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The subway station project was delayed for nearly three years while Transit Wireless, the company chosen to set up the system at no cost to the NY MTA, got its financing in order. New York City straphangers are of two minds about the lack of WiFi and cell phone service in the subway. There's something for both sides in the NY Metropolitan Transportation Authority's current project to bring the internet and phone use underground.  For those who want the service because it'll help emergency responders communicate and help riders use transit apps on their mobile devices--or because they absolutely MUST check their emails or headlines--they'll have it at three stations by the end of the year. For those who don't want to hear a stranger discuss his grocery list at high volume, it'll be a full four years before the system's remaining 271 platforms are wirelessly enabled. Transit Wireless will charge telecom companies for use of the wireless signal and then split the profits with the MTA.
The NY MTA also says there will be WiFi and cell phone service in a non-subway tunnel -- on its Metro-North commuter line between 97th Street and Grand Central Terminal, and in the terminal itself.
NY MTA spokesman Aaron Donovan said the main benefit would be improved safety on platforms.
By the terms of the new contracts, the leases of all the new lines as well as those of the existing subway are to run for 49 years from Jan. The revenues of all operated lines of each system will be pooled, the two companies will be allowed to retain all the earnings (after payment of rentals, interest, amortization, etc.) on the lines they now operate, and the city will share in the profits of the rest. The custom was established in the days of the old Rapid Transit Commission of assigning a number to the various different routes proposed from time to time for new lines, and this has been perpetuated, as, for instance, the Lexington Ave.
For construction purposes, each route is divided into sections, numbered consecutively from the south toward the north in Manhattan and the Bronx, from west to east in Brooklyn. There have been many difficulties to overcome in connection with the design of these larger cars. Before the introduction of this automatic coupler the link-and-pin type had been in general use, but even with eight-car trains on the Interborough, the breaking in two of the trains was frequent enough to show that the limit had been reached for this type of couplings.
The signal to the motorman is given by the closing of an electric circuit when all the doors of the train are closed.
A species of weighting device has been introduced in connection with the air-line system to maintain the same ratio of breaking power on loaded and empty cars. The contracts between the operating companies and the city call for an average speed on express tracks between main-line terminals of 25 miles per hour, including stops of 30 seconds at each intermediate station, and an average speed on local tracks between terminals of 15 miles per hour, including stops of 20 seconds at each intermediate station. Unlike the location of steam railroads, the location of such lines as these under consideration is governed only to a comparatively small extent by questions of gradient or alignment as they affect economy of operation. With electrical operation and especially with the dense traffic conditions which exist or which will exist on the rapid transit lines in New York, the question of gradients is not so important as it is in connection with the locations of railroad lines for operation by steam locomotives, or where continuous sustained effort is required on long supported gradients. For short sections of heavy grade, extra power is supplied through an additional feed wire, or wires to the points where it is needed.
In the operation of self-contained motor cars also, there is the advantage over trains hauled by locomotives that all additional load increases the adhesion and, therefore, permits application of the power neeessary to haul it. The general procedure has been that the gradients are fixed by local conditions within the limits given above, then the motors are designed to carry the load. On the underground lines so far as possible, stations have been located at summits of gradients, both in order to get them as near the surface as possible and also that the ascending gradient may be utilized in braking, and the descending gradient to aide in acceleration. On account of the capacity of the electric motor for overload also, there is little necessity for, or benefit to be derived from, the compensation of grades for curvature, although it is not uncommon to find the heavier rates of gradient combined with quite sharp curvature, as for instance, at Vesey St. Transition curves of a uniform length of 150 ft., irrespective of the degree of curvature are used, wherever it is possible to get them in.
The contracts for the general construction do not include any station finish of any kind, nor the track, ballast, or electrical equipment except such parts as necessarily have to be incorporated in the main structure, such as conduits for electric wiring, power cables. Approximate quantities of each item are given for the purpose of comparing the bids on a basis of total cost. There are provisions calling special attention to the necessity of compliance with state and city laws, especially the eight-hour law and the requirement that contractors shall pay the union scale of wages. As the work is to a large extent to be carried out in residential districts, there are provisions which give the engineers adequate control of night work of any kind which might disturb people living near the line. The provision then is for the retention of 1% of the amount due for the work done in the first month, after the time elapses, 2% for the second month, and so on. The contracts provide that the city shall make payments on estimates within 30 days after a certificate is issued by the Commission. This fall L’Oreal Paris is going underground to the subways of New York City with The Intelligent Color Experience machine. The Intelligent Color Experience will be set up at Bryant Park Station at 42nd Street and Fifth Avenue from November 4 to December 30.
The New York City subway system has moved too slowly to adopt modern signaling technology, adding to train delays, heightening safety risks and reducing efficiency in operations and maintenance, according to a new study. While New York is in the early stages of converting to communications-based train control, the modern, computerized system on which many cities’ metro systems rely today, the pace of change has been slow, according to the report conducted by the Regional Plan Association, an independent urban research and advocacy organization. The New York City subway system has made substantial strides in recent years in upgrading stations, service, subway cars and passengers’ experience. Participants will learn how to turn complex vehicle sensor data into an easy-to-understand and usable format. Expands on key features of the 2016 model, including a power passenger door, operated by a remote keyless fob and innovative, side-entry power ramp. The authority's board selected the company in 2007 but didn't give it a "notice to proceed" until Broadcast Australia decided to back the company in July 2010. They see it as either a galling void or a sanctuary from modern life's near-constant connectivity.


The authority says it expects to earn at least $30 million dollars over ten years from the deal. Stated briefly, the original contracts for the present subway provided for its construction by the city or with the city's money, its equipment of power stations, electrical apparatus, signals, telephones, rolling stock, etc., being furnished by the operating company, which had a lease for 50 years, with privilege of renewal for 25 more. The sections vary considerably in length but are generally about half a mile, and the bids so far obtained range from about $800,000 to $4,000,000 per section. The work is so varied that there is, as will be seen, a wide variation in the prices either per lin.ft. The other sections, which are perhaps more nearly normal, show approximately an approach to the commonly accepted rough estimate figure of $1,000,000 per mile of track, built in subway.
Automatic stops in connection with the signals are in use in the present subway, and the sudden setting of the brakes produces heavy stresses on the couplings. This has been in use successfully for some little time already, and not only saves the delay due to transmitting the signal from car to car by hand, but also acts as a safety device in preventing the starting of the train while any door is open.
As the car is stopped at the station, the variation in the load due to the discharge or receipt of passengers, actuates a piston in an auxiliary air cylinder, directly connected to the jam-cylinder.
The primary consideration, of course, is the general location of the lines through or under streets in those sections of the city where service is needed. Gradients up to 3% may be considered normal, this upper limit being used with considerable frequency, though generally in comparatively short stretches.
The electric motor as is known can stand a heavy overload of as much as 100%, or even more for short periods, the amount of the load and the time which it can be carried being limited by the heating which takes place under these conditions. Momentum is availed of wherever possible, where under normal conditions trains may be expected to utilize it in overcoming ascending gradients, and this can quite safely be done, because in case a train is stopped on an upgrade, the motors can he relied to start it and move it along, even though at low speed, on account of their great capacity for overload. While, however, these two practices mutually help each other on the subway lines, and the rise and fall involved is, therefore, not an operating expense, this is not the case on the elevated lines. The alignment, of course is governed by the same considerations of the necessity of following the streets, and so far as possible, avoiding encroachment on private property. The clauses of the specifications indicating the character of the work to be performed under each item or type of construction, will be discussed or quoted under each separate heading, together with the descriptions of the work. The time may be extended or diminished if there is any material change in total quantities.
A certified check for a stated sum, varying from $10,000 to $25,000, according to the size of the contract, is required with all proposals and a bond of a stated sum of approximately 10% of the amount of the contract from the accepted contractor, 15% is retained from the monthly payments up to a total of about 10% of the amount of the contract, after which only 10% is deducted. As a matter of fact, payments are usually made within 30 days of the end of the month covered by each estimate. Plans showing the location of all shafts, plant to be erected in the streets, supports of decking, openings in decking, must be submitted to the engineers, and receive their approval before work is commenced. The contractor admits (under the form of contract) that if the work be done without fault, or negligence on his part that the plans, etc., do not involve any danger of foundations, walls, or other parts of adjacent buildings) etc. At the current rate, a full transformation wouldn’t occur for more than 50 years, the study shows, putting New York decades behind its peers around the world.
But the subway continues to rely largely on early 20th century technology to space and operate trains in 97% of the system. It seems hardly necessary, however, for the purpose of these articles to enumerate these in detail. The cost of structure and per foot of track is shown in the accompanying table, which also shows the per cent. 29, 1912) have proven very satisfactory, and in addition to these couplers a device is to be installed in the new equipment which will also permit the automatic coupling of the electrical connections (10 in all). The new coupler has satisfactorily stood all the strains due to these causes, and the introduction of 10-car trains made it almost an absolute necessity.
The variation in the position of this piston in the auxiliary cylinder regulates the volume of the jam cylinder, thereby regulating the effective pressure obtained from a given amount of air; thus when the car is fully loaded the volume of the auxiliary cylinder is at its minimum, and when the car is empty it is at its maximum.
With the proposed device, however, it will be so adjusted that it will be increased under load. The old equipment consisted of eight units (reciprocating) and one turbine unit of 7,500 kw. The second consideration is the location of the various stations, which, in the lower part of Manhattan (below 42nd St.) are about five or six blocks (1200 to 1300 feet) apart, and in the outlying sections about 2500 ft.
Short stretches of steep gradient are not, therefore, limiting or as important as longer ones would be. The original subway equipment was designed on a basis of 60% motors and 40% trailers, but the tendency is toward the equipment of all cars with motors. These latter, of course, must maintain a certain minimum elevation over summits, but the comparatively slight additional cost of longer columns is so little, that there is every inducement to avoid dipping down into depressions even, or perhaps especially, if stations happen to be located at such points, and it has seemed better to put in escalators or elevators than to drop the track grade down, involving braking on a descending grade and acceleration against an opposing grade.
20, 1902) it will be seen that much steeper gradients have been found necessary on the new routes than are used on the present line, but this, as is explained above, has virtually been forced by the conditions which have had to be met, which are more onerous in many cases on the new routes than on the old.
This is especially difficult in the lower part of Manhattan, where the streets are narrow and crooked, and where it is especially difficult to turn the curves, so that in some instances, notably at St.
It may be noted that curves are usually laid out with radii of even feet instead of with even degrees of curvature. The general clauses of the contract and specifications where they differ from ordinary practice, or where they have particular applications on this work are briefly noted below. Plans were published originally on large sheets about 22x30, lithographed and bound together, but this has been changed for smaller-sized plans which are lithographed on thin paper uniformly 11 in.
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CBTC technology has been fully implemented on only one subway line, the Canarsie (L) line, while conversion work is under way on the 7 line.The remainder of the system uses a fixed-block system, much of which was installed in the first half of the 20th century. Repairs to signals along tracks need to be carried out by hand instead of remotely, as computerized CBTC technology allows. These two contracts with the renewals would, therefore, run to 1979 and 1965, respectively. 9, providing considerably greater capacity which will, it is thought, owing to the arrangement of the doors, permit such easy ingress and egress that there will be no more delay in loading and unloading than there is with the small cars now in use. The motors are arranged one on each truck, instead of both on one truck, as on the present Interborough car, this, of course, giving a better distribution of the weight and taking care of some of the increase in the weight of the body and number of passengers. The coupling and uncoupling will be entirely under the control of the motorman and be governed by an interlocking device so that the electrical connection cannot be made until the air-line coupling is complete and the brakes are under control. Electric pneumatic brake control will be used on the new equipment, insuring more nearly simultaneous action of the brakes on all the cars.
When the doors are closed it is automatically locked this position until they are opened at the next station, thus preventing any change from variations in the loading due to the vibration and oscillation of the moving train. Considering the requirements for some reserve power for ordinary operation which have to be fairly liberal, on account of the great seriousness of any delay as well as the short distance between stations, it can be seen that the limits controlling the gradients which may be used are rather wide. The contract drawings usually include enough plans showing the general scheme of station finish, so that the contractor will have this as a guide in carrying out his work and that he may make due allowances for it. There are strict provisions (regular city ordinance) for the storage of explosives, the maximum capacity in any magazine being 250 lb., and in most of them not over 100 lb. Ray-Ban Folding Wayfarer has all the same iconic lines as the original, but has been constructed into a compact folding style.
Fixed-block controls, which tell train drivers via wayside signals when it is safe to move trains forward, prevent system engineers from determining the precise location of trains. The operating company was to pay a rental sufficient to cover the interest and amortization on the bonds issued by the city in payment of the cost of construction.
The prices given in this table do not include station finish, such as tiling, stairways, ticket offices, railing, etc., or any track or equipment. The limitation as to the axle loadings could not be overcome by the adoption of six-wheeled trucks, even though their use were not prohibited by the sharp curvature, as this would only involve a heavier truck with practically the same concentration of load so far as the bridge structures are concerned.
Similarly to uncouple, the release of the electrical connection by the motorman permits him to release the devices so that the air and train couplings will part. The former, built to furnish power for the present subway, was originally equipped with nine reciprocating units with a total normal capacity of 7,500 kw. Then the grades and alignment (within certain fairly wide limits) are made to fit these conditions.
Old fixed-block signals, unlike their modern digital counterparts, can’t be easily removed prior to storms and are vulnerable to saltwater damage. At the end of the lease, the city to own the structure free and clear, with the right to purchase the equipment.
It is hoped by these devices to materially decrease the number of accidents to men uncoupling cars, and also to reduce the time and expense of making up trains.
At present, owing to the fact that some sections of the line are not definitely designed, it is not possible to make an exact and complete statement covering the gradients and alignments of the whole system but the following is approximately correct. From an operating standpoint, of course it would have been much better to have run all the way through the hill on the lower grade.
This was increased later by the addition of five low-pressure turbines each having an additional capacity of 7,500 kw. On the new lines all stations are to be located on tangents, to avoid the difficulties found on the original subways with stations on curves. Tropez and Soho to Tokyo, Ray-Ban is the brand of sunglasses preferred by true individuals worldwide. While CBTC will save money in the long run, its full implementation would require an estimated upfront investment of $13.8 billion in new systems and equipment. Sections 9 and 10, however, have two tracks in tunnel which can be built with little or no interference with subsurface structures and no street support, and this is reflected in the lower price. Solid lenses provide even sun protection, while gradient lenses shield eyes from overhead sunlight then fade down to a lighter tint. They're sleekly constructed from polished acetate and gold-tone metal and are finished with dark-green lenses.
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