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Ocumox ophthalmic solution is indicated for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis caused by the susceptible strains of the microorganisms.
Nebra is indicated for the treatment of infections of the external eye and its adnexae caused by susceptible bacteria e.g. Histazolin is highly effective combination to control symptoms of burning, itching, tearing & photophobia. As the name suggests, allergic conjunctivitis is an allergic eye infection that can take a severe form. The paragraphs below contain detailed data on the options available for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. These medicines are favored by a large number of doctors as a treatment for the symptoms of an eye infection. These are some of the methods used in the treatment of the eye infection allergic conjunctivitis. This Story, How to Treat the Eye Infection Allergic Conjunctivitis was originally published at Rxadvices on March 19, 2012 under Allergy Symptoms. This Article, How to Treat the Eye Infection Allergic Conjunctivitis was originally published at Rxadvices on March 19th, 2012 under Allergy Symptoms.
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Conjunctivitis is a prevalent inflammatory ocular infection often affecting children and presents itself either unilaterally or bilaterally. However, due to the bacterial forms lining the exterior surface of the eyelids till their shaft, the relatively elastic conjunctiva of our eyes becomes susceptible to ocular disease.
What is Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis is the reddening or inflammation of the moist, fine and transparent membrane coating the interior surfaces of the eyelid and the eye’s exterior (white) surface (conjunctiva). Types of Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis is categorized into four main types, namely Infective Conjunctivitis, Allergic Conjunctivitis, Chemical (Irritant) Conjunctivitis and Neonatal Conjunctivitis. Infective Conjunctivitis accounting for seventy percent of reported cases is caused by virus or bacteria.
Allergic conjunctivitis affects the eyes bilaterally and often occurs typically during the summer and spring season.
Chemical or Irritant Conjunctivitis develops after the eye is accidentally exposed to either some acid or alkali that causes infection, injury and burns to the conjunctiva. Neonatal Conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctival inflammation that occurs within the foremost month after birth due to either infection, irritation or tear duct blockage.
What are the Causes of Conjunctivitis Causes of Infective Conjunctivitis Viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are duo types of infective conjunctivitis which are extremely communicable in nature. Causes of Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis develops as a result of the eyes being exposed to a substance that triggers overreaction by the immune system of the body and causes an allergic reaction.
Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a seasonally occurring condition (mainly during summer, spring or even early fall season) caused by culprit pollens from plant forms like tree, flower, weed and grass. Contact dermatoconjunctivitis arises from allergic reaction to the use of any cosmetic product, ocular administration of drops or any chemicals that cause conjunctival irritation among individuals with sensitivity to them. Perennial conjunctivitis occurs year round and chiefly caused by allergic response to a particular form of protein in infinitesimal pests – dust mites that populate in household items and forage on the shedding of individuals and pets.
Giant papillary conjunctivitis is usually seen among individuals with sensitivity to contact lens or following eye operation wherein one has to don rigid gas-permeable lenses.
Causes of Chemical (Irritant) Conjunctivitis Chemical conjunctivitis is caused when the eyes are exposed to some acid, alkali or chemical which has caused irritation such as harmful chemicals, swimming in a chlorinated pool or exposure to air pollutants.
Causes of Neonatal Conjunctivitis Neonatal conjunctivitis is a condition wherein the tissue which lines the eyelids of newly born babies gets inflamed. Risk Factors for Conjunctivitis Infective conjunctivitis Risk Factors Kin members and individuals in close proximity to one another like in offices, educational institutes, daycare, concerts or other such scenarios are at risk of spreading or contracting the infection. Risk factors for viral conjunctivitis are sharing face wash, towel or eye cosmetics, some form of harm to the eye, smoking, presence of diabetes, sexually transmitted infection, upper respiratory tract infection or allergies. Allergic conjunctivitis Risk Factors Presence of allergenic substances like pollen, animal dander or fur, dust mite in your immediate surroundings raises risk of developing allergic conjunctivitis. Chemical conjunctivitis Risk Factors Susceptibility to chemical substances present in swimming pools, baths, and vaporous emissions in the air can increase risk of contracting chemical conjunctivitis. Neonatal Conjunctivitis Risk Factors A pregnant female who has sexually transmitted disease like herpes, Chlamydia or gonorrhea during delivery raises the risk of passing it on to her baby.
Signs and Symptoms of Conjunctivitis Symptoms of Infective Conjunctivitis Bacterial conjunctivitis has a bilateral impact on the eyes. Symptoms of Chemical Conjunctivitis Chemical conjunctivitis causes symptoms like reddening in the sclera or inner portion of eyelid, increase in tear production, mild ranging eye pains and irritation felt in the eyes. Symptoms of Neonatal Conjunctivitis Newly born babies exhibit eye drainage in the initial 24 hours to a fortnight following delivery which could be runny, blood-speckled or thick purulent discharge. Conjunctivitis Treatment Infective Conjunctivitis Treatment Bacterial conjunctivitis generally self-subsides sans treatment.


Allergic Conjunctivitis Treatment Discontinue use of contact lenses till symptoms clear up and avoid going outside when pollen count is high. Antihistamine eye drops (Baush + Lomb Alaway, Visine-A All Day Eye Itch Relief, Zaditor Eye Itch Relief) are popular choices for instantly relieving eye itching because of prevalent indoor and outdoor allergens.
Antihistamine medicines and decongestants might also be recommended at the analogous time as mast cell stabilizer for instant respite from symptoms.
Chemical Conjunctivitis Treatment Continual eye irrigation deploying regular water, salt water solution or eye washes like Ringer’s lactate for thorough removal of chemical traces. When chemical conjunctivitis arises from exposure to some alkali or acid then conjunctival burns could occur which are grave in nature and prompt immediate treatment.
Neonatal Conjunctivitis Treatment Administering eye drops in the baby’s eyes while in the birthing room soon after its delivery helps avert several infections. Gentle tepid massaging in the area amid the eyes and nose might be helpful for infants with clogged tear ducts.
It is particularly suitable in eye allergic conditions like hay-fever conjunctivitis, acute and chronic allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis. The most common symptoms are reddish or pinkish eye with a pus like secretion accompanied with pain.
As a first step, you must use an eye wash, either an eye wash cup containing a sterilized saline eye washing solution or plain warm water. They work by restricting the action of histamines that are produced as a result of an allergen.
They are used in severe allergic conjunctivitis where other types of medicines are not yielding desired results. Their best use is in limiting the eye infection and preventing its spread to the other eye if it is free of infection. They prevent the mast cells that lie on the surface of your eye from releasing histamine that sparks off an allergic reaction. An eye infection often results in enlargement in the size of blood vessels in the eye that makes the eye reddish in appearance.
You need to consult an immunologist to get the right kind of immune system enhancement drugs. Though the medicines mentioned here can help relieve symptoms and treat the infection, you must take the help of an ophthalmologist or an experienced general practitioner (GP) for proper treatment.
Infection causes the small capillaries present in the conjunctiva to appear conspicuous which proffer the characteristic pinkish or reddish look to the sclera (white portion of the eye) and hence the condition is also dubbed as red eye or pink eye. Viral conjunctivitis occurring in twenty percent of cases is caused by an array of viral forms and mostly accompanying symptoms of cold. Viral conjunctivitis is often observed among people suffering from colds with adenovirus being the chief offender.
Lesser prevalent types are gonococcal conjunctivitis arising due to infection with the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trichomatis is a bacterial form that causes inclusion conjunctivitis.
Even individuals who fail to maintain optimal cleanliness with their contact lenses or cleansing solution might also fall prey to this form of conjunctivitis. It is often caused due to partial or total blockage in tear duct, bacterial or viral infection. Contact lens wearers, particularly those who use it for extended periods of time might be more susceptible to suffering from bacterial conjunctivitis. Moreover, people who undergo chemotherapies, organ transplantation or infected with HIV virus have compromised immune system that increase their likelihood of contracting viral conjunctivitis. A sense of grittiness, irritation in the eyes along with a gooey purulent discharge emitted from it. Puffy eyelids and swelling in the conjunctiva which lines the sclera that imparts a glassy look.
However, when the condition fails to improve even after 72 hours then antibacterial medications that can target an array of bacteria could be recommended.
Detailed line of therapy might also comprise of cold compress application, using salt water eye washes, lubricant eye drops (Celluvisc, Refresh), lubricant ointment like Lacri-Lube, topical steroids (prednisolone, dexamethasone) or ocular antihistamines (levocabastine) or antihistamine tablets.
Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), ophthalmic mast cell stabilizer like nedocromil ocular drops, sodium cromoglicate, lodoxamide ocular drops are advised when cool compresses are ineffective. Persistent form of such conjunctivitis might necessitate the usage of topically administered steroidal eye drops. In such case, irrigate the burn for thirty minutes to an hour with lots of water or 0.9 percent salt water. Eye irritation is lesser common when erythromycin ointment is used on infants rather than eye drops with silver nitrate.
Histazolin is very effective in those allergic conjunctivitis, where a prolonged treatment is needed and where irregular use of steroids is required.
By subduing the histamines, it is possible to get relief from symptoms, but it’s necessary to remove the allergens.


However they can cause severe side effects like cataracts, glaucoma, impairment of the vision through damage of the optic nerve and an increase in the pressure inside the eye. Some of the mast cell inhibitors used for treating allergic conjunctivitis are Lodoxamide, Nedocromil and some Optichrom eye drops.
Several immunologists will first boost immunity of their patients against local allergic factors like pollen grains, plants, insects, chemicals and other allergens prevailing in the district. It’s always better to protect yourself from the known causes of infection rather than treat it after getting infected. Lysozyme is a protein found in our tears that possesses potent antiviral and antibacterial properties.
Bacterial conjunctivitis occurring in fifty percent of cited cases is the commonest cause of red eye affecting every age group and prevalent throughout the year. One can contract the infection after coming in close proximity to a person who sneezes or coughs.
Such organisms might even attack other regions of the body and cause sexual infections like gonorrhea, Chlamydia. Maternal-to-child transmission of bacteria causing Chlamydia, gonorrhea and viral forms causing herpes (oral, genital) can lead to neonatal conjunctivitis. Those participating in daycare institutions or living in convalescent homes are also at risk.
Crusting and scaling on the lash line of the eyes and sticking together of eyelids may be observed specifically at dawn due to the mucus drying on the eyelids and making it difficult to open the eyes.
For instance, Chloramphenicol (ointment, eye drops) used either together or any one of them, Erythromycin ointment, Gentamicin, Ofloxacin, Tobramycin, Azithromycin ophthalmic, Levofloxacin, Fusidic acid eye drops, Sodium sulfacetamide for five days for a specific numbers of times as advised by the eye doctor. Avoid touching eyes, irrespective of hands being cleansed or not as it could spread to the other eye. Lubrication can be provided by using synthetic tear preparation which might allay mild-ranging discomfort.
Surgical intervention is necessary when the tear duct blockage doesn’t resolve even after the child has turned one year old.
However if the allergens are pathogens like bacteria and viruses then such medicines can be helpful. They must not be used if the infection is viral or if the patient is suffering from herpes. Ketorolac is perhaps the only type of NSAID used for treating eye infection as many NSAIDs have strong side effects. Orally taken antibiotic drugs like Doxycycline or Erythromycin or in jab form such as Ceftriaxone or Penicillin G are necessary when infection is because of a sexually transmitted infection. Interim usage of narcotic pain medicines is advised to assuage moderate to acute ranging pains. Long term use also results in a condition called conjunctivitis medicamentosa or a rebounding redness. The corneal region of the eye can be affected in advanced stage of viral conjunctivitis, persisting for close to a month and causing blurry eyesight. Herpes or Chlamydia infections of the eye are treated with specific anti-viral drops, topical application of erythromycin ointment, vidarabine (three percent) ointment or trifluridine eye drops or acyclovir. Some types of anti-histamine eye drops can be bought over the counter but others can only use bought through prescriptions. As soon as the decongestant medication is stopped, the blood vessels dilate and become large thus making the eye redder than before.
But such drugs will work only if the allergic conjunctivitis is mild or at the beginning phase of the infection. Anti histamines have a side effect of sedating the patients, hence nowadays, several non sedating anti-histamines are prescribed. Patients who suffer from abnormal blood pressure or have a heart condition are not prescribed this medicine.
Some of the anti-histamines used in the treatment of eye infection are – Levocetirizine (this one is not recommended for use in children below 6 years of age), Cetirizine (the most commonly prescribed and is even used in treating children), Fexofenadine, Cromolyn, Desloratadine and Loratadine (commonly prescribed along with Cetirizine). Older people who can tolerate sedatives may be prescribed the old Benadryl which is considered as a first generation anti histamine.
The drugs using these substances may either just be decongestants or be combined with anti-histamines for better effect. Many other types of corticosteroids may not be suitable for fighting eye infections in the form of eye drops as they can have severe side effects that can worsen the already existing infection.



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