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3.1 Students learn to explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function. It follows that a fixed concentration of substrate and enzymes is necessary for reactions to proceed at an ideal rate. 3.2 Students learn to explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity.
3.3 Students learn to identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals.
3.4 Students perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products. Renal dialysis is similar to kidney function except that essential substances passively filtered from the blood are replaced by adding them to the blood. Active animals produce considerable quantities of nitrogenous wastes that must be removed quickly.
3.7 Students learn to distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubule (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule. The way the kidney filters the blood is analogous to a student tidying his desk by throwing everything onto the floor, then replacing only the materials he needs on the desk. 3.8 Students learn to explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.
The filtrate then passes down and up the loop of Henle in the medulla (inner) part of the kidney. The distal (distant from the glomerulus) convoluted tubule is mainly responsible for the regulation of potassium, pH (acidity) and calcium concentration in the body. From the distal tubule, the filtrate passes to the collecting tubule which joins other tubules, connects to the ureter and transports the urine to the bladder. 3.9 Students learn to outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics. Sense organs in the pituitary gland detect falls in osmotic pressure caused by a reduction of blood volume.
A range of other sensors (including stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) detect falls in blood pressure due to dehydration and loss of salts from the blood. Aldosterone and ADH are both hormones that increase the reabsorption of water and sodium ions from the filtrate in the tubules of the nephron.
3.11 Students learn to define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations. Work extra hard and reduce your social activities so that you can maintain your standard and avoid getting into trouble with parents or teachers? Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get? Estuaries are places where the salinity of water changes during the day as the tides move in or out. If you can handle these concepts, it would be in your interest to find out the meaning of the words a€?osmoregulatorsa€? and a€?osmoconformersa€? so that you can improve the quality of your answers to questions on this dot point. 3.12 Students analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish. Marine fish have no trouble getting enough minerals - the oceana€™s water is full of minerals. Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.
3.14 Students process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments. 3.15 Students perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water. 3.16 Students learn to describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss. In the photograph of an Acacia sp seedling below, you can see that the first leaf to form was a bipinnate (compound) leaf.
In the next photograph, the leaves of a Casuarina sp (She-Oak) are shown to be reduced to tiny brown scales - the stems are acting as leaves. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs. 3.A A  Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid. Osmosis and diffusion are passive - no energy is required from the organism.A  Active transport requires the expenditure of energy. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubuleA  (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.A  This process requires energy because the materials must pass against a diffusion gradient. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.A A  Most of the mineral ions and water are also reabsorbed here.
It is important to keep the volume and salt concentration of blood at a constant level.A  The hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control blood volume and salt concentration.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.A  ADH and aldosterone do the opposite - they reduce the volume of urine produced by the kidney.
2.Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Organisms that live in aquatic environments have the same a€?choicea€?.A A  If the water becomes more or less salty than usual, they can either work hard to maintain homeostasis or they can tolerate the change (and compensate in some way - just like you might keep a low profile). Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.A  As a result, to help overcome these problems, freshwater fish produce large volumes of very dilute urine.


This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.A A  The hairs slow the movement of air and hence reduce the rate of water loss from the pits and hence from the stomates. Water moves from a region where dissolved substances are in a higher concentration and the dissolved substance move from where they are in a higher concentration. In normal kidney function, glucose and salts are reabsorbed - in dialysis these are added to the blood before it is replaced in the body. Also, diffusion and osmosis are indiscriminate - some substances must be removed, others must not. Small molecules such as water, ions, glucose and amino acids pass out of the glomerulus and into the Bowmana€™s capsule. The descending loop is permeable to water but impermeable to salt; the ascending limb is permeable to salt but impermeable to water. The pituitary then releases ADH which travels in the blood and increases the permeability of the collecting tubules to water. These cause the adrenal glands to produce aldosterone which also increase the permeability of collecting tubules to water and sodium.
Retention of water and sodium ions raises the blood volume and therefore blood pressure so that people who have hypertension (high blood pressure) take drugs which lower the secretion or the action of aldosterone. Their difficulty is in getting rid of excessive amounts of minerals that diffuse into their cells.
The third leaf has a much more pronounced petiole (a€?stalka€?) and the third a€?leafa€? is all petiole. Sadly, many people, too wrapped up in their own lives, don't realise the realities of poverty in The UK, assuming it is their own fault.
The kidney must be able to remove unwanted nitrogenous wastes but not lose important solutes such as glucose and some minerals. A large volume of water and most solutes pass out of the blood as it passes through the glomerulus and this material then is collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule.
The loop of Henle thus has the role of maintaining a balance of water and salts in the blood. Most estuarine organisms are in this category - they include sharks, many fish species, crabs, mangroves and oysters. Marine fish do have a problem keeping their cells hydrated because there is a tendency for water to move out of their cells due to osmosis.
Kidneys also maintain the concentration of water and dissolved salts at optimal concentrations.
The regulation of potassium ions and sodium ions in the body is especially important in maintaining the function of neurones (nerve cells).
It follows that fish must get rid of excessive amounts of minerals and reduce water loss - they do these things by producing small amounts of highly concentrated urine.
Phyllodes are more conservative of water, more reflective of light and have a smaller surface area to volume than leaves. The stems are cylindrical - they have a lower surface area to volume ratio than flat leaves. The whole problem is that the greedy few take far more than they need, leaving the rest of us struggling.We ask you, - who really needs more money than they can possibly spend?
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
The Mark, the currency of Germany's value was not competitive in the international currency and the economic fabric became miserable with poverty, unemployment and other economic problemsIn 1931, Hitler came to power with his intrigues and Nazi propaganda. He established a racial regime where top position was given to blue eyed Aryan race of Germans .Where as Jews and blacks were given low position.
Associating with Jews was not felt good and they were forced to surrender their property and send to areas where poverty and unemployment were the social outcomes. He encouraged to multiply the children of German race and given clear instructions to avoid the marriages with the Jews.
MOVE FORWARD TO 2014: Disillusioned with Capitalism and Socialism,A Nigel Farage joined a small party called UKIP. Through his attractive speeches, he got a wide following all over The UK.The economy is struggling, and through the ConDem's policies, there is widespread poverty, unemployment and economic problems. A A Despite what he says, Nigel Farage and his cohorts are racist, indeed, the name United Kingdom Independence Party says it all - The British for the British! It was a political earthquake!A Less than 12 weeks earlier, Winston Churchill (pictured right) had announced the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany.
Churchill wanted his wartime coalition to continue until Japan too had been defeated, but was not unduly dismayed when his Labour ministers insisted that the country be offered a choice.
The Prime Minister called the election for early July, confident that the British people would back the greatest hero of the hour. Of all Churchill's colossal misjudgments, that was probably the most egregious!A The voters wanted an end to wartime austerity, and no return to prewar economic depression. Three years earlier, in the darkest days of the war, they had been offered a tantalising glimpse of how things could be in the bright dawn of victory. It offered nothing less than a cradle-to-grave welfare state.That was the great promise dangled before the British electorate in 1945. Though Churchill had presided over the planning for radical social reform, though he was a genuine hero of the masses,A the people of The UKA did not trust him to deliver the brave new world of Beveridge.There were other factors too.
Sadly, many people, too wrapped up in their own lives, don't realise the realities of poverty in The UK, assuming it is their own fault. The Mark, the currency of Germany's value was not competitive in the international currency and the economic fabric became miserable with poverty, unemployment and other economic problemsIn 1931, Hitler came to power with his intrigues and Nazi propaganda.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.


The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.
We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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08.08.2014, author: admin


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