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As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by the indigenous Aboriginal+ peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint+ mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave+ on the Nullarbor Plain+. The first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the ''Gulden Zeepaert'', captained by Francois Thijssen+, examined and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago+.
The complete coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders+ and Nicolas Baudin+ in 1802. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until the official site of the colony was selected where Adelaide is currently located.
The plan for the colony was that it would be the ideal embodiment of the best qualities of British society, that is, no religious discrimination or unemployment and, as it was believed that this would also result in very little crime within the small cohort of initial settlers, no professional police were sent. The current flag of South Australia+ was adopted on 13 January 1904, and is a British blue ensign defaced with the state badge.
The terrain consists largely of arid and semi-arid rangelands, with several low mountain range+s. South Australia has boundaries with every other Australian mainland state and territory except the Australian Capital Territory+. In 1863, that part of New South Wales to the north of South Australia was annexed to South Australia, by letters patent, as the "Northern Territory of South Australia", which became shortened to the Northern Territory (6 July 1863+). According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked by the Southern Ocean+, but official international consensus defines the Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or 55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most southern point of South Australia. The southern part of the state has a Mediterranean climate+, while the rest of the state has either an arid+ or semi-arid climate+. The highest maximum temperature was recorded as at Oodnadatta+ on 2 January 1960, which is also the highest official temperature recorded in Australia.
The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce.
The manufacturing industry plays an important role in South Australia's economy, generating 11.7% of the state's gross state product+ (GSP) and playing a large part in exports. South Australia's credit rating+ was upgraded to AAA by Standard and Poor's+ Rating Agency in September 2004 and to AAA by Moody's Rating Agency November 2004, the highest credit ratings achievable by any company or sovereign.
South Australia's economy includes the following major industries: meat and meat preparations, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskins, machinery, metal and metal manufactures, fish and crustaceans, road vehicles and parts, and petroleum products.
South Australia receives the least amount of federal funding for its local road network of all states on a per capita and a per kilometre basis. In 2013, South Australia was named by Commsec Securities+ as the second lowest performing economy in Australia. The Olympic Dam+ mine near Roxby Downs+ in northern South Australia is the largest deposit of uranium+ in the world, possessing more than a third of the world's low-cost recoverable reserves and 70% of Australia's. South Australia is a constitutional monarchy+ with the Queen of Australia+ as sovereign, and the Governor of South Australia+ as her representative. Initially, the Governor of South Australia+ held almost total power, derived from the letters patent of the imperial government to create the colony. In 1851, the Imperial Parliament enacted the Australian Colonies Government Act+ which allowed for the election of representatives to each of the colonial legislatures and the drafting of a constitution to properly create representative and responsible government in South Australia.
Women's suffrage in Australia+ took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from the 1896 colonial election+, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after New Zealand+ to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow women to stand for election. A majority of the state's population lives within Greater Adelaide's metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,262,940 in 2011 (77.1% of the state). On 1 January 2009, the school leaving age was raised to 17 (having previously been 15 and then 16). The South Australian Government provides, to schools on a per student basis, 89 percent of the total Government funding while the Commonwealth contributes 11 percent.
On 14 June 2013, South Australia became the third Australian state to sign up to the Australian Federal Government's Gonski Reform Program+.
Tertiary vocational education is provided by a range of Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) which are regulated at Commonwealth level. The largest public provider of vocational education is TAFE South Australia+ which is made up of colleges throughout the state, many of these in rural areas, providing tertiary education to as many people as possible. South Australia has four interstate rail connections, to Perth+ via the Nullarbor Plain, to Darwin+ through the centre of the continent, to New South Wales through Broken Hill+, and to Melbourne+–which is the closest capital city to Adelaide. Adelaide Airport+ provides regular flights to other capitals, major South Australian towns, and most international locations.
The River Murray+ was formerly an important trade route for South Australia, with paddle steamers+ linking inland areas and the ocean at Goolwa.
Kangaroo Island is dependent on the Sea Link ferry Service between Cape Jervis+ and Penneshaw+. Australian rules football+ is the most popular spectator sport in South Australia, with South Australians having the highest attendance rate in Australia. South Australia fields two teams in the Australian Football League+ national competition: the Adelaide Football Club+ and Port Adelaide Football Club+'s. The South Australian Amateur Football League+ comprises 68 member clubs playing over 110 matches per week across ten Senior divisions and three Junior Divisions. The club was founded in 2003 and was premier in the inaugural 2005–06 A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the competition, before finishing 3rd in the finals. Basketball also has a big following in South Australia, with the Adelaide 36ers+ playing out of an 8,070 seat stadium in Findon+. Australia's premier motor sport series, the V8 Supercar Championship Series+, has visited South Australia each year since its inception in 1999.
Mallala Motor Sport Park+, a permanent circuit located near the town of Mallala+, 58 km north of Adelaide, caters for both state and national level motor sport throughout the year. Sixty-three percent of South Australian children took part in organised sports in 2002–2003. South Australia+ South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.

In the year 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica+ and 60 degrees south+ latitude. The first British settlement to be established was Kingscote+, Kangaroo Island+, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat+ bog+ in the South East. Thijssen named his discovery "Pieter Nuyts Land", after the highest ranking individual on board. Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
The first immigrants+ arrived at Holdfast Bay+ (near the present day Glenelg+) in November 1836, and the colony was proclaimed on 28 December 1836, now known as Proclamation Day+. The Colonisation Commissioners intended to establish a police service as soon as misconduct within the increasing population warranted it.
The most important (but not tallest) is the Mount Lofty+-Flinders Ranges+ system, which extends north about from Cape Jervis+ to the northern end of Lake Torrens+.
More than half of Australia's wines are produced in the South Australian wine regions which principally include: Barossa Valley+, Clare Valley+, McLaren Vale+, Coonawarra+, the Riverland+ and the Adelaide Hills+.
The Northern Territory was handed to the federal government in 1911 and became a separate territory. Production of South Australian food and drink+ (including agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, fisheries and manufacturing) is a $10 billion industry. While some sources have pointed at weak retail spending and capital investment, others have attributed poor performance to declines in public spending.
The mine, owned and operated by BHP Billiton+, presently accounts for 9% of global uranium production. He was accountable only to the British Colonial Office+, and thus democracy did not exist in the colony. Later that year, propertied male colonists were allowed to vote for 16 members on a new 24 seat Legislative Council.
The body drafted the most democratic constitution ever seen in the British Empire and provided for universal manhood suffrage+. In 1897 Catherine Helen Spence+ was the first woman in Australia to be a candidate for political office when she was nominated to be one of South Australia's delegates to the conventions that drafted the constitution. Local councils are responsible for functions delegated by the South Australian parliament, such as road infrastructure and waste management. Other significant population centres include Mount Gambier+ (28,313), Whyalla+ (22,489), Murray Bridge+ (17,152), Port Lincoln+ (15,682), Port Pirie+ (14,281), Port Augusta+ (14,196), and Victor Harbor+ (13,671). Education is compulsory for all children until age 17, unless they are working or undergoing other training. Since the early 1970s it has been an ongoing controversy that 68 percent of Commonwealth funding (increasing to 75% by 2008) goes to private schools that are attended by 32% of the states students. This will see funding for primary and secondary education to South Australia increased by $1.1 billion before 2019. The three public universities are the University of Adelaide+ (established 1874), Flinders University of South Australia+ (est.
The range of RTOs delivering education include public, private and 'enterprise' providers i.e. In South Australia, TAFE is funded by the state government+ and run by the South Australian Department of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology+ (DFEEST). Roads are also the most common form of transport within the major metropolitan areas with car transport predominating. The state also has the highest participation rate of people taking part in Australian rules football. As of 2015 the two clubs are in the top five in terms of membership numbers, with both clubs' membership figures reaching over 60,000 in 2015. The SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and strongest Australian rules football associations. South Australia has a cricket team, the Adelaide Strikers, who play at Adelaide Oval+ in the Adelaide Park Lands+ during the summer; they won their first title since 1996 in the summer of 2010–11+. The 36ers have won four championships in the last 20 years in the National Basketball League+.
The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to the Mount Gambier Basketball Association. South Australia's V8 Supercar event, the Clipsal 500 Adelaide+, is staged on the Adelaide Street Circuit+, a temporary track laid out through the streets and parklands to the east of the Adelaide city centre+. Also, the Royal Adelaide Golf Club+ has hosted nine editions of the Australian Open+, with the most recent being in 1998. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories. The state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories.
The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. In the meantime, temporary volunteer special constables+, whose appointment was provided for under English law, would provide law and order. The state badge is believed to have been designed by Robert Craig of Adelaide's School of Design+.
The highest point in the state is not in those ranges; Mount Woodroffe+ () is in the Musgrave Ranges+ in the extreme northwest of the state. However, in 2012 Standard and Poor's downgraded the state's credit rating to AA+ due to declining revenues, new spending initiatives and a weaker than expected budgetary outlook. The Olympic Dam mine is also the world's fourth-largest remaining copper deposit, and the world's fifth largest gold deposit. The bicameral+ Parliament of South Australia+ consists of the lower house+ known as the House of Assembly+ and the upper house+ known as the Legislative Council+.

A new body was created to advise the governor on the administration of South Australia in 1843 called the Legislative Council.
South Australia became an original state of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.
The majority of students stay on to complete their South Australian Certificate of Education+ (SACE).
Private schools often refute this by saying that they receive less State Government funding than public schools and in 2004 the main private school funding came from the Australian government, not the state government. In the mid 19th century, the state began to develop a widespread rail network, although a coastal shipping network continued until the post war period. Public transport in Adelaide is mostly provided by buses with regular services throughout the day.
Many international matches have been played at the Adelaide Oval+; it was one of the host cities of 2015 Cricket World Cup+, and for many years it hosted the Australia Day One Day International. Adelaide is the only A-League club to have progressed past the group stages of the Asian Champions League on more than one occasion, making it the most successful Australian club in the International competition.
The Pioneers won the South Conference in 2003 and the Final in 2003; this team was rated second in the top 5 teams to have ever played in the league. South Australian state election, 2006+ The state election for the 51st Parliament of South Australia was held in the Australian state of South Australia on 18 March 2006, and was conducted by the independent State Electoral Office.
It has a total of 1.7 million people, and its population is the most highly centralised of any state in Australia, with more than 75 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide+, or its environs.
Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant.
In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834+ (''Foundation Act''), which enabled the province of South Australia to be established.
The south-western portion of the state consists of the sparsely inhabited Nullarbor Plain+, fronted by the cliffs of the Great Australian Bight+.
There was a proposal to vastly expand the operations of the mine, making it the largest open-cut mine in the world, but in 2012 the BHP Billiton board decided not to go ahead with it at that time due to then lower commodity prices.
It consisted of three representatives of the British Government and four colonists appointed by the governor. For the first time in the colony, the executive was elected by the people and the colony used the Westminster system+, where the government is the party or coalition that exerts a majority in the House of Assembly. School education is the responsibility of the South Australian government, but the public and private education systems are funded jointly by it and the Commonwealth Government+.
South Australia is also home to the '''Adelaide Strikers''' an Australian men's professional Twenty20 cricket+ team that competes in Australia's domestic Twenty20 cricket+ competition, the Big Bash League+. In 2012, the club entered its 25th season, with a roster of 10 senior players (2 imports) and 3 development squad players. An earlier version of the Adelaide Street Circuit+ played host to the Australian Grand Prix+, a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship+, each year from 1985 to 1995. South Australian National Football League+ The SANFL is an Australian rules football league based in the Australian state of South Australia.
Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray+. In early 1838 the colonists became concerned after it was reported that convicts who had escaped from the eastern states may make their way to South Australia. Features of the coast include Spencer Gulf+ and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas+ that surround it. It is also the governing body for the sport of Australian rules football in South Australia.
The state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a freely settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict+ settlement. In contrast to the rest of Australia, ''terra nullius+'' did not apply to the new province.
The South Australia Police+ was formed in April 1838 to protect the community and enforce government regulations.
2006), University College London+'s School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and Cranfield University+. South Australia Police+ The South Australia Police (SAPOL) is the police force of the Australian state of South Australia.
Official settlement began on 28 December 1836, when the colony was proclaimed at the Old Gum Tree+ by Governor John Hindmarsh+.
The Letters of Patent+ attached to the Act acknowledged Aboriginal ownership and stated that no actions could be undertaken that would ''affect the rights of any Aboriginal natives of the said province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own persons or in the persons of their descendants of any land therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by such natives''. It is an agency of the Government of South Australia within the South Australian Department of Justice.
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. South Australian state election, 1965+ State elections were held in South Australia on 6 March 1965.
South Australian state election, 2018+ The 2018 South Australian state election will elect members to the 54th Parliament of South Australia on 17 March 2018.
All 47 seats in the House of Assembly or lower house, whose current members were elected at the 2014 election, and 11 of 22 seats in the Legislative Council or upper house, last filled at the 2010 election, will become vacant.
South Australian Railways F class (1902)+ The South Australian Railways F class was a class of broad gauge 4-6-2 tank engines operated by South Australian Railways. South Australian state election, 2010+ The 2010 South Australian state election elected members to the 52nd Parliament of South Australia on 20 March 2010. All seats in the House of Assembly or lower house, whose current members were elected at the 2006 election, and half the seats in the Legislative Council or upper house, last filled at the 2002 election, became vacant.

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