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Common diseases caused by gram positive bacteria,how to get rid of pimples and marks in 1 week pregnant,how to get rid of red marks on toes,how to get rid of swollen lymph nodes in your neck x ray - PDF Books

A team of researchers at the Croatian pharmaceutical company Pliva, Gabrijela Kobrehel, Gorjana Radobolja-Lazarevski and Zrinka Tamburasev led by Dr. Tetanus bacilli multiply locally and neither damage nor invade adjacent tissues.In fatal cases, death usually results from exhaustion and respiratory failure. In severe cases, curarelike drugs are used to block nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junctions. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram positive cocci, typically lancet shaped and occurs singly, in pairs (diplococci) or in short chains. Meningitis: one of the most common cause of meningitis (Others are Haeomophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis). Damages respiratory epithelium (hemolysin is similar to streptolysin O, which damages eukaryotic cells).
Colony characteristics: Alpha hemolytic (partial discoloration around the bacterial colony in blood agar), mucoid colony (if organism possesses polysaccharide capsule). When Streptococcus pneumoniae of certain types are mixed with specific antipolysaccharide serum of the same type or with polyvalent antiserum on a microscope slide, the capsule swells markedly and organism agglutinate by cross linking of the antibodies. But now drug-resistant S.pneumoniae (DRSP) possess serious threat to global health as we are observing an alarming worldwide increase in the incidence. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. In the most common type the spasms begin in the jaw and then progress to the rest of the body.
It was patented in 1981, and was later found by Pfizer's scientists while going through patent documents. The bacteria can get into the body through broken skin, usually through injuries from contaminated objects. These spasms usually last a few minutes each time and occur frequently for three to four weeks.
Blogging is my passion, I am working as a lecturer and Microbiologist at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur.


Uncommon consequences include myocarditis (about 20% of cases) and peripheral neuropathy (about 10% of cases). It is caused by ''Corynebacterium diphtheriae'', a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium.Diphtheria is a contagious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing the aerosolized secretions of infected individuals. Other symptoms may include: fever, headache, trouble swallowing, high blood pressure, and a fast heart rate.
The genes for toxin production are encoded on a plasmid which is present in all toxigenic strains (Wikipedia). Historically quite common, diphtheria has largely been eradicated in industrialized nations through widespread vaccination. In the United States for example, there were 52 reported cases of diphtheria between 1980 and 2000; between 2000 and 2007 there were only three cases as the DPT (''Diphtheriaa€“Pertussisa€“Tetanus'') vaccine is recommended for all school-age children. Boosters of the vaccine are recommended for adults since the benefits of the vaccine decrease with age without constant re-exposure; they are particularly recommended for those traveling to areas where the disease has not been eradicated.
The toxin binds to EGF-like domain of Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) through fragment B and is internalized with HB-EGF by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
The low pH in the late endosomes induce pore formation by fragment B as well as catalyses the release of catalytic fragment A into the cytosol. Diphtheria toxin catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of, and inactivates, the elongation factor eEF-2. The toxin enters the host cell and is hydrolysed by a trypsin-like protease to give a fragment with enzymatic activity.
The toxin then transfers an ADP-ribose from NAD+ to a diphthamide residue, a modified histidine (amino acid), which is found within the EF-2 protein. EF-2 is needed for translocation of tRNA from the A-site to the P-site of the ribosome during translation. The ADP-ribosylation is reversible by administering high concentrations of nicotinamide, one of the reaction products.Diphtheria toxin is only produced by C.
The bacteriophage integrates a gene into the bacteria that causes the toxin to be produced.


People in this stage should seek immediate medical attention, as obstruction in the throat may require intubation or a tracheotomy.
Abnormal cardiac rhythms can occur early in the course of the illness or weeks later, and can lead to heart failure. Patients with severe cases will be put in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) and be given a diphtheria anti-toxin. Since antitoxin does not neutralize toxin that is already bound to tissues, delaying its administration is associated with an increase in mortality risk. Therefore, the decision to administer diphtheria antitoxin is based on clinical diagnosis, and should not await laboratory confirmation. In cases that progress beyond a throat infection, diphtheria toxin spreads through the bloodstream and can lead to potentially life-threatening complications that affect other organs of the body, such as the heart and kidneys. The toxin can cause damage to the heart that affects its ability to pump blood or the kidneys' ability to clear wastes. Children infected have symptoms that include nausea, vomiting, chills, and a high fever, although some do not show symptoms until the infection has progressed further. Longer-term effects of the diphtheria toxin include cardiomyopathy and peripheral neuropathy (sensory type). The cutaneous form of diphtheria is often a secondary infection of a preexisting skin disease. Signs of cutaneous diphtheria infection develop an average of seven days after the appearance of the primary skin disease.



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21.06.2015, author: admin
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