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An infectious disease or communicable disease is caused by a biological agent such as by a virus, bacterium or parasite. Infectious diseases are the invasion of a host organism by a foreign replicator, generally microorganisms, often called microbes, that are invisible to the naked eye. A good example is malaria, which is caused by Plasmodial parasites, chiefly Plasmodium falciparum but does not affect humans unless the vector, the Anopheles mosquito, is around to introduce the parasite into the human bloodstream.
In infection, the infecting organism seeks to utilize the host's resources in order to multiply (usually at the expense of the host). The infecting organism, or pathogen, interferes with the normal functioning of the host and can lead to chronic wounds, gangrene, loss of an infected limb, and even death. A symbiosis between parasite and host, whereby the relationship is beneficial for the former but detrimental to the latter, is characterized as parasitism. An example of the former would be the anaerobic bacteria species which colonize the mammalian colon, and an example of the latter would be the various species of staphylococcus which exist on human skin. The difference between an infection and a colonization is often only a matter of circumstance.

As an example, the staphylococcus species present on skin remain harmless on the skin, but, when present in a normally sterile space, such as in the capsule of a joint, will multiply without resistance and create a huge burden on the host. Diagnosis is initially by medical history and physical examination, and imaging (such as X-rays), but the principal tool in infectious disease is the microbiological culture. It is now clearly established that inflammation causes age-related processes and results from those processes or both. A decrease in immune responsiveness to infection and other pathologies (hypo-responsiveness or immunosenescence). An increase in systemic inflammation (the first line of defense of the immune system), which can cause or aggravate degenerative diseases (hyper responsiveness or inflammaging).
Inflammaging plays a large role in the pathophysiology of age and chronic disease related functional decline.  It is typified by a low grade inflammatory state. The inflammation of aging has multiple origins, many of which are caused by natural aging processes.
In the human host, a microorganism causes disease by either disrupting a vital body process or stimulating the immune system to mount a defensive reaction.

Organisms which are normally non-pathogenic can become pathogenic under the right conditions, and even the most virulent organism requires certain circumstances to cause a compromising infection. An immune response against a pathogen, which can include a high fever, inflammation, and other damaging symptoms, can be more devastating than the direct damage caused by the microbe. All multicellular organisms are colonized to some degree by extrinsic organisms, and the vast majority of these exist in either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with the host.
After inoculation of a specimen of diseased fluid or tissue onto the medium, it is determined whether bacterial growth occurs.

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22.05.2015, author: admin
Category: Bv In Women 2016

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