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How to overcome an upper respiratory infection kitten,how to get rid of norovirus in your home,how to get rid of virus galaxy s5 zoom - And More

The lower respiratory tract includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.
The trachea begins immediately below the larynx (voice-box), runs down the centre of the front part of the neck and ends behind the upper part of the sternum (where it divides to form two branches which enter the lung cavities). Smooth muscle in the wall of bronchioles constricts and dilates to alter the resistance to airflow through the lungs. A human lung contains about 480 million alveoli, with a total surface area of about 70-90 square metres. The upper respiratory tract extends from the soft palate down through the pharynx into the larynx (technically it also includes the nasal and oral cavities)…See accompanying image (pinkish tube like structure in the head). First, imagine the airway in your throat as a ‘tube’ the consistency being that of pasta (it is pliable).
In the state of being awake, the airway does not collapse because there is a mechanical as well as a tonic neural input that keep the walls stable and ‘taut’. Often, the neural and mechanical factors that are in place while awake, are not present while we sleep, so the airway may partially or fully collapse upon itself. 2) Length of the airway: The longer the neck, the greater the chance of airway collapse…tall thin people tend to fall into this category.
3) Position of sleep: As mentioned previously, sleeping on your back will lead to a greater chance of airway collapse than if you sleep on your side. As mentioned above, there are both neural and mechanical factors which prevent one’s airway from collapsing while they are awake. A continuous flow of air under pressure while the individual is asleep will ensure that the ‘pliable’ airway remains open. Again, the purpose of this blog was not to overwhelm people with technicalities…just keep in mind that while asleep, the tongue and associated soft tissues at the back of the throat along with the ‘pliable’ upper airway tract can readily collapse upon themselves and create an obstruction. Clinical Disorders and Diseases of the Respiratory System Hypoxia – deficiency of oxygen in a tissue or the inability to use oxygen Oxygen toxicity – excess oxygen, causing the build up of peroxides and free radicals Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) – long-term obstruction of airflow and a substantial reduction in pulmonary ventilation Chronic bronchitis – cilia are immobilized and reduced in number; goblet cells increase their production of mucus > mucus clogs the airways and breeds infection Emphysema – alveolar walls break down and the surface area of the lungs is reduced Asthma – allergens trigger the release of histamine and other inflammatory chemicals that cause intense bronchoconstriction.
Acute rhinitis – the common cold Laryngitis – inflammation of the vocal folds Pneumonia – lower respiratory infection of the alveoli that causes fluid build up in the lungs. Respiratory Physiology Diaphragm contracts - increase thoracic cavity vl - Pressure decreases - causes air to rush into lungs Diaphragm relaxes - decrease. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Karen Lancour Patty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor – A&P.


Take in oxygen Get rid of carbon dioxide Helps with smelling Filters air that is inhaled Produces sounds Rids the body of some water and heat in exhaled.
It is responsible for collecting and delivering air to the lungs, and it is also responsible for warming, filtering and humidifying the air. It is flexible (similar to a vacuum tube), which allows a persona€™s head and neck to twist and bend without closing it off. Alveoli are small sac like structures where the exchange of gases between the lungs and the circulation occurs.
As we have seen in previous blogs and more specifically (see blog “Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Tooth Grinding” posted on March 17th, 2014) the tongue, soft palate and associated soft tissue structures, fall to the back of the throat when we are lying in the supine (on our back) position. This can get pretty technical, however for the purpose of this blog, we don’t want to over complicate the issue, so I will try to keep things simple. There is a balance between a pressure exerting a force (inwards) on the outside of this tube, and a pressure pushing outwards inside of the tube itself (the forces oppose each other)…whether the tube will collapse or not will depend on the balance of these forces. Men who have a neck circumference greater than 17’’ and women greater than 16” tend to be at more risk of collapse.
However, in the state of sleep we tend to lose these neural and mechanical factors: A healthy airway is protected from collapse by inherent anatomic properties that keep it patent while asleep, even when there is no neural input to it. Pulling the tongue, soft palate and associated soft tissue structures forward (and enlarging the airway). The MAD will improve upper airway muscle tone which acts to decrease airway collapsibility. Through the use of CPAP and MADs we can open up these airways and achieve a state of health. Respiratory Tract Conducting passageways carrying air to and from the alveoli –Upper respiratory Nasal Cavity Larynx Pharynx –Lower. In asthma, periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchioles makes it more difficult to breathe in and, especially, out.
Introduction n The trillions of cells making up the body require a continuous supply of oxygen to carry out vita functions.
Respiration We can divide this unit into 3 topics 1) Anatomy 2) mechanics of breathing 3) Chemistry of respiration.
2 Introduction The respiratory system consists of tubes that filter incoming air and transport it into the microscopic.


PRIMARY FUNCTIONS * Exchange gases (oxygen and CO2) * Produce vocal sounds * Sense of smell * Regulation of blood PH. LUNG CAKE Functions of the Respiratory System Obtain O 2 from environment Expel CO 2 into the environment Filter foreign particle.
Organization and Functions of the Respiratory System Consists of an upper respiratory tract (nose to larynx) and.
It consists of about 20 a€?Ca€? shaped cartilaginous rings which prevent it collapsing or overexpanding as pressures within the respiratory system change. This increases the intrathoracic space and decreases the intrathoracic pressure, so air moves in. The problem worsens when you take into account the fact that the upper airway is a collapsible tube. Once the left and right primary bronchi enter the lungs they are subdivided into smaller tubes: Secondary bronchi (one for each lobe) > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > terminal bronchioles > respiratory bronchioles > alveolar ducts > alveolar sacs 3. Attacks of asthma can be triggered by airborne irritants such as chemical fumes and cigarette smoke airborne particles to which the patient is allergic. There are several forms of lung cancer, but the most common (and most rapidly increasing) types are those involving the epithelial cells lining the bronchi and bronchioles. When this tissue becomes inflamed, it results in a sharp pain in the chest that is worse with breathing in. Cystic fibrosis - caused by inheriting two defective CFTR genes, a transmembrane protein needed for the transport of Cl? ions out of the epithelial cells of the lung thus enabling water to follow by osmosis.
The ciliated and mucus-secreting cells disappear and are replaced by a disorganized mass of cells with abnormal nuclei. Diminished CFTR function reduces the water content of the fluid in the lungs making it more viscous and difficult for the ciliated cells to move it up out of the lungs. The accumulation of mucus plugs the airways interfering with breathing and causing a persistent cough.
Malignant cells can break away and be carried in lymph and blood to other parts of the body where they may lodge and continue to proliferate.




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26.04.2016, author: admin


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