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The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. This table gives details for the routes prefixed with "B" - in other words, those considered to run primarily in Brooklyn by the MTA. All routes in this section are local service except route B6 which has local and limited-stop services. All routes in this section are local service except routes B35, B38, B41, B46 and B49 which have local and limited-stop services.
Early AM northbound service starts at Nostrand Avenue and Flatbush Avenue and serves each Williamsburg terminal alternately. All routes in this section are local service except route B82 which has local and limited-stop services. In 2006, the number of commuters taking the subway in New York City reached its highest point since 1952- however, in the same year the subway network actually decreased by 8 miles of service. By the year 2030, New York City is expected to be populated by nearly one million more residents, get 750,000 new jobs and receive millions more visitors. The average percentage of New Yorkers using public transportation in all 5 boroughs, is about 55%.  However, as the data shows, currently, Richmond, Queens and Bronx counties are lagging behind in the percentage of total people who use public transportation.
The current New York City Subway map clearly shows the lack tracks in a large part of Queens and Brooklyn, and even some parts of Bronx.
A major problem that particularly affects Queen’s residents is not necessary the absence of access to lines, but the uneven ticket fares and prices. PlaNYC plans to improve service to areas of Queens and the Bronx- including an additional station at Sunnyside Yards (Long Island City) as a central base to make it easier for additional trains to serve stations in eastern Queens. The plan also hopes to extend service in Manhattan due to high demands and continue the 7 train to reach the Javits Center and pass through fast-growing areas.
The 4 and the 5 lines are 110% and 108% capacity, the 2 and the 3 lines are at 106% and 101% capacity, the 6 is at 98% capacity, and the 1, A and C lines are operating between 84% and 87% capacity. Congestion Pricing is the idea of charging drivers a daily fee for entering the Central Business District during business hours (6am to 6pm on weekdays) to discourage driving, while promoting these drivers to take mass transit.
Although the PlaNYC lays out an optimistic detailed plan of new subway lines and extended service, the costs of these initiatives are steep and the budget to ensure these changes is not guaranteed. The Bronx was the first borough to install a Bus Rapid Transit route in June 2008 and Brooklyn’s BRT service will be introduced between late 2008 and 2011. The BRT was previously funded through the Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) between the City and the U.S. The DOT and the MTA are working together to implement Transit Signal Priority (TSP) in at least 223 locations, allowing buses to move faster by having to stop at fewer red signals.
The DOT completed the redesign of three bus stops located under an elevated subway line.  One location is at 20th Avenue and 86th Street in Brooklyn. The DOT implemented an improved interface between the subway station and the surrounding sidewalks at Bedford Avenue in Brooklyn.
Congestion Pricing coupled with MTA changes and extensions to essential areas seems like the solution to increasing public transportation and decreasing depence of private transportation in the city.
The subway map is the key to understanding this most complex subway in the world, which has 26 separate lines and 468 stations.
In short, a better-designed subway map will make our subway system more open and accessible. To understand the challenge of visually communicating New York's subway one must understand New York's unique geography and its street system, both of which have an impact on the mapping.


Because New York City's subway generally follows its gridded street routes, there is a strong psychological link between the subway and the aboveground topography that is not found in a city like London.
The Kick Map is a "hybrid" concept that resolves the 50-year debate between the exclusive use of either a diagrammatic or topographic mapping of the New York City Subway. The Kick Map's hybrid concept doesn't allow the strict dogma of either type to get in the way of the map's primary function: to display the whole system and its relation to the city as clearly as possible.
The Kick Map employs "route bends" in a subway line's route to signal to the user important aboveground road changes. Similarly in the Bronx, when the #4 train jumps from River Avenue to Jerome, this is clearly and simply shown. And the same holds true for the L line in Brooklyn as it travels along the major thoroughfares of Metropolitan Avenue to Bushwick Avenue and on to Harrison Street.
Unlike the Vignelli map - where the positions of the stations and lines are distorted for pure graphic harmony - the Kick Map, while stylized for clarity, has stations that are "location accurate" i.e.
The Kick Map also presents a comprehensive grid of major streets and avenues that intersect with all the station stops to help orient the rider to the stop and the streets above.
In short, the Kick Map empowers the map user to better understand the relation of a subway stop to the geography above it. The hybrid concept irons out the "kinks" of any single street as it would in a diagram map.
Unlike the current MTA map, a single road's "wiggles" are straightened out as, for example, with Queens Blvd or the Grand Concourse. The diagrammatic form allows for visual simplicity and a significant reduction in size as the biggest form of the Kick Map is only about two-thirds the size of the current one.
The smallest versions still have complete transfer information and when folded can easily fit into a wallet. While there are separate lines for each of the trains, they remain true to the existing MTA signage colors - for example the 1, 2, & 3 lines are all red; the A, C, & E lines all blue, and so on. Each station shows at a glance what train stops there and whether the train stops there all the time, stops only at peak hours, or stops only at off-peak hours. Each station shows the reader whether they have the ability to cross over to go in the opposite direction for free. Relevant station stops show wheelchair access and connections to commuter rail lines (PATH, Metro North, LIRR). Bus information is shown for highly trafficked destinations that are not served directly by the subway (the Javits Center, Riis Park, Orchard Beach, and LaGuardia Airport) to further discourage automobile use. In summary, the user-friendly Kick Map has been designed to encourage subway ridership, for both New Yorkers and visitors, and thereby to reduce automobile traffic, congestion, and pollution - not to mention confusion - in our great city.
Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940. Today, the transit system is plagued with two serious problems- it fails to provide access to too many New Yorkers, and lines in service face increasing congestion resulting in delays and unpleasant commuting experiences.
Taking a closer look at the transportation systems and patterns of the three boroughs- the Bronx, Queens and Brooklyn will bring us closer to answer (Manhattan can be excluded firstly because of its lack of area compared to the other three counties, and the fact that it is the business center, while the other three are mainly residential; in addition, Staten Island can also be excluded because it is much more suburban than the other three counties and realistically, it is more kin to suburban areas of Long Island than the urban culture seen in Queens, Brooklyn and the Bronx). Many areas of Queens are not covered by the subway lines, but instead included as part of the LIRR. The plan also looks to extend Metro North service to new stations providing residents of Co-op City and Hunts Point with fast, direct rides to West Harlem.
Also, a new 10th Avenue Subway Station will meet a strong, emerging need at West 41st Street.


The problem with promoting mass transit occurs when the mass transit system is at, or nearing, its limit. This aims to reduce congestion, decrease greenhouse gas emissions and raise money for expanding the MTA lines to accommodate for all the new “converted” pubic commuters. Congestion pricing in particular aims to reduce congestion, decrease greenhouse gas emissions and raise money for expanding the MTA lines to accommodate for all the new pubic commuters.
Created with clarity and ease of use, it allows riders to navigate this vast system easily and without uncertainty.
A well-designed map not only welcomes and empowers novices to use the subway but also encourages additional use for regular "home-to-work-only" commuters to use the subway for recreational destinations where they might otherwise take a car.
There are four significant and conflicting aspects that make the New York City subway impossible to successfully map with just a diagrammatic or just a topographic format. Any location - take 42nd Street and 7th Avenue as an example - places you in the grid, which makes it easy to judge distance and location. Both map types have inherent strengths and weaknesses in their attempts to translate the maze of this complex system.
It is designed with a combination of both diagrammatic and topographic features, thus enhancing the strengths and eliminating most of the weaknesses of both types. For example, when the #6 train "jumps" across from Park Avenue to Lexington Avenue as it travels north, this is shown as a bend on the Kick Map as it would be in a topographic map.
This is an important feature for there are 87 stations - 56 in Manhattan alone - that do not allow free access to cross over.
Of the 55 local Brooklyn routes operated by the New York City Transit Authority, roughly 35 are the direct descendants of one or more streetcar lines, and most of the others were introduced in full or in part as new bus routes by the 1930s. The solution is clearly expansion, and the revenue for that expansion is expected to come from tolls collected from congestion pricing. Similar plans, though controversial, have already seen success in London and Stockholm, so it is a viable option for our city! For this reason the design of the subway map can directly influence ridership numbers and can indirectly have an effect on New York's traffic congestion and pollution.
Used alone, each makes the subway system very hard to understand for a surprising number of people.
One premise of the Kick "hybrid" map is that while most of the time a straight line is the easiest line to understand, there are important exceptions. Instead of having to read words to know when this "jump" occurs (as in the Vignelli map) the "route bend" itself communicates the change quicker and more accurately. With all the non-subway information that the current MTA map does show - like the location of all the heliports in the city - it doesn't offer this simple but important piece of subway information indicating what station stop to get off to turn around in case you miss your stop. Only the eastern section of the B82 (then the B50), the B83, and the B84 were created by New York City Transit from scratch, in 1978, 1966, and 2013, respectively. Although the $7.60 ride takes almost half the time, most commuters do not choose to take the LIRR lines due to the price tag. This suggests that economic factors do influence commuter choices, but also suggests that despite median income values, commuters tend to select the cheapest alternative- over saving commuting time.



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