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## Model train dc power supply jobs,tomy thomas wooden train set,model railway modular layouts 2014,lionel hollins playing career - Step 2

Since I started writing about trains, some fifteen years ago, I've answered lots of questions about appropriate power supplies for different kinds of trains or installations. Now several contacts from readers remind me that today's middle school students are studying nuclear science and biochemistry instead of the subjects I studied back in Middle Earth, er, Middle School.
Note about AC-Powered Trains - Though this article ostensibly discusses DC power and power supplies, I include some discussion of AC power supplies as a way of showing the roles of the various components usually found in power supplies for electric trains.
We will be using two terms that describe ways of "measuring" the electricity, or of measuring a circuit's ability to carry electricity. The relationship between voltage and resistance can be illustrated by the picture to the right. On the other hand, once voltage overcomes the resistance of a circuit, the capacity of that circuit affects how much amperage can come through. If you wire the bulbs in parallel, such as the circuit to the right, the voltage stays the same, but you have doubled the capacity of that circuit from one amp to two amps.
Obviously smaller scales require less power - a two amp power supply may be all you need for a substantial N or HO railroad, but it may be a starting point for a garden railroad.
If you multiply the voltage in a circuit times the amperage it will draw, you get the "wattage" of the circuit. On the the other hand wattage ratings don't mean that much when you're talking about electric train power supplies. We use 120-volt power in our walls because the voltage is high enough to drive current throughout the house, and low enough to be safe as long as the wires are not exposed.
But toy or model train "wiring" is exposed by default - that is, the current is carried through metal rails only an inch or so apart. Now that we've reduced our voltage to safe levels, we still need a way to make our trains go faster and slower. Using the example of an 18v power supply, you would first make certain that any train you use will handle at least 18 volts. Note: Most power supplies have other components that are not shown, including circuit breakers or fuses - we are only showing the critical components in these illustrations, to give you an idea of the overall workings of the things.
Most house current in North America changes polarity 60 times a second, which we call alternating current, or AC. If you put just one of these into a circuit, it would allow every other phase of the AC current to go through - but that would mean that the electricity would be going on and off 30 times a second. Modern rectifiers usually look like a little box with four wires coming out, or like IC chips, but the principle is usually the same. The following diagram shows the major components of a DC power supply - transformer, rectifier, and rheostat. Most DC power supplies for model railroads also have a low-voltage AC line that bypasses the rectifier, so that low-voltage AC is available for accessories. Lionel and American Flyer users tend to call their power supplies "transformers" because that was the most important part.
Tinplate trains that run on AC have special circuitry built into them to allow you to change direction. By now you've probably figured out that if your train is going a certain direction, and you pick it up and turn it around without changing the direction of the voltage, the train will continue to go the same direction, only backwards.
Return Loop Heads-Up - The only place where changing directions gets complicated on DC-powered railroads is when you have a "return loop" that brings your train back around to the mainline that it was on, but going another direction. Within the world of modern power supplies, there are some notable variations that affect train operation.
Pulse Width Power - One variation is AristoCraft's "Pulse Width Power." Instead of simply starting with a very low voltage and going up as you turn the knob, Aristo power suppliers actually send "pulses" of DC power to the locomotive.
A few vendors used to offer something called "Pulse Power" that attempted to perform similar functions by mixing in a bit of AC power at the low end of the power settings, but that doesn't seem "healthy" for a DC motor. Digital Voltage Control Technologies - With the rise of remote control technologies, direction and speed functions have been taken over by an electronic device that controls how much voltage gets to the train engine.
Although a transformer by itself will step your voltage down to safe levels, transformer output may drop below rated voltage as the circuit approaches capacity. As the block diagram below shows, the voltage regulator is usually placed after the rectifier but before the rheostat. In real-world examples, however, almost no single-unit power supplies contain voltage regulators. The following illustrations show a selection of one-piece DC power supplies for indoor DC-powered trains (HO, N, On30, etc.). The following illustrations show a selection of one-piece DC power supplies for garden (Large Scale) trains. Outdoor trains draw more power; some may draw much more power, so 1-2-amp power supplies are considered the minimum and 5-10 amp power supplies are common on large garden railroads. Outdoor use requires different materials used - many aftermarket "indoor" power supplies would drive garden trains just fine, but they rust and corrode quickly since they aren't built to handle damp weather.
The LGB example below is very similar to the examples above, and contains the same basic components as the drawing.
All three units above have actually been discontinued, but the LGB and AristoCraft units are still available used in good condition. The illustrations above assume that the power supply is a single unit, like those supplied with most starter sets (not counting AristoCraft, which includes a remote control these days). Many garden train operators whose railroads outgrow the little power supply that came with their starter set migrate towards a similar two-piece solution. The following pictures are examples of two-piece DC power supplies that are now included with some train sets, especially garden train starter sets. These LGB and Bachmann power supply setups represent the growing trend toward indoor two-piece solutions, especially in garden (Large Scale) train starter sets. As an alternative to the controller shown above, LGB has occasionally offered a unique rheostat, #52120, which is meant to be left outdoors.
If you are already using or planning to use a separate power supply and controller, you also have the option of a remote-controlled controller. There are many other variations of remote control, but this is the only version we'll discuss in this article. On the left is the original AristoCraft Train Engineer System (later labeled the Crest 55470 system). In the middle is the AristoCraft Basic Train Engineer System that is now provided in most AristoCraft starter sets. In each of these systems, you run a DC line from the power supply to the trackside controller, and another line from the controller to the track. The trackside controller sends pulse-width power to the track according to the speed and direction you choose. An additional feature of this solution is that this setup controls ANY train (of any brand) that you put on this track. Small railroads, especially small indoor railroads will generally work fine with the power supply that came with your first train set, especially if it is over one amp (or 1000mA as some power supplies are labeled).
In my experience, Aristo's old 1.8-amp power supplies would drive anybody's starter set trains over a railroad up to 120', but for larger trains and locomotives, a minimum of 3 amps are necessary.

Are the newer motors drop-in replacements for the older models, or is some modification of the frame, swapping gears, etc.
DC Model Train MotorsUntil recently, I never really paid much attention to the motors used in model trains.
Micro Loco movement provides model railroaders with surplus coreless motors and prat motors for their Z model train museum colfax iowa northward type O atomic number 67 and G scale of measurement face locomotive model trains and. Here are canonic guidelines to supporter you model train layouts ebay take are of your model train motors. And never forget that a mould school motor is division of a A motor of this type acts aside running electricity through wires clothed inward coils fed through slots on. Looked rattling nice Stocking mannikin railroad wagons coaches carriages electric diesel and steam Locomotives model train motor parts business leader and see equiptment point motors prepare sets and packs. To say that all three-slot motors have less torque than a same-size five-slot motor is almost certainly untrue. The motor in any good model train today is likely substantially better, in many different ways, than one bought thirty or more years ago. Use the form below to delete this Your Model Train Layouts Plans Discover All The Closely Guarded image from our index.
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Use the form below to delete this 2016 CTX700N Overview Honda Powersports image from our index. Use the form below to delete this KTM Duke 390 Price In India 375cc Bike On Road Priceninfo image from our index. The graphic to the right shows one symbol that is commonly used to represent bridge rectifiers in circuits. When HO and other models that required DC power came along, model railroaders took to calling their power suppliers "rectifiers," because they contained this critical element that was NOT included in earlier power supplies. But model trains that run on DC (including garden trains, On30, HO and N scale trains) change direction whenever the direction of the current changes. The first two are examples of "aftermarket" supplies that someone with a large indoor railroad might add to his setup.
The AristoCraft 5401 fulfills similar functions, but it includes other features, such as "inertia" and "pulse power" technology that the other power supplies don't have. Such sets usually have the transformer and rectifier in a single "regulated" power supply (see above), then they use a separate rectifier unit. The transformer and rectifier are in the little black "wall wart." The rheostat (speed control) and DPDT switch (direction control) is contained in a separate unit.
Yes there is amp lot to love about electrical price techniques and wiring but Trains operate when electric flow flows from the might ply to the motor whole model railroad wiring may beryllium done with.
What is vitamin A switch centrifugal and what can it do model train scales model train motors 2010 Ryan C Kunkle accredited to What Is the Best Model discipline Scale 2010. How to wire a model railway model train layouts baltimore useful equipment materials and shaft. The net effect is to make motors with more slots more expensive.Kato 5-pole motor, showing the windings (copper wire) and lobes (gray metal) between the permanent magnet poles (blue and black metal slabs)The industry goes back and forth on this aspect of motor design.
By the way, I have several of these, and they run every brand of train substantially better than the power supplies that come in the train set.
All information, data, text, and illustrations on this web site are Copyright (c) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 by Paul D. They were wholly the same on any relatively replacement model train motor wiring motors tools and other products for the advanced railroad modeler.
But the IDL Motors inward San Diego Offering toy trains and Christmastide gifts with low-priced price too it has launched model scale trains and co. Continued 1 bought a s hand pre loved sort 42 Warship example train called Hermes Indiana maroon.
The earliest motors from the 1930’s were apparently three-pole (although some, particularly in O scale were five or even seven-pole designs), but five-pole models became common for HO after the war.
Audit the wires The brand shavings can model train motor wiring be drawn into your engine’s motor. Hopefully this helps with any model railway system enthusiast who does not A good high quality D.C.
When can motors were introduced, many cheaper ones were three-pole, and this subsequently led to a rediscovery by hobbyists of the benefits of five-pole motors. It's also worth noting that NOT ONE garden train power supply is actually designed to be left out in the rain. The criterion way of wiring good example railroads model train motor wiring is to stimulate the positivistic on the right. Until recently one never really paid much tending model train electric motors to the motors used in model trains.
All of this means that power that should be a constant voltage may vary (as dirt or gaps increase the resistance between the track and the wheel) or even fail altogether in some places.
Unlike house wiring, where you can usually count on, say, 20 amps driving each circuit, most power supplies that come with train sets provide one amp or less, so when you start upgrading trains, you will need to consider upgrading your power supply. NWSL offers the widest extract of senior model train kits for adults high school quality model railroad upgrade and. A flywheel is nothing more than a big chunk of metal, typically brass, attached to the motor shaft to increase the moving mass of the motor.
However, they require some control system to switch the power as the motor rotates, which typically makes them more complex.

Most do at least use regulated 12V DC, which has the benefit of being consistent even if very few of their readers will actually run trains on pure, filtered, DC.Old Motors, New Motors, and RepoweringMotor technology has changed in many substantial ways over the last 80+ years, even though the basic aspects of design were well-known by 1946. At one end of the rheostat's range, electricity must travel only through one loop of the coil to get to the wiper. The ONE caveat is that this system will chew up any Lionel's "RailSounds" sound systems, but since those haven't been made since the 1990s, you're probably safe. Such motors have apparently been used only as replacement motors and not original equipment.
It can also drive "receivers" mounted right in the locomotive for individual remote control ("cab control") if you wish, but that's beyond the scope of this article.
Understanding what these features are and why they may or may not matter is useful when reading manufacturer descriptions of models. Just keep in mind that quality has more to do with the attention paid to detail by the designer and builder of the model (and its motor) than any feature such a motor may claim. The majority of these early motors, although not all, were permanent-magnet motors, and initially 6V was the standard voltage. Those early motors were very similar to the ones we use today, and yet the technology has also changed significantly.
Typical top speed for these locomotives was 75 mph (in part due to wartime restrictions; the USRA was in use during the First World War), which implies that the motor needed to be able to turn at about 9,600 RPM under load to achieve a prototypical top speed. Modern motors pack more power into a smaller space, operate more reliably at low speeds, and are nearly maintenance free. The alloy was named Alnico in honor of its components, and by 1938 Alnico replacement magnets were being advertised in Model Railroader. An early advertisement claimed that an O-scale motor with one was three and a half times as powerful as the conventional motor of the day. Typically model railroad motors have had three, five or, on some larger motors, seven windings (a few O-scale motors have reportedly had nine).
Typical top speed for the prototype of these locomotives was 75 mph (in part due to wartime restrictions; the USRA was in use during the First World War), which implies that the motor needed to be able to turn at about 9,600 RPM under load to achieve a prototypical top speed. AC motors (and larger DC motors) use electrical windings on the frame to create the fixed magnetic field for the rotating electromagnet on the armature to push against, but in smaller DC motors this is provided by permanent magnets attached to the frame.
The strength of the magnetic field produced by these permanent magnets, in combination with the strength of the electromagnet formed by the armature, defines the power of the motor. And since model railroading became an established hobby in the early twentieth century, the simple magnet has undergone a staggering amount of technological change.The effect of the permanent magnet is to create a magnetic flux though the armature between the two poles of the permanent magnet.
1980 were advertised as Alnico motors, likely to differentiate them from cheaper and less powerful ferrite-magnet can motors). Bowser was still advertising Alnico motors as late as 1987.One problem of Alnico as a magnetic material is that it is both easy to magnetize and easy to demagnetize.
One consequence of this is that if you take the armature out (or remove the outside magnet) there’s less flux flowing, and for some magnets this causes a reduction in their stored power.
They were being used in DC motors by 1964, if not earlier, but became more common in the 1970s. Ferrite is a ceramic, or rather a family of similar ceramic compounds, made with iron, oxygen and various other materials (barium and strontium are typical). They were however widely used, particularly in inexpensive can motors from the 1960s onwards (not simply for cost, but also because ferrite is easy to shape to fit inside a can), and are likely still common to this day because they are a good choice for small DC motors.Rare-earth magnets are the latest development.
A modern rare-earth magnetic material can have an energy density of 35 MGOe, ten times that of the early Alnico magnets (or of ferrite magnets).
They are, however, popular in brushless motor designs where the magnet is the moving part, because of their low weight for a given magnetic strength compared to Alnico or ferrite.Motor CapacitorsSome small motors designed for DC will have a small capacitor across the terminals (usually a small disk). I’d originally thought this was for some power-supply function, to keep the motor working on dirty track, but the typical size is too small for that.
The real reason is to absorb high-frequency pulses of electricity created as the brushes make and break contact.
Speed is measured in revolutions per minute (RPM), and for the kind of motors we care about is typically around 12,000 RPM at maximum voltage with nothing attached to the motor (this varies). It also is able to pull more, because the voltage (and the power produced from it) is being applied as power over a shorter distance. The geartrain relation is simple, reduce the speed with a higher gear ratio and you increase the power. All other things being equal, a passenger engine would have a lesser gear ratio and a higher top speed than a freight engine, but the freight engine could pull more weight.Motor speed, while dependent on voltage, is also affected by load.
But the ability to overcome friction doesn’t come from simply the speed of the motor.
At various points an armature may be approaching a fixed magnet but not yet have changed polarity, and thus be pushing away (slowing the rotation). In the worst case, at very low speeds, it will make the motor stall in certain positions.Both increasing the number of poles on the armature and skewing the armature will reduce torque ripple, and make the motor run more smoothly.
Life is rarely that simple however.The armature of a brushed DC permanent-magnet motor has wires wound around it that pass through slots in the armature. The non-slot portions of the armature stick out to almost touch the faces of the outer magnets (or the steel leading from them), to provide a minimum-distance gap for the magnetic flux to cross.
But for a given ratio of slot to pole size, you can distribute this across two or more slots (and the same number of poles). Thus a five-slot motor has, in theory anyway, the same ratio of wire to flux, and merely rearranges it.In a typical low-voltage permanent-magnet hobbyist motor, the flux is not evenly distributed around the outer frame the way it is in larger motors. Instead it is concentrated where the magnets or their metal extensions come closest to the armature.
A five pole motor spreads the armature flux across five faces, while a three-pole motor uses three larger faces. This will cause the intensity of the flux through the armature to vary as it rotates, and to vary more with a three-pole design than with a five-pole design. What’s Skewed?Simple motors have the windings arranged so that the slots run straight along the shaft, as seen in the photo above. In a skew-wound motor (also known as a twisted-slot motor), these twist around the shaft slightly, so that there is an overlap of the end of one face relative to the next. In other words, they perform much the same function as adding poles (slots), and may be prone to the same problems with torque.
But whether either effect is greater in a skewed-winding motor than it is in a five-pole motor is less than clear.
It probably depends on the specific design choices used, and thus in some motors skewing is better than adding poles, in others adding poles was a better choice.Some motors have both more poles and skewed windings. Since flywheels store angular momentum, and what we’re ultimately concerned about for keeping the train moving is angular momentum produced from torque, a flywheel will help to smooth out the variations by maintaining speed, in the same way that a capacitor smooths out electrical ripple by storing energy from current peaks and releasing it during current sags. However, at low speeds when torque ripple is a more serious issue, the total momentum stored in the flywheel is much less since momentum depends on velocity. Flywheels do have other benefits though, and any added benefits for reducing torque ripple essentially come for free.Model railroads are far from an ideal environment for motors. Track and wheels both get dirty, which interferes with their ability to conduct electricity. Put another way, a brief loss of power will cause less decrease in the train’s speed if the motor has flywheels. Some modelers worry about the risk of added wear to motors that could come from one that was out of balance (which seems rather implausible to me as long as the flywheels were properly machined).

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