-house software.Please note that commercial software, for example simulation software such as ASPEN PLUS, ASPEN HYSYS, HTRI, PIPESIM do not require validation by the end-user. Now let us say that the average temperature of the stagnant liquid at time t = 0 seconds is T0, degrees C.
I guess, I inherited a bit of writing skills from both of my parents, my father being a poet and short-story writer and my my mother (still an active writer at 77 years of age) a novelist and a story writer. Thousands of TEG dehydration units have been installed worldwide since the first TEG dehydration unit built in the early part of the 20th century. The checklist does not substitute the experience of seasoned operators and maintenance personnel who have had years of operating and troubleshooting experience of TEG dehydration units. In addition, error is often introduced into the pressure drop calculation through the estimate of bed voidage and the equivalent particle diameter.
The adsorbent may be used once and discarded or, more commonly may be regenerated and used for many cycles over an extended time period. There are a handful of reasons why such fireproofing standards exist, take a look:Similar Safety levelsIn the absence of standards, it will be a chaotic situation in terms of maintaining similarity in the level of safety measures to be undertaken for commercial or residential buildings.
In agitated vessels, the degree of solids suspension is generally classified into three levels: on-bottom motion, complete off-bottom suspension, and uniform suspension.
The validation for such software is the responsibility of the developers and licensors of such software and not the end-user. If T0 is higher than the surrounding (soil at pipeline burial depth) temperature than it will start decreasing with time due to heat transfer from the stagnant liquid in the pipeline to the surrounding. Natural Gas TEG dehydration is a mature technology and standard configurations are available for a wide variety of wet natural gas compositions. They are generally stored in cylindrical vessels through which the stream to be treated is passed.
The standards provide uniformity and an organized way of establishing and executing procedures which need to be undertaken by fireproofing contractors.
We want to know the drop in temperature of the stagnant liquid after a given time period of the stagnant liquid. Thus, if tankers are behind schedule, this period must be covered by the crude oil in stock.
In sock loading, a canvas tube conveys the catalyst from the reactor inlet manway to the bottom of the reactor catalyst bed.

For regeneration, two or more beds are usually employed with suitable valving, in order to obtain a continuous process.
NFPA works as a central repository and provides valuable information about the minimum safety standards expected in carrying out fireproofing work.
For many applications, it is often important just to provide enough agitation to completely suspend the solids off the tank bottom. The question then arises that how to validate these calculation templates and let me assure you that it is a very simple task.
In other words, we are required to calculate the temperature Tt at a time interval of t = t seconds. The sock is attached to a loading hopper or funnel at the reactor inlet, which discharges the catalyst through the sock upon the bed surface in a manner which prevents the individual particle (specifically cylinders) from finding a stable, horizontal rest position.
A skid mounted modular crude distillation unit with a capacity of 300 to 12,000 BPD could be made operational within weeks from it's arrival at the designated location.5. Below this off-bottom particle suspension state, the total solid-liquid interfacial surface area is not completely or efficiently utilized. Having said that, a task is a task and needs effort and time to accomplish.What needs to be done? On the other hand, as the early arrival of a tanker can be controlled by adjusting the cruising speed, it may not be necessary to allow for early arrival in the normal situation.Individual tank storage capacity and number of storage tanks should be decided on other considerations such as plot plan, pumping capacities to the CDU, limitations of fabrication of large sized storage tanks and HSE studies such as EIA and QRA. The cylinders stack in various horizontal and vertical positions.The positioning of catalyst cylinders in random orientations encourages bridging of cylinders and void spaces between cylinders. Since the units are skid mounted they are easily transportable and can be moved from one location to another in a short duration of time.
The insurance companies would follow a certain procedure before the approval of such claims and this would normally involve verifying the materials being used, the fireproofing safety norms being followed and whether the compliance with the standards was met by the fireproofing contractors and much more.The bigger the amount of the claim, the more detailed is the process of verification of insurance companies. Therefore, it is important to be able to determine the impeller agitation speed, Njs, at which the just suspended state is achieved by the particles.
Since I personally have been involved in such validation procedures, I can provide a very simple explanation on how to proceed for validating in-house software.MS-Excel is one of the simplest and most effective calculation software tool for in-house engineering calculations and most organizations subscribe to using Excel as a tool of choice for developing engineering calculations.
From a practical point of view a realistic temperature drop will occur in hours or days and time in hours or days needs to be converted into seconds.
A practical maximum tank size could be 130,000 m3 (818,000 bbl) working capacity.That is all for today's blog entry. In others, the adsorbent allows the selective removal of one component from a mixture, based on molecular size differences, which would be extremely unlikely to be performed by any other means.
This feature allows the units to be procured on short or long term lease basis thereby further reducing cost for the operator and increasing profitability by moving the unit to the production source as and when desired.6. Even fireproofing contract companies would prefer insurance to shift the burden of indemnity, in case they are sued by the company which hired them for fireproofing. Many of the engineers who subscribe to "Cheresources" for knowledge sharing and guidance are well versed with calculations done in excel spreadsheets.A good calculation template will have a logical progression in steps for calculations, wherein the input data will be defined sequentially and the outputs will be generated in terms of numerical values for the desired parameter based on certain equations and formulas. Today's blog entry provides the relevant equations for a fair approximation of the temperature drop of a stagnant liquid (no flow) in a buried pipeline. In addition, contaminants can be removed from fluid streams to attain virtually undetectable impurity concentration. Higher quality workmanship can be achieved in view of the fact that these units are assembled in sophisticated workshops utilizing high quality machinery and considering that these may have to face the rigours of frequent transportation depending on the operator's philosophy of operation.7. The best case scenario in these circumstances for contractors would be compliance with the standards.These standards would work as a shield for them against any financial loss in case of loss due to fire at any of the premises of their clients. However, the standard norm for excel calculation templates is to protect the output cells which contains formulas and only allow the input cells to remain unprotected. These equations can be used with a fair degree of accuracy for heavy crudes being transported in buried pipelines within the constraints of the value of the empirical constant 'I?' selected in the range provided.
Dense loading can increase catalyst bed densities by as much as 17%.Moreover, unlike sock loading, dense loading does not require personnel inside the reactor to distribute the catalyst evenly from the sock. Construction as modules allows transport by sea in standard ocean containers.I am providing a list of some established names who design, build, install and commission such units.
If they have complied with all the set standards and followed the requisite procedures, they cannot be held accountable for the loss. Essentially, the excel worksheet or workbook needs to be password protected to prevent inadvertent changes in the equations and formulas leading to erroneous results. Workers inside the reactor require breathing air and weight distribution shoes to prevent crushing of the catalyst underneath their weight.Dense loading is accomplished by introducing the catalyst particles (specifically cylinders) into the reactor in a manner that allows each cylinder to fall freely to the catalyst surface.
When an excel worksheet is protected the formulas do not remain visible and the user does not know the formula used unless it is separately defined in the worksheet using for example Microsoft Equation 3.0. Individual cylinders separately assume a horizontal rest position before being impinged by other cylinders.
The difficulty is that these very high area carbons tend to lack physical strength and this limits their usefulness in many practical applications.
The high area materials also contain a large proportion of very small pores, which renders them unsuitable for applications involving adsorption of large molecules. Even if the formula is visible, the source or reference of all the formulas is rarely mentioned in order to make the spreadsheet less complicated and cumbersome.The spreadsheet or workbook calculation template as prepared above by any engineer in his organization and used to generate information for clients and 3rd parties is not validated. The distinction between gas carbons, used for adsorption of low molecular weight permanent gases, and liquid carbons, which are used for adsorption of larger molecules as color bodies from the liquid phase, is thus primarily a matter of pore size.In a typical amorphous adsorbent the distribution of pore size may be very wide, spanning the range from a few nanometers (nm) to perhaps one micrometer. Let us proceed on how to validate this calculation template in a manner where it not only is ISO 9001 compliant but makes any new engineer very comfortable to use it without having doubts about its correctness and legitimacy.In earlier days all engineering calculations were done on paper (engineering record sheets) using a blue or black pen. In micropores (pores which are only slightly larger than the sorbate molecule) the molecule never escapes form the force field of the pore wall, even when in the center of the pore. To validate your in-house excel worksheet you need to do the same.Use a live calculation from an existing or archived project.

Such pores generally make a dominant contribution to the adsorptive capacity for molecules small enough to penetrate. Transport within these pores can be severely limited by steric effects, leading to molecular sieve behavior.The mesopores make some contribution to the adsorptive capacity, but their main role is as conduits to provide access to the smaller micropores. For complex arithmetic or algebraic calculations break it down into two or more steps (which is generally not required in excel spreadsheets).
The macropores make very little contribution to the adsorptive capacity, but they commonly provide a major contribution to the kinetics. After due diligent checking, corrections, if any, will be done by the engineer who has prepared the document. However, a degree of control can sometimes be exerted by ion exchange, since, in some zeolites, the exchangeable cations occupy sites within the structure which partially obstruct the pores. The crystals of these materials are quite small (1-5 microns) and they are aggregated by a suitable binder (generally a clay) and formed into macroporous particles having dimensions large enough to pack directly into an adsorber vessel. A diligent approving authority will do a careful scrutiny of the paper document, and on finding any errors or misses, will discuss with the preparer and the checker. The main requirements for an efficient desiccant are therefore a highly polar surface and a high specific area (small pores). If required, other specialist engineer(s) may be involved in the discussion to resolve any differences of opinion. The most widely used desiccants are silica gel, activated alumina and the aluminum-rich zeolites (4A or 13X).The zeolites have high affinity and high capacity at low partial pressures. This paper document will have to be filed diligently by the department quality representative with complete traceability. This would be specifically useful when calculations are long and complex and require elucidation in simple English. This word document could also be attached as an annexure to the main calculation hand printed paper sheets.What happens if I don't validate?
The principal application is for separation in which contaminants are present at low concentration, i.e for purification. Very simply, any ISO 9001 auditor who audits the department quality management systems, has it in his rights, to give a "Non-Conformance Report" (NCR) for a not validated in-house software used for business purposes (projects), and demand a "Corrective Action Request" (CAR) report from the Department or Company Management Representative (MR).
These high adsorption capacities for low concentrations means that cycle times are long, hours to days to months, for reasonably sized beds.
This long cycle time is fortunate, because packed beds of adsorbent respond slowly to changes in gas temperature.
The natural gas, chemical, and cryogenic industries all use zeolites, silica gel, and activated alumina to dry streams.
Adsorbents are even found in mufflers.Zeolites, activated alumina, and silica gel have all been used for drying of pipeline natural gas. Alumina and silica gel have the advantage of having higher equilibrium capacity and of being more easliy regenerated using waste level heat. However, the much lower dew point and longer life attainable with 4A makes zeolites the predominant adsorbent. Special acid-resistant zeolites are used for natural gas containing large amounts of acid gases, such as H2S and CO2.The low dewpoint that can be achieved with zeolites is especially important when drying feed streams to cryogenic processes to prevent freeze-up at process temperatures. Natural gas is dried before liquefaction to liquefied natural gas (LNG), both in peak demand and in base load facilities. Zeolites have largely replaced silica gel and activated alumina in drying natural gas for ethane recovery utilizing the cryogenic expander process, and for helium recovery.
The air to be cryogenically distilled into N2, O2 and argon must be purified of both water and CO2. This purification is accomplished with 13X zeolites.The 4A zeolite, silica gel, and activated alumina all find applications in drying synthesis gas, inert gas, hydrocracker gas, rare gases, reformer recycle H2.
Cracked gas before low-temperature distillation for olefin production is a reactive stream.
The 3A or pore-closed 4A zeolite selectively adsorbs water but excludes the hydrocarbons, thus preventing coking. It also prevents co-adsorption of hydrocarbons which would otherwise be lost during desorption with the water.
Small pore zeolites are also applied to the drying of ethylene, propylene, and acetylene as they are drawn from storage. H2S, mercaptans, organic sulfides and disulfides, and COS need to be removed to prevent corrosion and catalyst poisoning.
Often adsorption is attractive because it dries the stream as it sweetens.In the sweetening of wellhead natural gas to prevent pipeline corrosion, 4A zeolites allow sulfur compounds removal without CO2 removal (to reduce shrinkage), or the removal of both to upgrade low thermal content gas. When minimizing the formation of COS during desulfurization is desirable, calcium-exchanged zeolites are commonly used because they are less catalytically active for the reaction of CO2 with H2S to form COS and water. Natural gas for steam-methane reforming in ammonia production must be sweetened to protect the sulfur-sensitive, low temperature shift catalyst. Zeolites are better than activated carbon because mercaptans, COS, and organic sulfides are also removed.
The air fed to an air separation plant must be H2O and CO2 free to prevent fouling of heat exchangers at cryogenic temperatures; 13X is typically used here.

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