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For most of this century, the New York City rapid transit system, under the successive ?ges of the Board of Transportation, the New York City Transit Authority, and the Metropolitan Transit Authority, has used a consistent and concise formalism to express graphically the layout and capabilities of signals, called the single line diagram, because each track (two running rails and a power rail) is represented by a single line. This page explains the notations used in these diagrams, some of which are posted at this site, also used in other explanations on this site. The first thing one is likely to notice when first setting eyes upon a single line diagram is, in fact, the bewildering profusion of lines! Here is a sample single-line diagram of a simple (believe it or not) interlocking, with annotations of the principle elements in red. How many and what colors of lenses are in the head, which can possibly be illuminated, not which is illuminated now or at any time. In this illustration all possible lamps are shown lit at once so you can see what color the lenses are -- in real life, no more than one lamp (other than the paired reds in g and i) is ever illuminated in a single head. Looking again at the signal layout at our sample interlocking, Let's start with the leftmost signal, with the numbers 2 and F1-240. Note that IJ (Insulated Joint) F1-242 has no signal associated with it; it exists solely to allow the control length of signal F1-250 (12) terminate at it. The box with the line and dot in it near the switch represents the tower; the dot represents the tower operator, and the line the interlocking machine or panel. Note that the home signal 10 has an "S" light for the 2-shot grade time control of signal 8 (F1-245) (which is marked as GT). The open circles (F3-247, F3-249, F1-247) are automatic signals, not controlled at all by the interlocking (well, maybe just a little for F1-247 -- this involves some subtlety and advanced design principles, but in any case, there are no explicit levers controlling that signal). The notation TRAFFIC LEVER 3 indicates that the direction of traffic on track F1 south of signal 4 is controlled by Lever 3 at this tower, which is tightly interlocked with the controls for all signals here (particularly 8, 10 and 12), as well as with a similar traffic lever at the next interlocking south of here.
The thin lines on the diagram represent the control lines (which encompass the control lengths) of the signals.
The control line of signal 12 extends southward from the signal along Track F1 to insulated joint F1-242.
The grade-time (GT) signal 8 has a double (as it is "2-shot") "timing section" preceding its control length (that is, starting at F1-250 and going up to the signal itself), indicated by a dotted line. Signal A1-317 is indicated as a Station Time signal, at 20 MPH, by the ST 20 at its symbol. Stops are show as they are (either up ("tripping") or down ("driven")) when the system is in its canonical (or normal) state.
The canonical state is also important in the wiring diagrams for signalling; the contacts of a given relay are symbolized differently depending upon whether that relay is energized or dropped out when the system is in its canonical state.
View the working transportation lines below, including other parts of the MTA, courtesy of Mr. Effective before rush hour tomorrow morning, the following is an up-to-date service status list of the MTA operating agencies including New York City Transit, Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North and Bridges and Tunnels.
2 trains will operate between 241st Street (Bronx) and Times Square-42nd Street, with express service between 96th Street and Times Square. 5 trains will operate express in Brooklyn between Atlantic Avenue-Barclays Center and Flatbush Avenue.


R trains operate in Brooklyn between Jay Street-MetroTech and 95th Street making all local stops. Ronkonkoma Branch: Suspended (goal to restore hourly service from Ronkonkoma to Penn Station for AM rush hour Thursday, Nov. Port Washington Branch: Suspended (goal to restore hourly service from Great Neck to Penn Station for AM rush hour Thursday, Nov. In 2014, 1.75 billion people rode the subway, which seems like an incomprehensible number until you try to ride the L train at rush hour, and then it makes sense.
That person is Milo Beckman, and he’s designed maps that make the swirling, complicated, confusing vortex of the subway into some pretty simple pictures.
Around step 4 things get complicated, with the N, Q, and R trains running diagonally at Herald Square, but by that time it doesn’t matter. At its heart a geographically accurate map of a small section of the earth and the railroad, the single line diagram also contains information about the contained signals' nomenclatures, control, and interactions. The present page assumes you have some basic understanding of the signal system and the types of signals it involves, seen firsthand and as explained on these pages.
In addition to the lines representing the tracks, the single line diagram contains a control line for each signal, representing the extent of track controlled by that signal, which is to say, its control length, that is (definition) the extent of track downtrack from the signal such that if any portion of it be occupied by a train or other danger, the signal will be red (at stop). The thin lines are control lines -- they do not represent physical entities on the right-of-way, but logical distances key to the design of the signals (as explained above).
These are called back-to-back signals: 4, like 2, is for Northbound (moving diagram left to right) trains, and 8 is for Southbound trains.
Knowing which way the operator faces is crucial, because some signals controlled by some types of interlocking machines are designated L or R according to whether the tower operator moves the controlling lever to his or her left or right to clear them. Its stop is shown as up, but it is not always up -- if a route is cleared from 4 to 6, its stop will be driven down.
If any portion of a train, or a switch set the "wrong" (trailing point set to other route) way, or (with some exceptions) the control line of a clear signal in the opposite direction be found in any portion of the control line of a given signal, that given signal must be red. In fact, the control lengths of all signals fork in precisely the same way as the trackage they each control. Control lines are sometimes marked with track numbers, station numbers, or lever numbers, depending upon the pedigree and intent of the diagram; any is sufficient to disambiguate the control lines.
This is defined as the state of the system when all the equipment is operating properly, no trains are anywhere on it, and all levers are in their "normal" position: no signals called, all switches and traffic levers are "normal". 7 trains has been restored in Queens and Brooklyn, though there is still no subway service into Lower Manhattan.
Andrew Cuomo and MTA Chairman Joe Lhota announced that New York City’s subway system will restore service on a number of lines, leaving out a swath of territory south of 34th Street in Manhattan. It’s a system of 22 lines running between 469 stations, crisscrossing, leapfrogging, and swerving around more than 840 miles of track, 24 hours a day, every single day. Still, it stands to reason that the subway would be a daunting thing to try and understand.
With its associated notes, the single line diagram provides enough information for a signal engineer to design the relay logic of the signal system for the trackage depicted.


For an example of a real set of single line signal diagrams, see the World's Fair Railroad section.
F1-240 is the station, or "chaining", number, indicating that the signal is 24000 feet along the right-of-way from this line's "zero" (See Joe Korman's list of chaining codes and zeroes for a listing of all letters and zeros.). Note that each signal has its own stop, which is beyond the joint in the direction governed by the signal. You may be wondering exactly what use is the #6 lever if the signal can never be cleared: in some types of interlockings, such signals receive lever numbers (to associate apparatus with them), and others not.
If switch 7 is reverse, not only must the signal be red, but its lever must be "normal" (forcing the signal red).
For example, a (rear of a) train occupying the block between F3-247 and F3-249 will force signal 4 to be red if and only if switch 7 is reverse (set to track F3). Lower Manhattan was left out, they explained, because of the mass power outage in the wake of Hurricane Sandy. The numbers represent the nomenclatures of the signals, switches, and insulated joints, which are sometimes station numbers derived from position along the right-of-way in hundreds of feet, or lever number, which is the number of a lever at the interlocking tower (although there might not be a real "lever", but just a miniature switch or button, this "lever" number is, in effect, a "logical lever" number, and still used to associate equipment with the signal).
2 is an approach signal, because of the solid-filled, single circle representing its single head. The lucky signal in the "normal" direction of travel (4) gets to keep the IJ's stationing number.
The dotted line around switch 7 is a track-circuit jumper, connecting the two pieces of track around the insulated section of the switch into the same track circuit.
From basic principles of interlocking, we can tell that 7 cannot even be moved reverse unless and until lever 12 is set normal (as a matter of fact, that is why approach signals exist). Each signal symbol consists of heads, which are the familiar boxes (often stacked vertically) with lamps and lenses, and a little "stand" which shows which way the signal faces: the train approaching the signal on the map approaches from the direction with the stand. The dot h is indicated on the stem of a home signal symbol when the call-on light can be used as part of a "three-yellow" (yard) aspect (although sometimes it is seen on older prints in conjunction with a home signal whose only permissive aspect is a call-on).
The notation 319+75, as often painted on trackside artifacts, signifies 31975 feet along the centerline of the right-of-way from the line's zero. In the canonical state, all stops associated with home or approach signals will be in their "tripping" position, and most stops associated with automatic signals (notably not those associated with GT signals or those in a "reverse" direction of traffic on a given track) will be in their "driven" position.
The little tick representing the joint indicates (in this case) that the top-of-the-diagram rail of the track is the signal rail (and is interrupted for insulated joints).
Note that F1-247's stop is normally tripping, because this signal is normally red on account of the approach signal 12. The fact that it is perpendicular to the track represents it in its "tripping position", which, for this signal, is its canonical state (explained below).



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