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New York City is located on the eastern coast of the United States of America about 1000 miles north of Florida and 200 miles south of Boston Massachusetts. The land around New York City is part of the eastern continental shelf, so it tends to be rather flat with sandy soil. The area for many miles around New York City is highly urban with a lot of residential housing and industrial development. New York City is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, but the prevailing weather comes from the continental landmass.
The New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2015, co-chaired by a NASA researcher, published its latest report which details significant future increases in temperature, precipitation and sea level in the New York metropolitan area.
The report aims to increase current and future resiliency of the communities, citywide systems and infrastructure in the New York metropolitan region to a range of climate risks.
The NPCC was founded in 2008 to study the effects of climate change on New York City's five boroughs and surrounding region.
Increasing temperature and heavier precipitation events, along with sea level rise, are projected by the report to accelerate in the coming decades, increasing risks for the people, economy and infrastructure of New York City. Future 100-year flood zones for New York City based on the high-estimate 90th percentile NPCC2 sea level rise scenario. Mean annual temperature has increased a total of 3.4 degrees Fahrenheit (F) from 1900 to 2013.
The report also uses NASA Landsat 7 data to map the surface temperature of mid-town Manhattan and show the cooling effect of Central Park. NASA LANDSAT surface temperature map of mid-town Manhattan with Central Park in the center. NASA has a Climate Adaptation Science Investigator (CASI) program that is geared toward evaluating the risks facing NASA facilities due to climate change.
GISS is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland and is affiliated with the Earth Institute and School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University. Residents of Manhattan will not just sweat harder from rising temperatures in the future, says a new study; many may die. Reduced water availability and quality, floods and problems related to heat stress are some of the potential impacts cities face with a changing climate. Current rates of climate change could trigger instability in a major Antarctic glacier, ultimately leading to more than 2m of sea-level rise. Emissions from farms outweigh all other human sources of fine-particulate air pollution in much of the United States, Europe, Russia and China, according to new research.
As climatologists closely monitor the impact of human activity on the world's oceans, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have found yet another worrying trend impacting the health of the Pacific Ocean.


Scientists have found evidence of a huge asteroid that struck the Earth early in its life with an impact larger than anything humans have experienced. Hundreds and thousands of people participated in New York City climate march before the UN Climate Summit. The impact of climate change on New York City could be even more severe than previously thought, putting more people at risk from increasingly frequent floods and heat waves, according to a report by the New York City Panel on Climate Change that was released Monday.
New maps projecting the impacts of a 100-year storm show that by 2050, nearly a quarter of the city – 72 square miles – could be flooded, potentially affecting 114,000 buildings, 97 percent of the city’s power generating capacity and some 800,000 residents, according to a separate city analysis.
The climate panel’s first report, issued in 2009, warned that climate change would cause increased heat waves, higher storm surges and more frequent and intense downpours within a few years. The panel, which was convened by Mayor Bloomberg in 2008, was reconvened in 2013 in the wake of Hurricane Sandy to provide updated projections and to develop new coastal flood risk maps to inform the mayor’s post-Sandy rebuilding initiative.
According to the new report, by the mid-2020s, annual temperatures in New York City will rise by 2 to 3 degrees on average, even as the number of summer heat waves to increases from two, to three or four per year. By the 2050s, the panel projects that temperatures in New York City will rise by 4 to 6.5 degrees, perhaps doubling the number of days over 90 degrees. This contrasts with the 2009 report, which predicted a mid-range rise of 7 to 12 inches by 2050. On Tuesday, Mayor Bloomberg followed up on the panel’s report by outlining a $20 billion plan that includes 250 recommendations to protect at-risk neighborhoods and critical infrastructure from projected climate hazards. While the wide-reaching impact of Hurricane Sandy has sparked an unprecedented new public interest in climate change, the panel is quick to point out that it is not possible to attribute any one event to climate shifts.
And while scientists do not currently know if climate change will increase the total number of hurricanes globally, the report concludes that it is more likely than not that the number of very intense hurricanes will increase in the North Atlantic Basin.
Other potential impacts include the increased risk of heat stress and heat-related mortality. Normally, the ocean does not greatly affect, thus summer can get very hot and winter can get very cold.
Cynthia Rosenzweig of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), New York, co-chairs the New York City panel. As some of the leading Earth scientists in the metropolitan New York area, GISS researchers have been involved in the panel's work since its beginning. The Climate Impacts Group at GISS, led by Rosenzweig, provided technical support for the report. While largely consistent with that analysis, Monday’s updated projections suggested that some of the more extreme climate impacts could happen sooner than previously anticipated. Co-chaired by the Earth Institute’s Cynthia Rosenzweig and William Solecki, the director of the CUNY Institute for Sustainable Cities, the panel consists of over a dozen leading climate and social scientists from the top research universities in the region, including the Earth Institute, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and others from Columbia University.


The plan’s recommendations include the building of bulkheads and levees and the creation of tidal barriers and wetlands.
However, there is little question that climate change-related sea level rise did increase the impact of coastal flooding from the storm. Heat indices, the report says, are very likely to increase, both because of rising temperatures and because warmer air can hold more moisture. The opinions expressed by the authors and those providing comments are theirs alone, and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Earth Institute or Columbia University. Temperatures in July or August frequently climb above 85 (30 C) and can plummet below -10 (-20 C) in January. The GISS climate model was used in climate projections, and scientists at GISS led the technical team, which analyzed the scientific data and developed the projections.
The frequency of heat waves is projected to increase from 2 per year in the 1980s to roughly 6 per year by the 2080s.Mean annual precipitation has increased by a total of 8 inches from 1900 to 2013. The intensity and extent of heavy downpours is also very likely to increase, the panel reported.
It also includes plans to address risks to energy, transportation, telecommunications, wastewater and healthcare services, among other sectors. Because of sea level rise alone, the panel estimates that by 2050, 100 year flood events may happen five times more frequently than they do now, if the highest estimates for sea level rise are realized. This combination of high temperature and high humidity can easily create heat stress by shutting down the body’s ability to cool itself. Occasionally, the normal weather patterns shift, and (winds called Northeasters) bring moisture from the Atlantic resulting in fierce winds and heavy rainfalls or heavy snowfalls.
More hot days also puts extra stress on the region’s aging power grid, increasing the likelihood of blackouts.
Long Island extends over 100 miles out into the Atlantic Ocean from the mouth of the Hudson.
Projections for sea level rise in New York City increase from 11 inches to 21 inches by the 2050s, 18 inches to 39 inches by the 2080s, and, 22 inches to 50 inches, with the worst case of up to six feet, by 2100.



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