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Okay, I have decided to try to put a tutorial in my vanity site, in hopes that iWeba€™s interface will make it quicker to bang this thing out.
If you dona€™t have a copy of iLife 08 (or of iMovie 6) read the above-linked Mac Rumors thread for more suggestions and ideas on how to get a copy on your Mac.
Sometimes when I make clips for iMovie I leave out the audio (choose a€?No Sounda€?) since many fan videos mute the clipsa€™ audio anyway. Select HDV 720p unless you are certain that the HD files you intend to edit are something else. Ia€™m going to assume that you have some familiarity with the workings of iMove 6, so I wona€™t explain all its features here. Click on the clock icon to go to timeline mode, and drag the timeline length (see pink arrow) to the far right so that you can more closely see the length of each clip you edit (as well as more clearly see the audio waveforms of your music).
It may take a few tries through the music track to get your rhythm down right, but soon youa€™ll find a a€?beata€? in the music, and so tap, tap, tap as the music finishes playing in iMovie. If you mess up and want to remove a marker, place the playhead over the offending marker and hold down Option, Apple (aka Control) and the M key, and the marker will disappear. Sometimes, if you want to edit more precisely to the musica€™s timing, you can use the audio waveforms to help you figure out where a beat is in the music.
Scroll through a clip and find the a€?Ina€? and a€?Outa€? points you want to use for that clip.
Youa€™ve got your In and Out points selected in a clip, and everything in between (symbolized by the yellow colored strip in the screenshot to the left here) will be copied and pasted into your timeline by either going to a€?Edit > Copya€? or using the Apple+C keyboard shortcut.
However, if you like to drag your clips to the timeline and that works better for you, that is good too! In this screenshot, you see that the little yellow diamond (symbolizing a marker) is farther out than the ending of my clip. I keep on going back and fiddling with the speed controls (Apple+Z used to undo, when I dona€™t go far enough or go to far) until finally I think I have it close enough. Now, to edit your whole video to the beat, just match up each clip to the markers like this. In my little video, I had a few spots where I made a white a€?flasha€? transition match up with a snappy sound in the music. You have two clips, and you want a transition between them, and you want the transition to match up with the beat of the music.
For my a€?white flasha€? transition (I used a€?Wash Ina€?), I chose a shorter duration for the transition. Youa€™re finished with your video, youa€™ve added your credits and titles, and now ita€™s time to get the thing out of iMovie and onto the Web! After youa€™ve set up all the video and audio and size options, click the Save button and wait for iMovie 6 to export out your fan video. FOR EXPORTING REGULAR DEFINITION (NOT HD) video made in iMovie 6, choose a€?Full Qualitya€? and then open the resulting .dv file in MPEG Streamclip to make a high quality MP4 or MOV file. If you were editing in regular definition, you should have identified and chosen the correct project aspect ratio as you were setting up your iMovie 6 video. TUTORIAL KEYWORDS: Fan video, vidding, vidder, fanvids, fanvid, fan vid, editing an HD fan video in iMovie 6. It will take a little fiddling to get the transition timed just right and the clips placed just right, but soon youa€™ll get the hang of it! If you have unwanted brown spots, dark spots or dark patches spreading on your face or other places, and you want them to vanish completely, giving your skin lasting clarity and beauty, then you’ll want to treat your brown spots with our Miracle Cure.
Epilators like Silk Epil from Braun remove hair from the root, and so they are similar to waxing, as waxing also removes hair from the root. Prevention is the easy part—apply sunscreen to your hands, arms, face, and scalp (if not covered with hair) every day, whether you plan to go outside or not. Please Select Username to appear on public areas of the site like community and recipe comments. You can easily spot the most visible type of mold, called mildew, which begins as tiny, usually black spots but often grows into larger colonies.
Turn off the electrical power to the room and cut open the damaged wall with a reciprocating saw, drywall saw or utility knife. If you have to remove mold concentrations covering more than a few square feet, where the musty odor is strong or where you find extensive water damage, we recommend that you take special precautions.
Wrap and tape moldy carpeting in 6-mil plastic, and double-bag mold-infested debris in garbage bags for disposal (Photos 1 and 4).
To control airborne spores, moisten moldy areas with a garden sprayer while you work (Photo 1). If the moisture damage has been neglected or gone unnoticed for long, you're likely to find rot. Mildewcide in paint is usually effective for controlling surface mold in damp rooms like bathrooms and outside in shady areas. Allow to dry, then seal all previously infested areas with a pigmented shellac- or oil-based primer. After scrubbing the surfaces (Photo 6), simply allow the bleach solution to continue to penetrate the surfaces and dry. Set out dehumidifiers and new fans to dry the now-cleaned areas for at least three days, then check them (by sight and smell) for mold. When you're sure the mold has been eliminated, seal the wood surfaces with pigmented shellac like BIN or an oil-based primer like KILZ (Photo 7). Surface molds grow in just about any damp location, such as the grout lines of a ceramic tiled shower.
Even for simple cleaning, protect yourself from contact with mold and the bleach solution by wearing a long-sleeve shirt and long pants as well as plastic or rubber gloves and goggles. If the mold doesn’t disappear after light scrubbing, reapply the cleaning mix and let it sit for a minute or two.
Have the necessary tools for this DIY project lined up before you start—you’ll save time and frustration.
After I told you all about the powdery mildew on my pumpkin patch, reader, Veronica, wrote in about her success in getting rid of powdery mildew.
As a sidenote, powdery mildew can overwinter too, so make sure to clean up all the leaves and plant debris out of your beds in the fall. Oh yeah, that showed up as soon as our weather changed- it rained, got humid and the sun stayed behind the clouds.
Somewhere along the way I swear I read that this powdery mildew can also be caused by lack of sufficient sunlight and over watering.
My various squash plants and pumpkins all got it My cucumbers did not, wish is odd as they are pretty close to some of the squash.
I also used Neem oil which can be purchased at most home improvement stores (Lowes, Home Depot, etc).
Someone said to mix 1 tsp of baking soda with 1 qt.of water using a spray bottle each morning but another person said to use 1 tsp of baking soda in 1 cup of water and it would be gone in 48 hours.Which is it?
I have something on my zucchini plant that looks similar to powdery mildew, but doesn’t seem to be on top of the leaves. I am in Cave Junction OR and have PM on crookneck, zuchinni, hubbard squashes, cukes, and melons this year.
I thought you might like to know that your first picture up above does not look like a picture of downy or powdery mildew.
Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA.
To see the video, scroll down this page and do a search for a€?Magic and Ecstasy.a€? Or view it on YouTube. But, this Mac Rumors forum thread gave me another idea on how to get iMovie 6 to work on my new Intel Mac Mini (running Snow Leopard!). This version of iMovie will only work if it detects that iLife 08 is installed on your Mac. But I wanted to cover using markers to edit to the beat of your music, because not all vidders (people who make fan videos) know how to do this in iMovie. Since I want to make this clipa€™s edge match up with the markers, Ia€™m going to slow down the clip so it meets the marker. I can of course trim back the clip so that its edge now matches up with that marker, but Ia€™d prefer to have it a little less slowed down. That little bit of extra can be trimmed away, so the edge of the clip matches up with the marker placement. For more details and information on editing fanvids in iMovie 6, sign up for the FoolishPassion Fan Video Forums. However, you may get more in-growths if you use these machines, so you should scrub your body with a pumice stone while bathing to counter this problem. This beam brings energy to a specific site, through a small hand piece connected to the laser.
By gently abrading the skin with ultra-fine crystal particulates, microdermabrasion can reduce unwanted pigmentary changes and age spots. It is good that you have visited a doctor since moles can be the symptoms of other problems. We'll show you how to identify mold and eliminate the small infestations, as well as the big ones that have gotten out of hand. It blackens the grout lines in your shower, discolors drywall, shows up as black spots on siding, darkens decks, and grows on and rots damp wood everywhere.
But disturbing big infestations can be bad for your health, particularly if you are an allergy sufferer or have a weakened immune system.
If you have an allergic reaction to mold or a heavy infestation inside your home, call in a pro to analyze the types. It's the black stuff you see in the grout lines in your shower, on damp walls, and outdoors on the surfaces of deck boards and painted siding, especially in damp and shady areas. If you detect the typical musty odor, check for mold on damp carpets, damp walls, damp crawlspaces and wet wood under your floors, wet roof sheathing and other damp areas. Cover the doorway with a barrier made of overlapping plastic sheeting and tape it to the wall and floor. Probe heavily stained or moisture-swollen walls using a screwdriver to discover and open up moisture damage and hidden mold in the insulation and wall framing. Mist the moldy drywall and insulation with the pump sprayer to avoid spreading mold spores. But often mold grows and spreads in places you don't notice, until you spot surface staining, feel mushy drywall or detect that musty smell. You want to not only avoid contaminating the rest of the house but also protect yourself from breathing high concentrations of spores and VOCs. Throw it out when you're done cleaning, because the spores are almost impossible to clean off.
Photos 1 - 7 demonstrate cleaning under an old leaky window where wind-driven rain frequently got into the wall and gave mold a foothold. Since you have to repair the wall anyway, don't hesitate to cut the drywall back beyond the obvious damage to find all the mold and let the wall dry out. The worst infestations usually occur in damp crawlspaces, in attics and walls where water has leaked in from the outside, and in basements with poor foundation drainage. Buy an extra length of hose and run it out the window so you can keep the vacuum outside to avoid further spore spread. Wash concrete floors with TSP, automatic dishwasher detergent or a chlorinated cleaner such as Comet. Repaint cleaned wall surfaces with a regular latex paint that contains a mildewcide to help stop future mold growth. A {I would totally try this if my pumpkin patch wasn’t so big, it would take hours to apply!}, but I thought it was an AWESOME tip that I would share in case some of you are dealing with powdery mildew. As directed by my mother, I combined a tsp of baking soda with a quart of water in a spray bottle; shook it up real good so all the soda dissolved. I used a pressure sprayer and mixed it as directed on the bottle then sprayed all the leaves. I radd a study from the University of Colorado that said milk in a mixture of one part milk, ten parts water. Rather, it is squash silverleaf disorder which is supposedly caused by white fly larvae feeding on the plant when it’s a seedling. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause oral herpes. I had installed iLife 08 on an external hard drive attached to my Mini, and then installed iMovie 6.
Many movies and TV shows are in widescreen so odds are youa€™ll be using that, but check the aspect ratio of your source clips to make sure.) This tutorial may help you understand aspect ratio. Ita€™ll take a while as iMovie imports and converts all the H.264 MOV files youa€™ve made into HDV, the video format iMovie uses for editing. Then, switch iMovie to a€?timelinea€? mode and expand the timeline as l-o-n-g as it will go.
As you edit and place clips in the timeline, you will notice that the edges of your clips will a€?snapa€? to the markers. These spots that often appear on the back of the hands are caused by sunlight exposure or chronic bruising of the skin. Try to avoid outdoor activities between 10 am and 3 pm, when the ultraviolet rays are strongest. In this article, we'll show you how to identify mold and eliminate the small infestations as well as the big ones that have gotten out of hand. When you discover an extensive mold problem, we recommend that you use the rigorous protective measures we show in Photos 1 - 6, or consider calling in a professional to handle the problem. It can grow almost anywhere that spores land and find moisture and a comfortable temperature, between 40 and 100 degrees F. Clean up these infestations right away before they get worse, and see the following photos for prevention measures.
Using a pump sprayer, mist the surfaces with water to control the spread of spores, and roll up the sections.
Tape plywood or cardboard around the window openings so the spores can't blow back in (Photo 1). To avoid cutting electrical wires, poke a hole through the damaged section and locate the wires first. Where removal is difficult, treat the affected areas with a wood preservative (available at home centers), after cleaning the wood and allowing it to dry.


Stopping leaks, ensuring good ventilation in attics, keeping crawlspaces dry and routing water away from the foundation are the best defenses. The bleach in the cleaning mixture kills the mold, and the detergent helps lift it off the surface so you can rinse it away so it won’t return as fast. I researched this like crazy when it happened to several of my squash plants and was relieved to learn that it did not cause any harm to the plant in terms of impacting production or killing the leaves.
If you enjoy the outdoors, be careful of ticks -- they can attach as you brush past grass and plants. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Trends in HSV Types and Genital HerpesGenital herpes can be caused by either HSV-2 or HSV-1. As the music plays, start to tap, tap, tap on the M key (remember, you already are holding down Shift and Apple aka Command keys) to the beat of the music.
See a dermatologist yearly for a skin examination to check for any abnormal moles or skin cancer.
It releases microscopic spores that cause allergic reactions, runny noses and sneezing, as well as irritating, even injurious, odors. If you get it, use MIlstop (Potassium Bicorbonate) to try and remove it before it gets too bad.
It also got rid of all of the harlequin beetles and flea beetles on my broccoli and cauliflower this year, which were totally destroying my entire garden. I have tried taking off all of the infected leaves, and spraying it with neem oil for 3-4 applications, but it does not seem to make a difference.
I sprayed right before dark and by the next afternoon the leaves had brown splotches all over. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. Or call your local public health department.) And even if you hire pros, read through this article and make sure they follow similar precautions to keep the mold from spreading throughout your house. I live in Mukilteo, WA, so it should work for you too, if you want to spray your pumpkin plants each morning. It was our first year gardening on our new land and its tough clay soil, and we have a lot of work to do to get healthy soil and healthy plants.
My question is: if the leaves are gray in color and not powdery and otherwise healthy, can it be normal? The spaghetti squash plants 10 feet away got obvious powdery mildew, and the same treatment got rid of it right away. Is there anything I can put in the soil when I rototill this fall that will help get rid of it?
In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States.
If you tap too frequently (more than once a second) iMovie will give you an error message about how you cana€™t do that. It didn’t bother the onions, garlic, asparagas, herbs, or new red and yukon gold potatoes. Tick BitesOnce a tick latches onto skin, it often moves to the warm, moist armpits and groin -- feeding on blood and passing on any disease it carries. Then, I ordered a raw pro biotic that was guaranteed to be active and alive, with many more strains than my keiffer supported an it worked even better. The risk of infection is highest during outbreak periods when there are visible sores and lesions. Similar plants it can eventually mutate to ingest that plant as well( like cuces and squash) once you see the mildew, it has replicated in the DNA of that plant and will continue to need treatment to keep it at bay. A great preventative measure to take if you ave ad problems in previous seasons is to alternate spraying once a week from the start of your garden. SymptomsWhen genital herpes symptoms do appear, they are usually worse during the first outbreak than during recurring attacks. Once week a solution of dawn soap 1tsp per gallon water, and then the dairy the following week. The soap will kill bad pathogens and bugs, while allowing the good stuff to live, then the milk adds good bacteria to help the plant with its natural processes.
Infected ticks usually don't spread the disease until they've been attached for at least 36 hours.
Herpes, Pregnancy, and Newborn InfantsHerpes can pose serious risks for a pregnant woman and her baby.
The risk is greatest for mothers with a first-time infection, because the virus can be transmitted to the infant during childbirth. Untreated Lyme disease may spread to other parts of the body, including the muscles, joints, heart, and nervous system. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend using specific diagnostic tests for women in labor to determine the risk of transmission. Babies born to mothers infected with genital herpes are often treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir, which can help suppress the virus. Black Widow Spiders: Venomous!Wood piles and tree stumps -- that's where venomous female black widows hide.
She is long-legged and glossy black, with a distinctive orange, red, or yellow "hourglass" shape on her underside.
Black Widow Spider BitesBlack widow spider bites may cause stabbing pain in the bite area, but they can also be painless. Herpes viruses include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi sarcoma) and varicella-zoster virus (also known as herpes zoster, the virus responsible for shingles and chickenpox).
Severe muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, seizure, and a rise in blood pressure may follow soon after. The word "herpes" comes from the Greek word "herpein," meaning "to creep." This refers to the unique characteristic pattern of all herpes viruses to creep along local nerve pathways to the nerve clusters at the end, where they remain in an inactive (dormant) state for variable periods of time. The usual cause of oral herpes (herpes labialis), which are commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. Brown Recluse Spiders Can Have a Nasty BiteHiding in attics and closets -- in Midwestern and Southern states -- that's where you'll find brown recluse spiders.
HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2).
Brown Recluse Spider BitesWhen the brown recluse bites, it is often painless -- then skin may redden, turn white, blister, and becomes painful.
Until recently, the general rule was to assume that HSV-1 caused oral herpes and HSV-2 caused genital herpes. It is now clear, however, that either type of herpes virus can be found in the genital or oral areas (or other sites).
In fact, HSV-1 is now responsible for more than half of all new cases of genital herpes in developed countries. The Disease ProcessHerpes is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact. To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must get into the body through tiny injuries in the skin or through a mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or on the genital or anal areas.
The risk for infection is highest with direct contact of blisters or sores during an outbreak. But the infection can also develop from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible sores or other symptoms. Once the virus has contact with the mucous membranes or skin wounds, it enters the nuclei of skin tissue cells and begins to replicate.
The virus is then transported from the nerve endings of the skin to clusters of nerve cells (ganglia) where it remains inactive (latent) for some period of time. If you have lice, you likely got it from sharing a hat, brush, or other item with a person who has lice. However, at some point, the virus wakes up and travels along nerve pathways to the surface the skin where it begins to multiply again. During this time, the virus can infect other people if it is passed along in body fluids or secretions.
Head Lice RemediesTo kill lice and their eggs (called nits), use lotions, creams, or shampoos from the drug store or prescribed by your doctor which are designed specifically for lice. Wash clothing, bedding, and brushes in hot water and dry in a hot dryer of dry clean to prevent the spread of lice. Viral shedding may be accompanied by noticeable symptoms (outbreak) but it can also occur without causing symptoms (asymptomatic shedding). In either case, a person is infectious during periods of viral shedding. Symptoms may appear as multiple small red bumps or patches that develop blisters.
Flea BitesSome people are very sensitive to flea bites -- but scratching can cause a wound or infection. Certain triggers can wake up the virus from its dormant state and cause it to become active again. In general, recurrent episodes of herpes cause less severe symptoms than the primary outbreak. Bee, Wasp, Hornet, Yellow JacketWhen certain types of bees sting, they lose their stinger and die. But a wasp, hornet, or yellow jacket can inflict multiple stings because it does not lose the stinger. HSV-1 is the most prevalent form of herpes simplex virus, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years. Bee, Wasp, Hornet, Yellow Jacket StingsIf you don't have an allergic reaction, simply remove the stinger, clean the sting site, apply ice, take oral antihistamine for itching, and take ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain relief.
If you have a severe anaphylactic reaction, use an epinephrine auto-injector if you have one.
In addition, because HSV-1 can be passed in saliva, people should also avoid sharing toothbrushes or eating utensils. Transmission of Genital Herpes Genital herpes is transmitted through sexual activity. People can get HSV-2 through genital contact or HSV-1 through mouth-to-genital contact with an infected partner. During an attack, the fire ant latches onto the skin with its jaw, then stings from its abdomen. People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection.
Unfortunately, most cases of genital herpes infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms. Most people either have no symptoms or do not recognize them when they appear. In the past, genital herpes was mostly caused by HSV-2, but HSV-1 genital infection is increasing. There is also evidence that children today are less likely to get cold sores and become exposed to HSV-1 during childhood.
Specifically, chiggers are the juvenile (or larval) form of a family of mites called Trombiculidae. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 6 Americans ages 14 to 49 years have genital herpes. Chigger BitesAfter a few days of being attached to the skin, chiggers fall off -- leaving itchy red welts. While HSV-2 remains the main cause of genital herpes, HSV-1 has significantly increased as a cause, most likely because of oral-genital sex. Scabies: Stealthy PestsWhen scabies mites get into the skin, they can cause a big skin problem.
African-American women are at particularly high risk. People with compromised immune systems, such as those who have HIV, are at very high risk for genital herpes.
The mites spread through skin-to-skin contact with an infected person -- or by sharing towels, bed linens, and other objects. Treating ScabiesIntense itching and skin sores don't appear until several weeks after mites get into skin. Drugs that suppress the immune system, and organ transplantation, can also weaken the immune system and increase the risk for contracting genital herpes.
The rash typically is seen on the sides and webs of the fingers, the wrist, elbows, genitals, and buttock. It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes, because it can be transmitted by very casual contact, including kissing.
Still, you can help reduce the risk of transmitting oral herpes by not sharing objects that touch the mouth, such as eating and drinking utensils, toothbrushes, and towels. Bedbugs: Hitching a RideTheir name tells the tale, as these tiny insects tend to hide in bedding. They are often found in hotels, shelters, and apartment complexes -- and can hitch a ride into your home aboard luggage, pets, and boxes.
It is best to refrain from any type of sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) during periods of active outbreak. However, herpes can also be transmitted when symptoms are not present (asymptomatic shedding). More of a nuisance than a health hazard, it is possible to develop an infection from scratching. If you have an allergic skin reaction, use creams with corticosteroids and take oral antihistamines -- and see your doctor. Although condoms may not provide 100% protection, they are proven to significantly reduce the risk of sexual disease transmission, including herpes.
Natural condoms made from animal skin do NOT protect against HSV infection because herpes viruses can pass through them. Use a water-based lubricant. Puss Caterpillar StingsWhen a puss caterpillar stings, you may get waves of intense pain, rash, fever, vomiting, and muscle cramps. Lubricants can help prevent friction during sex, which can irritate the skin and increase the risk for outbreaks.
Remove the broken-off spines by using cellophane tape or a commercial facial peel -- and call your doctor. Only water-based lubricants (K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, AquaLube, and glycerin) should be used.
Symptoms of a sting include pain, swelling, itching, vomiting, increased sweating, and vision problems. However, it is best not to use condoms pre-lubricated with spermicides. Do not use spermicides for protection against herpes. Some types of deerflies spread Tularemia, an infectious bacterial disease that requires medical attention. Nonoxynol-9 can cause irritation around the genital areas, which makes it easier for herpes and other STDs to be transmitted. Use a dental dam or condom for oral sex. If you have any symptoms of oral herpes, it is best not to perform oral sex on a partner until any visible sores or blisters have healed. Limit the number of sexual partners. The more sexual partners you have, the greater your chances of becoming infected or infecting others.


To protect yourself from mosquitoes, apply insect repellent and cover up when you go outdoors. It is very unlikely to transmit or contract genital herpes from a toilet seat or bath towel. Studies suggest that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections.
Houseflies: Dirty, Hairy!A housefly is a dirty insect -- carrying more than 1 million bacteria on its body. To control flies, keep food and garbage in closed containers and use window screens on your home.
However, herpes can cause significant and widespread complications in people who don't have a fully functioning immune system. The CDC recommends that all people diagnosed with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) get tested for HIV. Most people with HIV are co-infected with HSV-2 and are particularly vulnerable to its complications.
HSV-2 infection increases HIV levels in the genital tract, which makes it easier for the HIV virus to be spread to sexual partners. Herpes and PregnancyPregnant women who have genital herpes due to either HSV-2 or HSV-1 have an increased risk for miscarriage, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant in the uterus or at the time of delivery.
It helps to use pesticides (or an exterminator), keep a clean kitchen, and repair cracks and holes in floors and walls.
Herpes in newborn babies (herpes neonatalis) can be a very serious condition. Fortunately, neonatal herpes is rare.
Although about 25 to 30% of pregnant women have genital herpes, less than 0.1% of babies are born with neonatal herpes. The baby is at greatest risk during a vaginal delivery, especially if the mother has an asymptomatic infection that was first introduced late in the pregnancy. The risk for transmission also increases if infants with infected mothers are born prematurely, there is invasive monitoring, or instruments are used during vaginal delivery.
Transmission can occur if the amniotic membrane of an infected woman ruptures prematurely, or as the infant passes through an infected birth canal.
This risk is increased if the woman is having or has recently had an active herpes outbreak in the genital area. Very rarely, the virus is transmitted across the placenta, a form of the infection known as congenital herpes.
Also rarely, newborns may contract herpes during the first weeks of life from being kissed by someone with a herpes cold sore. Infants may get congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth. Aggressive treatment with antiviral medication is required. Most infected pregnant women do not have a history of symptoms, so herpes infection is often not suspected or detected at the time of delivery. Fortunately, if a woman does have genital lesions, rapid diagnostic blood tests can quickly determine her chances of transmitting the virus to her baby during delivery. Some women with new or recurrent herpes may also be prescribed antiviral medication during pregnancy.
A woman with herpes can usually safely breastfeed her baby, as long as she does not have a lesion on her breast or nipple.
Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs. Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir, an antiviral drug. They usually receive several weeks of intravenous acyclovir treatment, often followed by several months of oral acyclovir. It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs. Fortunately, rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with acyclovir have significantly improved survival rates and reduced complication rates. Nearly all who recover have some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis.
Like encephalitis, meningitis symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and sensitivity to light.
Fortunately, herpes meningitis usually resolves after about a week without complications, although symptoms can recur. Herpes Eye ComplicationsOcular herpes is a recurrent infection that affects the eyes. Ocular herpes is usually a simple infection that clears up in a few days, but in its more serious forms, and in severe cases, it can cause blindness. It only affects the upper layer (epithelium) of the cornea and heals with scarring. Stromal Keratitis. Iridocyclitis is another serious complication of ocular herpes, in which the iris and the area around it become inflamed.
Herpes Skin ComplicationsEczema Herpeticum A rare form of herpes infection called eczema herpeticum, also known as Kaposi varicelliform eruption, can affect people with skin disorders and those with a weakened immune system.
Untreated, this condition can be extremely serious and possibly fatal. Gingivostomatiti Oral herpes can cause multiple painful ulcers on the gums and mucus membranes of the mouth, a condition called gingivostomatitis. Children with gingivostomatitis commonly develop herpetic whitlow (herpes of the fingers). Herpetic Whitlow A herpetic whitlow is an infection of the herpes virus involving the finger, often around the fingernail.
In children, this is often caused by thumb sucking or finger sucking while they have a cold sore.
It can also occur in adult health care workers, such as dentists, because of increased exposure to the herpes virus. The use of latex or polyurethane gloves prevents herpes whitlow in health care workers. SymptomsHerpes symptoms vary depending on whether the outbreak is initial or recurrent. The primary outbreak is usually worse than recurrent outbreaks, with more severe and prolonged symptoms. In fact, studies indicate that 10 to 25% of people infected with HSV-2 are unaware that they have genital herpes.
The first signs are a tingling sensation in the affected areas (genitalia, buttocks, and thighs) and groups of small red bumps that develop into blisters. The sores may sometimes itch, but itching decreases as they heal. About 40% of men and 70% of women develop other symptoms during initial outbreaks of genital herpes, such as flu-like discomfort, headache, muscle aches, and fever.
Some women may have difficulty urinating and may, occasionally, require a urinary catheter.
Women may also experience vaginal discharge. Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreak In general, recurrences are much milder than the initial outbreak. The virus sheds for a much shorter period of time (about 3 days) compared to an initial outbreak of 3 weeks. Women may have only minor itching, and the symptoms may be even milder in men. On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely. There are some differences in frequency of recurrence depending on whether HSV-2 or HSV-1 caused genital herpes. HSV-2 genital infection is more likely to cause recurrences than HSV-1. Symptoms of Oral HerpesOral herpes (herpes labialis) is most often caused by HSV-1, but it can also be caused by HSV-2.
It usually affects the lips and, in some primary attacks, the mucus membranes in the mouth. A herpes infection may occur on the cheeks or in the nose, but facial herpes is very uncommon. Primary Oral Herpes Infection If the primary (initial) oral infection causes symptoms, they can be very painful, particularly in children.
The sores last 10 to 14 days and can be very uncomfortable. Blisters that may be preceded or accompanied by sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and painful swallowing. Recurrent Oral Herpes Infection A recurrent oral herpes infection is much milder than the primary outbreak. It usually manifests as a single sore, commonly called a cold sore or fever blister (because it may arise during a bout of cold or flu).
The sore usually shows up on the outer edge of the lips and rarely affects the gums or throat.
Recurrences of genital herpes are more likely with HSV-2 infection than with HSV-1 infection.
The outbreak of infection is often preceded by a prodrome, an early group of symptoms that may include itchy skin, pain, or an abnormal tingling sensation at the site of infection. Recurrent outbreaks feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer. Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode, but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area. They include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress.
Oral herpes can be triggered within about 3 days of intense dental work, particularly root canal or tooth extraction. Timing of Recurrences Recurrent outbreaks may occur at intervals of days, weeks, or years.
For most people, outbreaks recur with more frequency during the first year after an initial attack.
The good news is that in most healthy people, recurring infections tend to become progressively less frequent, and less severe, over time. However, other conditions can resemble herpes, and doctors cannot base a herpes diagnosis on visual inspection alone. These tests include: Virologic tests (viral culture of the lesion) Serologic tests (blood tests that detect antibodies) The CDC recommends that both virologic and serologic tests be used for diagnosing genital herpes.
People diagnosed with genital herpes should also be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases. At this time, experts do not recommend screening for HSV-1 or HSV-2 in the general population. Genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2. It is important to determine which virus is involved, as the type of herpes infection influences prognosis and treatment recommendations. Recurrences of genital herpes, and viral shedding without overt symptoms, are much less frequent with HSV-1 infection than with HSV-2. False-negative (testing negative when herpes infection is actually present) or false-positive (testing positive when herpes infection is not actually present) results can occur.
Your health care provider may recommend that you have a test repeated. Virologic TestsViral culture tests are made by taking a fluid sample, or culture, from the lesions as early as possible, ideally within the first 48 hours of the outbreak. PCR tests are much faster and more accurate than viral cultures, and the CDC recommends PCR for detecting herpes in spinal fluid when diagnosing herpes encephalitis. PCR can make many copies of the virus' DNA, so that even small amounts of DNA in the sample can be detected. However, many labs now use PCR for herpes testing because it is highly accurate. An older type of virologic testing, the Tzanck smear test, uses scrapings from herpes lesions. The scrapings are stained and examined under a microscope for the presence of giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies).
The Tzanck test is not reliable for providing a conclusive diagnosis of herpes infection and is not recommended by the CDC. Serologic TestsSerologic (blood) tests can identify antibodies that are specific for either HSV-1 or HSV-2. When the herpes virus infects you, your body's immune system produces specific antibodies to fight off the infection. If a blood test detects antibodies to herpes, it is evidence that you have been infected with the virus, even if the virus is in a non-active (dormant) state. The presence of antibodies to herpes also indicates that you are a carrier of the virus and might transmit it to others. Serologic tests can be especially useful for people who do not have active symptoms, but who have other risk factors for herpes (such as other STDs, multiple sex partners, or a monogamous partner who has genital herpes).
Although glycoprotein (gG) type-specific tests have been available for many years, many of the older nontype-specific tests that cannot distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 are still on the market.
Canker sores frequently crop up singly or in groups on the inside of the mouth, or on or underneath the tongue.
The drugs are used initially to treat a first attack of herpes, and then afterward to either treat recurrent outbreaks (episodic therapy) or reduce frequency of recurrences (suppressive therapy).
Drugs can, however, reduce the severity of symptoms, improve healing times, and prevent recurrences. If people experience very severe disease or complications, they need to be hospitalized and receive an antiviral drug intravenously. Your health care provider will prescribe one of the three antiviral medications, which you will take for 7 to 10 days.
You should begin the medication as soon as you notice any signs or symptoms of herpes, preferably during the prodrome stage that precedes the outbreak of lesions.
If taken during prodrome, episodic therapy may help prevent an outbreak from occurring or reduce its severity.
Valacyclovir is taken once a day. Suppressive treatment can reduce the frequency of outbreak recurrences by 70 to 80%. It is generally recommended for people who have frequent recurrences (6 or more outbreaks per year). Because herpes recurrences often diminish over time, you should discuss annually with your health care provider whether you should stay with drug therapy or discontinue it. While taking any suppressive therapy for genital herpes, it is still important to regularly use latex condoms and to avoid any sexual activity during recurrences. A new form of acyclovir (Sitavig) is administered orally as an adhesive tablet; it is applied to the gum region of the mouth, where it dissolves during the course of the day. In addition, acyclovir is available in topical form, as is the related drug penciclovir (Denavir). Topical TreatmentsThese ointments or creams can help shorten healing time and duration of symptoms.
However, none are truly effective at eliminating outbreaks. Penciclovir (Denavir) heals HSV-1 sores on average about half a day faster than without treatment, stops viral shedding, and reduces the duration of pain.
Ideally, you should apply the cream within the first hour of symptoms, although the medication can still help if applied later.
Apply the cream 5 times a day, beginning at the first sign of tingling or pain. Over-the-counter topical ointments may provide modest relief.
They include Anbesol gel, Blistex lip ointment, Campho-phenique, Herpecin-L, Viractin, and Zilactin.
Some contain a topical anesthetic such as benzocaine, tetracaine, or phenol. Lip balm that contains sunblock, or sunscreen applied around the lips may help prevent sun-triggered outbreaks.
Herbs and SupplementsGenerally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful.
There have been several reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. Always check with your provider before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements. Many herbal and dietary supplement products claim to help fight herpes infection by boosting the immune system. There has been little research on these products, and little evidence to show that they really work. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women.
Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14 - 49 years -- United States, 2005-2008. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions. Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with HSV-2 infection.



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