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SIMULIA, the Dassault Systemes brand for realistic simulations, offers Simpack – the leading multibody simulation software for mechanical and mechatronic designs. Simpack is a general purpose Multibody Simulation (MBS) software used for the dynamic analysis of any mechanical or mechatronic system. Simpack simulation software is particularly well-suited to high frequency transient analyses, even into the acoustic range. The model updating process includes collecting data from all the data sources for a new target year, and then combining the data to generate the various flows. It was noted in Chapter 1 that data sources utilize a variety of industry code systems, and there is no universal conversion system. Referring back to Figure 1-1, it can be seen that the generation of interregional flows is far more complicated than the generation of intraregional flows.
We divide the world into three regions, the metropolitan area (in this case the Los Angeles CMSA, referred to as LA), the rest of the US (US) and the rest of the world (W).
In order to calculate the five flows, we aggregate the IMPLAN 2007 information to the 9 SCTG commodity sectors. Once the flows have been estimated, we use CFS to proportionately allocate flows to air, water, rail and truck.
We conducted a full review of the Argos Planner to verify all computational elements and data sources of the workflow. One of the challenges of using secondary data sources to generate freight flows is the difference in units and codes across the data sources. The outputs from Argos (intraregional Ps and As, interregional OD matrices) are the input for TransCAD. We had anticipated using the SCAG model results as another comparison for our results, as we had done in the first Argos study.
In order for us to use the SCAG OD matrix as the basis of our assignment, we must factor out the truck PCEs in the SCAG matrix.
For the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of updating Argos and using the model system for sketch level scenario planning, results are adequate.
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Please allow up to 72 hours for a reply, but we are generally faster, particularly during business hours. It enables engineers to generate and solve virtual 3D models in order to predict and visualize motion, coupling forces and stresses.
Simpack was primarily developed to handle complex non-linear models with flexible bodies and harsh shock contact. After surveying the availability of the various data sources, we set our target year as 2007, the most recent available for some of the key data sources. The finest version of the data is employment by establishment (located by latitude and longitude), with employment categorized by 3 digit NAICS code. Although many of our data sources have highly detailed sector data, the question is how much detail is needed to make reasonable estimates of truck flows? Four commodity flows with an origin or destination in LA are possible, as illustrated in Figure 3-1. Some data sources were improved, making the process of compiling data for the Argos planner somewhat easier. We used the network (link) and node files in the TransCAD format from the 2007 SCAG Regional Travel model. In doing so we found one error in the operator that computed the intraregional demand due to an ambiguous interpretation of supply and demand coefficients of formulas (1) and (2) in (Giuliano et al., 2008).


This gave us a benchmark for what is considered acceptable model performance in professional practice. The identity of the flow is retained throughout the simulation, so that the final equilibrium assignment identifies total VMT, VHT, and link flows for each category.
However, results are not adequate for the type of detailed analysis required in long range planning.
The Hornby Magazine team will be there all weekend with special show-only subscription deals and special offers on our range of limited edition models.Other well-known layouts attending the show include East Riding Finescale Group’s Hospital Gates in 7mm scale (HM58), Ayr Model Railway Group’s Perceton in ‘OO’ (HM89) and Graham Moyes’ ‘OO’ gauge Hazelbank (HM75), set in the Scottish borders. Regional plans are typically generated every four years, and each update requires a new baseline year.
These data are not available to the public; we were able to obtain the 2007 version by special request. For example, commodities differ in their value to weight ratio, so value per weight unit must be taken into account. The result of these computations is five 9x4 matrices of proportions corresponding to the five trade flows in Figure 3-1. Here we provide a simplified overview of Argos Planner and explain how the intraregional and interregional flows are generated in a form compatible with the TransCAD file structures, The complete workflows are given in Appendix A.
However, SCAG has not yet produced a 2007 baseline model that generates results they consider to be satisfactory. This is likely an underestimate of daily flows, since we do not expect weekend flows to be the same as weekend. We used this total to adjust the Argo generated data so that total PCEs were equivalent to the SCAG model estimate. More work on the modeling system would be required to use the system in a conventional regional planning context. If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on Hornby Magazine website. The more data that must be collected via surveys or other special methods, the more costly and time consuming the process becomes. Bridge tables have been developed to convert SCTG, SIC, NAICS, SITC and HS codes to USC codes. The more we aggregate commodity categories, the more the variation across commodity categories is lost. We therefore use IMPLAN to derive the five flows, CFS to assign flows to mode for US based flows, and WCUS and WISERTrade to assign modes to world based flows. Here we convert to single digit SCTG codes, and, as described earlier, allocate import and export flows to modes. Traffic flows should be segmented if there are differences in impedance factors, traffic performance, or routes available.
Note that because the SCAG baseline model has not yet been fully validated, there is some uncertainty associated with this estimate. As government at all levels becomes more fiscally constrained, less data are collected on a regular basis, and major data collection efforts such as travel surveys are conducted less often.
ESRI's ArcGIS software package and an ArcGIS freeware called Hawth's Tool were used to aggregate point-level data by TAZ. We are not aware of any research that considers the effects of different commodity categories, and it is beyond the tasks of this project to explore the question. Although drawn from a smaller sample in 2007, there is a little more data at the LACMSA level, allowing us to replace some of the state level data with CMSA level data. In order to preserve consistency with the prior 2001 model applications, we retained the 3191 TAZ geography.
The two main data sources are IMPLAN (dollars in IMPLAN sectors) and TAZ level employment (jobs in NAICS).
Air and water flows are allocated to the airports and ports, and rail flows are allocated to the major rail centers (based on volume shares).


We have no data on variation in truck flows by day of week, and hence have no basis for adjusting the data to generate a typical weekday flow. Different impedance factors for each USC code were developed by Pan (2003), and we used them to generate the intraregional truck OD matrix.
It can be seen that results differ substantially by screenline; this is consistent with our 2001 results. The 2007 results have smaller average differences, but a larger weighted mean square error and lower goodness of fit. In our previous research, we evaluated the quality and reliability of alternative data sources, and concluded that the IMPLAN totals come closest to other corroborating data sources (e.g.
In the first version of Argos, we were constrained by the CFS data, which provided the most disaggregate flow data in one digit SCTG codes. SCAG provided their 2007 full OD matrix (passenger and freight), their 2007 network, and the 2007 screenline ground count data. It would be possible in future work to create these categories within TransCAD and use TransCAD to generate the OD matrix. Differences in the results could be due to many factors, including the accuracy and reliability of the 2007 data, changes made within Argos planner, changes in the network, etc. The Los Angeles Region is a particularly difficult context for testing new models due to its size and complexity.
We retained this structure in the update, but at later steps converted all data to the USC code system to take advantage of the more detailed data available from IMPLAN and the SCAG employment data. Because the WISERTrade data has been expanded, we no longer need WCUS or special sources for airport data.
As discussed in Chapter 2, we used a factor from prior literature to estimate the AM peak portion of flows. We have no reason to believe that PCEs behave differently across industry sectors in traffic assignment, unless truck characteristics differ across industry sectors. Although the research team conducted many checks of the data and the workflow, we could not identify a specific reason for the difference in the robustness of the results. We note that SCAG planners and consultants have been working for several years to achieve acceptable baseline results for the 2007 model year. The Intermodal Transportation Management System (ITMS) data have not been updated (the 2002 edition offers GIS files of the previous data). In our previous work, dollar flows were allocated, and the end result was a set of productions and attractions in dollars.
Thus for air, water, and rail there is an intraregional portion of the flow that we assume is by truck. IMPLAN data cannot be used directly, because it includes some import and export transactions. In this research, we have added the conversion from dollars to PCEs, as shown in Figure 3-2. Two are beyond the network we used, so we restrict our comparisons to the 21 that are within our network.
We therefore combined the intra- and interregional OD matrices and used only one truck category. Note that only the commodity codes are allocated, as these represent the physical flows to be modeled.



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