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August 1, 2015 By Administrator 40 Comments The main aim of this project is to operate and control the unmanned railway gate in the proper manner in order to avoid the accidents in the unmanned railway crossing. Automatic Railway Gate Control System with High Speed Alerting System is an innovative circuit which automatically controls the operation of railway gates detecting the arrival and departure of trains at the gate.
Another feature of this circuit is that it has an intelligent alerting system which detects the speed of the train that is arriving. Initially transmitter is continuously transmitting the IR light which is made to fall on the receiver. The sensor2 output is sent to microcontroller which makes the relay activate which causes the gate to be closed. Here as previously mentioned the counter value is used to calculate the velocity of the train, which means that every wheel of the carriage cuts the sensor pair within small fraction of time based on its velocity.
One more advantage of calculating the velocity of train is, if the speed of the train crosses a limit i.e, if it is traveling at an over speed then the passengers are alerted using a by activating a buzzer. The system basically comprises two IR LED – Photodiode pairs, which are installed on the railway track at about 1 meter apart, with the transmitter and the photodiode of each pair on the opposite sides of the track.
As distance between the sensors is known and constant, the time is counted by the microcontroller and from this information, we can calculate the speed.
This circuit has been designed considering the maximum permissible speed for trains as per the traffic rule. The microcontroller is used to process the inputs that are provided by the sensors and generate the desired outputs appropriately.
In automatic railway gate controller with high speed alerting system AVR microcontroller is used but the programming of microcontroller is not available in the project so I request you to provide the programming of microcontroller because I am interested in making this project. Please provide complete information about the project and contact details from whom this can be available.
Here we provided complete information, still if you require any additional information you can comment below. The items displayed and sold on this website are not toys, may contain small parts,and are not designed nor intended for children under 14 years of age. In a country like ours where there are many unmanned railway crossings, accidents are increasing day by day.
It has detectors at the far away distance on the railway track which allows us to know the arrival and departure of the train.
If the speed is found to be higher than the normal speed, then the microcontroller automatically activates the alarm present at the gate. Basically the circuit consists of four IR LED-Photodiode pairs arranged on either side of the gate such that IR LED and photodiodes are on either side of the track as shown in the figure below. Now when the last carriage of the train cuts the sensor4 microcontroller de-activates the relay and gates are opened. After the last carriage is passed there is no obstacle to the sensor pair within that fraction of time hence it knows that the train has left. Detects trains via (included) optical sensors and can provide prototypical signaling for up to 4 consecutive LED block signals on a single track in a single direction. Let us assume the train is arriving from left to right, now when the train cuts the 1st sensor pair a counter is activated and when it crosses 2nd sensor pair the counter is stopped. This means that all dryers have to have a blower to move air and a heat source to warm the air, and that airflow is very important. In order to overcome the accidents due to the above problem we have planned to design the project. This counter value gives the time period which is used to calculate the velocity of the train. It also means that all dryers must have a way to toss the clothes around a bit, because air won't circulate through them if they're just laying there in a big wet lump. Ignitor systems and holding coils on the gas safety valves have varied slightly over the years, but you can find the diagnosis and repair procedures for all gas burners covered by this manual in section 2-3. A temperature control system keeps the air at the optimum temperature for drying and prevents scorching of your clothes. Finding the thermostats is discussed in the chapter pertaining to your model. There is also a safety system that prevents the heating system from starting at all unless the blower is turning. Over a period of years, enough can build up enough to allow some of the above symptoms to occur. The airflow system is discussed in section 2-5, except for drum seals, which are discussed in the chapter pertaining to your brand of dryer. In most models, the blower is the last component in the airflow system. If you have a separate timer and temperature control, consider yourself lucky; the combined units are considerably more difficult to diagnose and generally more expensive to replace.
So most repairs stem from just a few common complaints: 1) NOISY OPERATIONA vast majority of these complaints stem from drum supports that have worn out. It usually sounds like a loud, low-pitched rumbling sound that slowly gets worse over a period of several months or even years. This is a very common complaint in Whirlpool or Kenmore brand dryers about 7 to 15 years old.
See the chapter about your brand for specifics about replacing the drum support rollers.   In some models, notably GE, if a belt breaks, the belt tensioner will touch the drive motor shaft and a loud grinding or clattering noise will result. This can happen in Whirlpool or Kenmore dryers, as well as some other brands, though it is infrequent. To solve the problem, open the top of ther dryer as described in the Whirlpool section, then remove the plastic vane on the inside of the dryer drum by removing the screws on the outside of the dryer drum that hold it in place. In some models, notably Maytag and Frigidaire machines, things can get by the lint screen (like pencils and pens) and get stuck in the blower wheel. Again, it's a loud grinding sound, as if you were sticking something into a moving blower fan. See the section about your brand for details about how to get to the blower in your machine.2) NOT DRYING WELL(See also NO HEAT below) Usually this is caused by poor airflow.


Feel the dryer vent exhaust (usually outside the house.) If there isn't a strong blast of air coming out, check the lint screen and open up any dryer vent you can get to to check for clogging.
Also check any flexible dryer vent for pinching. In some machines, if the drum is not turning, there will be no noise or other external symptoms.
To diagnose, start the machine empty, open the door and look inside quickly, or depress the door switch to see if the drum is turning. To repair, see the chapter about your brand. You may see similar symptoms if the motor has gone bad, except that you probably will not hear the motor turning. See section 2-4(d) about motors. 3) NO HEAT, OR LOW HEAT This can be caused by poor airflow in all dryers, but especially in gas dryers.
Check the dryer vent and exhaust as described in NOT DRYING WELL above. This can also be caused by a problem with the air heating system within the dryer. Check the dryer vent and exhaust as described in NOT DRYING WELL above.   2-3 GAS BURNERSTo access the burner assembly, open the gas burner inspection door. If it is glowing, you will hear another click, the gas valve will open and the flame will kick on. Bring the burner assembly to your parts dealer to make sure you get the right coil assembly, and don't forget to bring the model number of the machine.   IGNITOR GLOWS, BUT FLAME DOES NOT START (GAS VALVE DOES NOT OPEN)(PILOTLESS SYSTEMS ONLY) Either the flame sensor is not working properly or the safety solenoid coils are not opening the gas valve. It is an especially common problem in installations where the dryer exhaust runs a long way before venting to the outside. Test as described in the section above, "IGNITOR DOESN'T GLOW". Occasionally this problem can be caused by a bad thermostat.
It's unpleasant, but unless exposure is more than a second or so, the only harm it usually does is to tick you off pretty good. It's not worth dying for. Sometimes you need to read a wiring diagram, to make sure you are not forgetting to check something.
It is ESPECIALLY important in diagnosing a bad timer. If you already know how to read a wiring diagram, you can skip this section.
If you're one of those folks who's a bit timid around electricity, all I can say is read on, and don't be too nervous. You learned how to use a VOM in Chapter 1, right? Each component should be labelled clearly on your diagram. To test a switch with a certain marking, mark and disconnect all the wires from your timer. For example, in figure G-6, if you want to test the hi-temp selector switch, connect one lead to the M and one to the H terminal.
If it does, you know that contact inside the switch is good. Remember that for something to be energized, it must make a complete electrical circuit. You must be able to trace the path that the electricity will take, FROM the wall outlet back TO the wall outlet.
Sometimes they will be labelled L1 and N, but they are still 110 volt leads. Let's say you need to check out why the heater is not working. Since a burnt out heater element is the most likely cause of this symptom, first test the heater for continuity. This switch is located inside of the timer (you know this because it is drawn with thick lines) and it must be closed.
In this example, we have set the temperature on "low." Note that in this machine, on this setting, the electricity flows through both the high-temp and low-temp operating thermostats. The electricity then flows through the high limit thermostat, so it too must be closed and show good continuity. The electricity flows through the heater, which we have already tested and we know is good. Then the electricity flows through the centrifugal switch, which must be closed, before going back out the main power cord (L2).   To test for the break in the circuit, simply isolate each part of the system (remove the wires from the terminals) and test for continuity. For example, to test the thermostats in our example, pull the wires off each thermostat and test continuity across the thermostat terminals as described in section 2-4(c). The Y-DB switch is shown in bold lines, so it is inside the timer. However, if you can identify the proper leads, you can use your alligator jumpers to jump across them.
You may need to use jumpers to extend or even bypass the wire; for example, if one end of the wire is in the control console and the other end in underneath the machine.
It will then be up to you to figure out exactly where that break is; there is no magic way. In addition to telling the motor when to run, it may also activate the heating circuit or heating control circuits, humidity-sensing circuits, etc. Solid state timers are difficult and expensive to diagnose. If you suspect a timer problem in a solid-state system, you can try replacing it, but remember that it's expensive and non-returnable (being an electrical part.) If you have one of these units that's defective, you can check into the cost of replacing it, but it's been my experience that you usually will end up just replacing the whole dryer or calling a technician. If you do call a technician, make sure you ask up front whether they work on solid-state controls. Most timers are nothing more than a motor that drives a set of cams which open and close switches. Yet it is one of the most expensive parts in your dryer, so don't be too quick to diagnose it as the problem. Replace the timer or timer drive motor, or have it rebuilt as described below. Timers can be difficult to diagnose. If none of the other components are bad, then it may be the timer. Remember that a timer is simply a set of on-off switches. Following the shaded circuit in figure G-7, you test the door switch, push-to-start switch and centrifugal switch. Make sure the timer is in the "on" position and slowly turn the timer all the way through a full cycle. Be patient!) You should see continuity make and break at least once in the cycle; usually several times.
If it's a common one, your parts dealer may even have a rebuilt one in stock. For the most part, if your timer is acting up, you need to replace it.


There may be several different thermostats side by side; for example 135 degrees for low temperature, 165 for high temperature, etc. Naturally, it is a bit more expensive than regular thermostats, and difficult to test. You can test a thermostat as described in section 1-4(b) by testing for continuity across its terminals. A cold cool-down stat should show no continuity. If a thermostat fails into a closed position, there is a danger that the heating system will continue operating until something catches fire. Replace it. THERMISTORSA thermistor is a "variable resistor" whose resistance varies with temperature. Rather than just turning the heating circuit on and off as thermostats do, dryers with solid-state (computer logic board) controls can use a thermistor's input to control the drum temperature more closely. This can result in lower energy usage. Thermistors are tested by measuring resistance across them with a VOM. This is done in one of two ways. When the air in the drum is moist, the water in it absorbs heat to evaporate. This keeps the air temperature lower, and it takes longer to heat up.   The thermostat on the drum exhaust will keep the heating system on longer. In these systems, that same thermostat controls the timer motor; while the heating system is on, the timer motor is not running, and vice-versa. So when the clothes get drier, the exhaust air temperature gets higher more quickly, the heating system doesn't stay on for as long and the timer motor runs more, ending the cycle sooner. The thermostats in these machines have three leads.
If the symptoms lead you to suspect that yours is defective, just replace it. Besides heating more slowly, moist air also conducts electricity better than dry air.
So another way the engineers design a humidity sensor is to put two electrical contacts inside the dryer drum.
The electrical currents conducted by the air are so low that an electronic circuit is needed to sense when the air is moist, but essentially the same thing happens in this system as in the other. When the air is dry, the timer motor runs longer and times out sooner. The sensors in these machines tend to get coated with gummy stuff, especially if you use a lot of fabric softener in the wash or starch in ironing.
The circuit board could have gone bad, too; there is no good way to test it with out a lot of expensive equipment. The problem is that the heater operates on 220 volts, but the timer motor runs on 110 volts. There is a resistor in the system to cut down the voltage (see figure G-6(a) and if this resistor is bad, you will see the same symptoms as if the thermostat was bad: the timer motor will not run in the automatic cycle. If you have one of these dryers, make sure you test the resistor for continuity, in addition to the thermostat. OTHER TEMPERATURE CONTROLS Selecting which thermostat is used may be done inside the timer, or there may be a separate multi-switch that accomplishes this. So much, in fact, that if it is allowed to continue being energized in a stalled state, it will start burning wires. To prevent this, an overload switch is installed on motors to cut power to them if they don't start within a certain amount of time. If the motor is trying to start, but can't, you will hear certain things. In some extreme cases, you may even smell burning. If you hear the motor doing this, but it won't start, disconnect power and take all the load off it.
If you have an ammeter, the stalled motor will be drawing 10 to 20 amps or more. STARTING SWITCH Dryers have a centrifugal starting switch mounted piggyback on the motor. There are many sets of contacts inside the switch, and each design is different, even among dryers of the same brand.
Testing the switch is most easily accomplished by replacing it. Remember that starting switches are electrical parts, which are generally not returnable.
If you test the switch by replacing it, and the problem turns out to be the motor itself, you will probably not be able to return the starting switch for a refund. When buying a new motor, make sure that the pulley can be changed over, or else get a new pulley with the new motor.
It may save you a second trip to the parts dealer.   2-4(e) IGNITORSYou can test the ignitor by testing for resistance across the element. Like ignitors, they should show quite a bit of resistance, and defective heaters will usually show no continuity at all.2-4(g) TERMINAL BLOCKIn most electric dryer installations, there is a 220 volt wall plug.
If the dryer does not seem to be getting power, but you do have power at the wall outlet, you also need to check the terminal block for problems as shown below. Replace it if there is any sign of problems. Make sure all wiring is clear and make sure you don't touch any bare wires or terminals, plug the dryer back in briefly, and check the terminal block for power across all three legs as described in sections 1-4(a) and 2-4. Then remove power again at the breaker or fuse.2-5 AIRFLOWAirflow is EXTREMELY important in EVERY dryer. It can come on suddenly (like if something happens to the dryer vent outside the house) or it can show up as a progressive problem, as lint slowly builds up in the dryer exhaust system.First, check the lint screen. I think it's a tribute to Whirlpool engineering that the thing was still running at all with that much lint in it. If the lint screen is clean, check the exhaust system between the dryer and the house outlet.
A really easy way is to disconnect the exhaust system and run the dryer for a few minutes with it venting directly into the house. If the dryer functions normally, the exhaust system is clogged. If none of the above works, the internal ducting or blower fan is clogged or malfunctioning. Again, it's a loud grinding sound, as if you were sticking something into a moving blower fan.



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