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Most of the bacteria do not cause disease, but a small number is responsible for infections in common clinical practice. There are bacteria in extreme locations of the land, however the vast majority live in wetlands and moderate temperature. There are also bacteria acquired through poorly maintained food, causing food poisoning, as in cases of Salmonella and Shigella. To learn how each bacterium causes a disease, follow the links to the matters that are provided throughout this text. In this part a few technical terms will be used so that the text can serve as a source for school biology. This division into formats that are not very useful because there are several bacteria with different formats such as comma (vibrio), rod-shaped bacteria that are not considered bacilli, the presence or absence of flagella, and even bacteria with hybrid forms, such as coccobacilli. Importantly, the method of Gram does not identify which bacteria are present, it only tells us that there is a gram-positive or gram-negative one causing an infection. For those who want to know what the most common bacteria of medical practice are, below we have an illustration of the main diseases and their germs.
In recent years, foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes has increased significantly in the U.S.
Although impossible to fully describe an effective Listeria control program in this short article, there are a few core strategies that will help control Listeria in your plant.
Good hygienic design and construction at an appropriate location is necessary to establish a sound microbial control program. Further, it is critical to train every employee on cGMPs and Listeria preventive control measures to reduce potential contaminants that can come from the air, aerosols, employee traffic, and equipment.
To minimize and control Listeria contamination in a ready-to-eat food establishment, it is important to establish and implement a written sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) and sanitation maintenance schedule. Despite improvements in production, handling, and distribution of food products in recent years, protecting consumers from listeriosis still remains a challenge. A listeria infection, also called listeriosis is a food-borne illness that produces flu-like symptoms.
This article contains general information only and is not intended to replace advice from a qualified health professional. Reading comprehension - ensure that you draw the most important information from the related E.
The quiz will help you assess your knowledge, but you can deepen your understanding through the corresponding lesson called E. Olive leaves are rich with compounds that can help in the process of strengthening the immune system and increase energy, also they have anti-fungal, antibacterial anti-parasite and antiviral properties. The olive leaf tea must be consumed on a daily base, in order to feel the tea’s healing properties.
Newer studies have shown that olive leaf tea contains even more antioxidants than green tea, which makes it the healthiest tea in the world. Listeriosis primarily causes infections of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, brain abscess, cerebritis) and bacteremia in those who are immunocompromised, pregnant women, and those at the extremes of age (newborns and the elderly), as well as gastroenteritis in healthy persons who have ingested a large inoculum of the organism.
There are bacteria all over the planet, whether in water, soil or highly hostile habitats, such as radioactive waste in deep areas of the earth's crust or in the highly acidic pH of our stomach.
Some bacteria can survive harsh environments because of its ability to transform into Endospore, an inactive hard and tough coated cell, but that the genetic material remains protected for many years, in some cases for centuries.
Diseases such as meningitis, tuberculosis and whooping cough are transmitted through respiratory secretions, such as cough or spit. These infections occur when bacteria that normally inhabit a given location in the body can migrate to another. As will be explained later in this text, there are several types of bacteria, some completely different from other.
When pods are grouped in pairs they are called diplococci; cocci are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus that are grouped in clusters, streptococci (Streptococcus) is a genus of cocci that are usually grouped in a row.
Therefore, there are several ways to characterize and classify bacteria, an example is the Gram method. The method of Gram bacteria divided into two major groups: those, which cell wall becomes purple when exposed to the dye, are referred to as gram-positive bacteria and those that remain with pink wall, are called gram-negative bacteria. While the identification of culture takes 48 to 72 hours for identifying a bacteria, gram is completed in several minutes.


This information, however, is often sufficient to direct the initiation of an antibiotic regimen while the culture is not ready. The first group consists of bacteria that need oxygen to live, the second are those that cannot survive in environments with oxygen. It is important to understand and implement multiple control measures as no single step or intervention will be sufficient to eliminate or control Listeria risk in a given food processing environment.
It is important to separate areas where ready-to-eat foods are processed, exposed, and stored from areas where raw foods are processed, as well as from equipment washing areas, in-house microbiological laboratories, maintenance areas, waste storage areas, and toilets. It is highly recommended that employees receive ongoing training and that additional training is provided to current and new employees on the cGMPs for production, new equipment, environmental monitoring, and sanitary practices as needed to ensure all are up to date. Further, the written SSOP should be readily available to personnel who are responsible for cleaning, sanitizing and monitoring.
An environmental monitoring program (EMP) should be carefully designed after evaluating a facility and its products.
The EMP is not designed to validate the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing methods, but is more focused on validating cleaning and sanitizing frequencies, and other Good Manufacturing Practices (21 CFR). An effective pest control program must be implemented throughout the processing facility to eliminate potential pests such as insects, birds, rodents, etc. Parents of children who get listeria infections often mistake the illness for the flu and never realise that their child has had listeriosis.
Oleuropein is an active compound that can be found in olive leaves which has powerful antibacterial properties. These leaves help in eliminating and soothing numerous health conditions, reduce blood pressure, regulate blood sugar and bad cholesterol levels and treats coronary diseases. Olive leaves can especially help with the following health issues: arthritis, malaria, diabetes, herpes, atherosclerosis, hepatitis C, B and A, meningitis, diphtheria, listeria, ulcer, flu, urinary tract inflammation and chlamydia infections.
Healthy people should drink it as well, because this way they will prevent of catching some diseases.
Listeria is ubiquitous in the environment and is primarily transmitted via the oral route after ingestion of contaminated food products, after which the organism penetrates the intestinal tract to cause systemic infections (Wikipedia).
In our body there are 10 times more bacteria than our own cells, most of them located in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The coating resists Endospore extremes of pH, temperature, pressure, lack of water, radiation, and some chemical disinfectants. Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis are, as the name implies, transmitted by sexual intercourse. For example: urinary infection usually occurs when natural bacteria of the intestinal tract accidentally hit women genitals.
Therefore, different types of antibiotics are indicated for different types of bacteria and infections.
There are also autotrophic bacteria, which can produce their own food, usually through photosynthesis.
Examples of pathogenic bacilli are Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax, Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae causes diphtheria and Salmonella typhi, which causes typhoid fever. For example, if a patient with fever, reaps a urine test which indicates presence of gram-negative bacteria, we can choose an antibiotic for urinary tract infection before the identification of bacteria by culture, as doctors know beforehand which gram negatives cause most urinary tract infections. There are also facultative anaerobic bacteria that can live both in non- and oxygenated environments. Listeria is a very common bacteria that can be found almost anywhere in the environment including soil, water, and vegetation. Food safety plans based on a good risk assessment are critical in helping to identify microbial risks and potential management strategies. Use of appropriate construction materials also plays an important role in minimizing cross-contamination. It is recommended that the facility have separate, dedicated systems for cleaning the equipment of ready-to-eat and raw food products to avoid potential cross contamination. An effectively implemented EMP will assess the overall hygiene program in a facility and provide information to prevent possible microbial contamination of finished products. The questions are fairly straightforward and will ask you to identify the correct definition of the concept it asks about.
Whether you're on vacation or cooking at home, please keep food safety in mind.The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) is the principal foodborne disease component of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP).


Our body has a bacterial flora that does not cause disease itself, however, helps our digestion and protects us against invading bacteria. When the environment becomes habitable again, the Endospore becomes a metabolically active bacteria and able to reproduce.
Most strains of E.coli bacteria in the intestines cause no problems, but the bladder can cause irritation causing cystitis.
Urinary tract infection is most often caused by the bacterium E.coli and antibiotics commonly used in these cases are Bactrim or ciprofloxacin, drugs that are not intended, for example, to treat pneumonia and meningitis caused by various bacteria. It has been associated with ready-to-eat deli meats, hot dogs, poultry, uncooked vegetables, fruits such as cantaloupes, pasteurized and unpasteurized milk, foods made from raw milk, and raw sprouts; and it has been found on the surfaces of equipment, floors, drains, and walls.
Food plants should be designed and constructed in a way that prevents standing water from accumulating in or around drains.
If separate clean-in-place systems are not available, it is highly recommended that an alkaline cleaning solution at or above 160°F be used. The EMP provides valuable data (source and concentration) on indicator organisms in a timely manner so that appropriate corrective action can be initiated. A process validation or kill-step validation that is intended to deliver some degree of lethality is important to achieve food safety.
FoodNet is a collaborative project of the CDC, 10 state health departments (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee), the U.S.
The same occurs in the skin colonized by billions of bacteria, mainly of the genus staphylococcus and streptococcus. Unlike many other foodborne pathogens, Listeria can survive under low-oxygen conditions and can grow even in the refrigerator. If the EMP results indicate a trend toward an increased incidence of Listeria spp., then the plant’s management should investigate to determine the reason(s) for the increase and should take appropriate corrective actions to reduce or eliminate Listeria spp. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Foodborne diseases monitored through FoodNet include infections caused by the bacteria Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, and Yersinia, and the parasites Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora. When there is a wound, it exposes the inner region of the body for these bacteria, which can penetrate it to cause serious infections. In 1996, FoodNet surveillance began in Minnesota, Oregon, and in selected counties in California, Connecticut, and Georgia. Since then the surveillance area has expanded to include the states of Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York. In 2010, the FoodNet surveillance area covered a population of approximately 46 million persons, or 15% of the United States population.FoodNet conducts active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States. FoodNet also provides a network for responding to new and emerging foodborne diseases, monitoring the burden of foodborne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific foodborne diseases. Most importantly, FoodNet surveillance provides the data necessary for measuring the progress in foodborne disease prevention.To estimate changes in incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections in 2010 compared with the average annual incidence in 1996-1998, a main-effects, log-linear Poisson regression (negative binomial) model is used.
A US federal agency, CDC helps make the healthy choice the easy choice by putting science and prevention into action.
Wash your hands, cook food thoroughly to kill bacteria, and store food at cool enough temperatures to prevent bacteria from growing.
Listeria infections may develop two to three weeks after eating infected food, but it may take as long as two months for symptoms to develop. Symptoms include: Fever Muscle aches Nausea Diarrhoea How do I treat listeria infections? If your child has a severe listeria infection, she may need to be hospitalised to receive intravenous antibiotic treatment. For less severe listeriosis, treat fever and muscle aches with paracetamol, and make sure that your child gets lots of rest and fluids. If your child has a listeria infection and develops the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: Headache Stiff neck Confusion Loss of balance Convulsions What you need to know about listeria Listeria infections are caused by unsafe bacteria in food.



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