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New York is the most populous city in the United States of America and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. Located on one of the world’s largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which comprises a state county The five boroughs—The Bronx,Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898.
New York traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic, and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.
The Castello Plan showing the Dutch colonial city of New Amsterdam in 1660 – then confined to the southern tip of Manhattan Island.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 50 million annual visitors. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown, who sailed his ship La Dauphine into Upper New York Harbor, where he spent one night aboard ship and sailed out the next day. In 1609 English explorer Henry Hudson re-discovered the region when he sailed his ship the Halve Maen (Half Moon) into New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passageto the Orient for his employer the Dutch East India Company. Thomas Nast denounces Tammany as a ferocious tiger killing democracy; the tiger image caught on. In 1664 Peter Stuyvesant, the Director-General of the colony of New Netherland, surrendered New Amsterdam to the English without bloodshed.
The city hosted the influential John Peter Zenger trial in 1735, helping to establish the freedom of the press in North America. The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 entirely within the modern day borough of Brooklyn. 1811 A modern redrawing of the 1807 version of the Commissioner’s Grid plan for Manhattan, a few years before it was adopted in 1811. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776.
In 1785 the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York the national capital shortly after the war. In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development related to the western and cotton trades, as well as European immigration. The city also became a center of the cotton trade: by 1822 cotton shipments comprised nearly half of its exports, with most going to Great Britain and European markets. Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe.
The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, and by 1860, one in four New Yorkers—over 200,000—had been born in Ireland There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York’s population by 1860. Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city’s ties to the South and its dominant party. It deteriorated into vicious attacks on blacks and their property, following fierce competition for a decade between immigrants and blacks for work.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in early 1920s, overtaking London. In the 1960s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates, which extended into the 1970s. New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. The city’s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Under the Koppen climate classification, New York City experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) that borders on a humid continental climate (Dfa). Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding of the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities located at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The city receives 49.7 inches (1,260 mm) of precipitation annually, which is fairly spread throughout the year.
Note: Census figures (1790–2010) cover the present area of all five boroughs, before and after the 1898 consolidation. Throughout its history the city has been a major point of entry for immigrants; more than 12 million European immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. The New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest Jewish community outside Israel. New York City alone, according to the 2010 Census, has now become home to more than one million Asian Americans, greater than the combined totals ofSan Francisco and Los Angeles. The metropolitan area is home to a self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at 568,903 individuals, the largest in the United States.
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper currently under construction at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and currently the most expensive new office tower in the world. Manhattan’s skyline with its many skyscrapers is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The character of New York’s large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930.
The twin towers of the former World Trade Center, New York’s tallest buildings from 1972 to 2001.
Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.
New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches.[171] Parks in New York City include Central Park, Prospect Park, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Forest Park, and Washington Square Park.
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are located both in the states of New York and New Jersey. There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park, a natural area which includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River. Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character to call their own. As of July 2010 the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number in any city in North America. New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland and Latvia and by New York’s own Baruch College. Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States.
New York is a prominent location in the American entertainment industry, with films, television series, books, and other media being set there. The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts.
Tourism is one of New York City’s most vital industries, with more than 40 million combined domestic and international tourists visiting each year in the past five years. In 2010, New York City received nearly 49 million tourists, subsequently surpassed by a record 50 million tourists in 2011.
New York is a center for the television, advertising, music, newspaper, and book publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America (followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, and Toronto). More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city and the book-publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.
The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city’s economy.
The New York area has a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [?] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [?r] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American. The US Open Tennis Championships are held every August and September in Flushing Meadows, Queens. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which will host Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.
The Financial District in Lower Manhattan as seen looking south-west down Madison Street from the Manhattan Bridge. The New York metropolitan area had approximately gross metropolitan product of $1.28 trillion in 2010, making it the largest regional economy in the United States and, according to IT Week, the second largest city economy in the world. Rats ruled the subways in New York City until the union and the riders embarrassed management into cleaning up.
New York City transit workers are allying with bus and subway riders for better conditions. This scourge of the transit system was infecting every corner, rapidly growing in size and number, and making life miserable for workers and riders alike: none other than the New York City Subway Rat. Local 100’s administration, headed by President John Samuelsen, had run on a reform program, promising to rebuild steward networks and form coalitions with the riding public. The rats were on platforms, in crew quarters, crawling in subway towers, and occasionally riding the trains. A little research revealed that the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) had stopped sending out baiting crews around 2006. At the urging of stewards in the cleaners’ section of the union, the local’s safety department focused its efforts on the most infested station in the system, Parsons Archer in Queens. Frustrated with the slow pace of progress, the union decided to launch a public campaign: New Yorkers Deserve a Rat-Free Subway.
A hundred members, officers, and staff surrounded the station entrance chanting, “Budget cuts means rats are back” and “You don’t want to ride with them and we don’t want to work with them!” They asked passengers to sign a petition calling for a system-wide rat eradication plan. The campaign gained momentum as more and more members came out for “Rat Hits” at stations all over the city.
West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT) was a consistent partner in the fight against rats. Stewards were front and center in most of the press pieces, taking reporters into rat-infested crevices of the system to give them an embedded reporter’s view of the battlefield. When we awarded the MetroCard to the contest winner—in front of the rat balloon, of course—more than 30 press outlets showed up. New Yorkers Deserve a Rat-Free Subway was about to mark its first year when superstorm Sandy hit. The city is referred to as New York City or The City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part. With a Census-estimated 2011 population of 8,244,910 distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. He proceeded to sail up what he named the North River, also called the Mauritis River, and now known as the Hudson River, to the site of the present-day New York State capital of Albany in the belief that it may be a passage. Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small band of the Lenape, in 1626 for a value of 60 guilders (about $1000 in 2006) a disproved legend says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads. It became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, more than any other city other than Charleston, South Carolina.


In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by George II of Great Britain as King’s College in Lower Manhattan.
After the battle, in which the Americans were routed, leaving subsequent smaller engagements following in its wake, the city became the British military and political base of operations in North America.
Shortly after the British occupation began the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church. The city adopted the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan. Upstate mills manufactured textiles from the cotton, so much of the state’s economy was connected to the cotton trade.
Public-minded members of the old merchant aristocracy lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, gradually a significant free-black population developed in Manhattan.
In 1861 Mayor Fernando Wood called on the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, but its more than 200 children escaped harm.
The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together.
In the 1920s, New York City was a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in early 1930s, becoming the firstmegacity in human history.
The first buildings are finished and it is scheduled for completion by 2014 The World Trade Center PATH station, which was opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attack. Manhattan is bound by the Hudson River to the west, the Harlem River to the north, and East River to the east. Reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.
Using the 0 °C (32 °F) threshold, it is the northernmost major city on the continent with the humid subtropical categorization.
Average winter snowfall for 1971 to 2000 has been 22.4 inches (57 cm), but this usually varies considerably from year to year.
For New York City itself before annexing part of the Bronx in 1874, Sources: 1698–1771, 1790–1890, 1900–1990, 2000 and 2010 Census.
Bloomberg immediately challenged the Census Bureau’s 2010 data as representing an undercount upon release. Another significant ethnic group is Italians, who emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early twentieth century, mainly from Sicily and other parts of southern Italy. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. In 2005 the median household income in the wealthiest census tract was $188,697, while in the poorest it was $9,320. As of 2011, New York City had 5,937 high-rise buildings, of which 550 completed structures were at least 100 meters high, both second in the world after Hong Kong, with over 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m).
The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. A distinctive feature of many of the city’s buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers. Also in Queens the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. Located within the park is the historic Battle Pass, which figured prominently in the Battle of Long Island. Located within the park is the historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States. 1,397,287) is New York City’s northernmost borough, the location of Yankee Stadium, home of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City.
2,567,098), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city’s most populous borough and was an independent city until 1898. A book containing a series of essays titled New York, culture capital of the world, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s The city’s punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. As of 2008, New York City is the second largest center for the film industry in the United States with 63,000 workers who were paid as much as $5 billion in wages. Wealthy industrialists in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established.
Some of the city’s media conglomerates include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, and Viacom.
Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism.
The four major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS,FOX, and NBC. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. Eastern European and Italian immigrants have made the city famous for bagels, cheesecake, and New York-style pizza, while Chinese restaurants are ubiquitous. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States. According to Cinco Dias, New York controlled 40% of the world’s finances by the end of 2008, making it the largest financial center in the world.
But a year ago Transport Workers Local 100 in New York stumbled upon an enemy so scary, it would unite subway riders and workers in action to overcome a clear and present danger. The local’s newly trained stewards began filing field reports that rats were infesting the system to a degree previously unseen. Remixing a union standby, Local 100 blew up its union rat-balloon in front of the Parsons Archer station and unveiled a banner claiming New Yorkers’ right to a vermin-free commute. Previously silent politicians appeared at rallies, decrying a neglected system that needed to be cleaned up.
Members conducted surveys in their local stations, bringing the cleanliness issue into the public eye.
Riders were asked to submit pictures of “New York’s Ugliest Subway Rat.” The winner would get an unlimited monthly subway pass. Then the New York Post picked up the contest—leading to more than 250,000 hits on our website in one day and a local, national, and international media feeding frenzy.
The MTA budgeted an additional $1.6 million to run new garbage trains, creating 19 new jobs. Public perception was almost universally positive, a departure from the trend of potshots at public sector union workers. Riders are learning they can count on Local 100 to keep up the fight for clean, safe, reliable public transportation. A global power city New York exerts a significant impact upon commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. In January a year later, Esteban Gomez, a Portuguese of African descent sailing for Emperor Charles V of Spain, entered New York Harbor and charted the mouth of the Hudson river which he named Rio de San Antonio. When the river narrowed and was no longer salty he realized it wasn’t a sea passage and sailed back downriver. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch gained control of Run (then a much more valuable asset) in exchange for the English controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor.
The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765 as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, skirmishing over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees, as well as escaped slaves who joined the British lines for the freedom promised by the Crown. The 1819 opening of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. So many southern businessmen came to New York that they had favorite hotels, and businesses and restaurants catered to them. The New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate black children.[85] It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War(1861–1865) led to the Draft Riots of 1863, led by ethnic Irish working class. Rioters killed an estimated 100 blacks and attacked many more, especially in the docks area. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance. By the 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to changed police strategies, improving economy, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city.
Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, and averages 58% of possible sunshine annually, accumulating 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine per annum. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area, but are not unheard of and always have the potential to strike the area. This amounts to about 40% of the state of New York’s population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population.
By 1900,Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the metropolitan area are the Dominican Republic, China, Jamaica, Mexico, India, Ecuador, Italy, Haiti, Colombia, and Guyana The New York region continues to be the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States. The disparity is driven by wage growth in high income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and lower income brackets.


These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early gothic revival skyscraper built with massively scaled gothic detailing.
The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park with beaches, trails and marina also on Staten Island. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel.
The borough is the financial center of the city and contains the headquarters of many major corporations, the UN, a number of important universities, and many cultural attractions. Except for a small section of Manhattan known as Marble Hill, the Bronx is the only section of the city that is part of the United States mainland. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods and a distinctive architectural heritage. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry. The city is also widely celebrated in popular lore, featured frequently as the setting for books, movies (see New York in film), television programs, etc.
The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s New York City theaters on Broadwayand along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including Jazz at Lincoln Center, Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic. Seven of the world’s top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. Many cable channels are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central. WNET is the city’s major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafels and kebabs standbys of modern New York street food, although hot dogs and pretzels are still the main street fare.
The classic version of this dialect is centered on middle and working class people of European descent, and the influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect. The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family was a good example of a speaker who had this feature. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000.
The city’s two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets and the New York Yankees who compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. The New York Marathon is one of the world’s largest, and the 2004–2006 events hold the top three places in the marathons with the largest number of finishers, including 37,866 finishers in 2006. A street in The Bronx has been renamed Stickball Blvd, as tribute to New York’s most known street sport. Grievances had been filed, and union officers and the safety committee had visited the site multiple times. A legislator brought the cause directly to the MTA’s executive director at his confirmation hearings in the state capital. They convened a press conference with local politicians and organized their members to participate in rat hits, building connections between riders and workers. Every local station, CNN, ABC, and 17 international TV stations and newspapers picked up and ran the story of the photo contest. Baiting crews are out in force for the first time in years, forcing the MTA to backfill track positions with new hires.
The home of the United Nations Headquarters, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has been described as the cultural capital of the world. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy. Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670.
Slavery became integrally tied to New York’s economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the South. In 1789 the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants.
New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition.
Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens.
A permanent station, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, is currently being constructed and is scheduled to be completed in the second quarter of 2014. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density. TheEast River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt .
Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Extreme temperatures have ranged from ?15 to 106 °F (-26 to 41 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934 and July 9, 1936, respectively. 6.0% of New York City is of Chinese ethnicity, with about forty percent of them living in the borough of Queens alone. In early 2011, the average weekly wage in New York County was $2,634, representing the highest total and absolute increase among the largest counties in the United States In recent years, New York and Moscow have ranked as the two cities home to the highest number of billionaires. A highly influential example of the international stylein the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights. It is home to the Bronx Zoo, the largest metropolitan zoo in the United States, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and is home to over 6,000 animals. The Staten Island Ferry is one of the most popular tourist attractions in New York City as it provides unsurpassed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and lower Manhattan.
Strongly influenced by the city’s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. New York City Ballet, the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School and Alice Tully Hall. El Diario La Prensa is New York’s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.
WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
The city is also home to many of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the United States.
There are also two minor league baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. In 1614 the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Baywould be claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland). Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square revealed than tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial years. When the British forces evacuated in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. Because of the violence, many blacks left the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn and New Jersey; the black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The larger economic boom generated construction of competing skyscrapers that changed the skyline into its identifiable twentieth-century shape. New York’s population reached all-time highs in the 2000 Census and then again in the 2010 Census.
The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Conde Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park isHarlem. The borough features a long beachfront and Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Located in central Staten Island, the 2,500 acres (10 km2) Greenbelt has some 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. The city has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government.
Boxing is also a prominent part of the city’s sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. Manhattan’s Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.
The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in the borough grew by more than 32%.
Designated in 1984 to protect the island’s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks. Numerous colleges and universities are located in New York, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which are ranked among the top 50 in the world.



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