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Conjunctivitis, or "pink eye," is inflammation or infection of the lining of the eye, called the conjunctiva. Most cases of pink eye will simply run their course, but a doctor should determine if you have a case of pink eye that needs treatment with prescription medicine.
Although topical over-the-counter redness-reducing agents can be used, second-generation antihistamines are more effective. Sometimes bacterial conjunctivitis can cause complications in children, particularly eye infections. Bacteria and virus are the most common roots of eye infections, which can occur in any part of the eyeball or around the eyes. Hordeolum or external stye may be caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria or a buildup in the oil glands at the eyelashes. Vigamox is a topical ophthalmic antibiotic eye drop that is used for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis (a bacterial infection on the surface of the eye). Vigamox is similar to other fluoroquinolone eye drops such as Zymar (gatifloxacin), Ciloxan (ciprofloxacin) and Ocuflox (ofloxacin). It may be caused by one or several factors, including allergens, irritants, abrasions, bacteria, and viruses. In rare situations, pink eye that is severe or left untreated can cause permanent vision loss or damage to the eye. Seasonal conjunctivitis is usually due to ragweed, pollen, or other allergens that are around at certain times of year.
This form of infected eye may also stem from lack of hygiene and repeated rubbing of the eyes, poor nutrition or lack of sleep.
Inflammation of almost any part of the eye, including the lacrimal glands and eyelids, or faulty tear film can lead to red eye.
Other common causes of red eye include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, chemical burn, and scleritis.A thorough patient history and eye examination may provide clues to the etiology of red eye (Figure 1). Viral conjunctivitis usually spreads through direct contact with contaminated fingers, medical instruments, swimming pool water, or personal items.
Perennial conjunctivitis is due to contact with allergens that are around at all times of the year, such as mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, and feathers.

If your symptoms are severe, you may need to see a doctor, who will most likely prescribe a prescription eye drop for short-term use, such as a steroid. It often comes with an upper respiratory infection, and symptoms include red eyes, itchiness, and a watery or mucous discharge. While this infection is characterized by a red bump outside the eyelids, conjunctivitis is diagnosed when the outer layer of the eye or the inner part of the eyelids turn pink because of inflammation. The history should include questions about unilateral or bilateral eye involvement, duration of symptoms, type and amount of discharge, visual changes, severity of pain, photophobia, previous treatments, presence of allergies or systemic disease, and the use of contact lenses.
Viral conjunctivitis may require the attention of a doctor, and antibiotics may be necessary to prevent a bacterial infection. This condition can bring about itchiness and fluid discharge from the eyes, usually caused by a strain of virus, bacteria or certain chemicals. Other common causes include blepharitis, corneal abrasion, foreign body, subconjunctival hemorrhage, keratitis, iritis, glaucoma, chemical burn, and scleritis.
The eye examination should include the eyelids, lacrimal sac, pupil size and reaction to light, corneal involvement, and the pattern and location of hyperemia. The clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis is usually mild with spontaneous remission after one to two weeks.3 Treatment is supportive and may include cold compresses, ocular decongestants, and artificial tears. Signs and symptoms of red eye include eye discharge, redness, pain, photophobia, itching, and visual changes. Generally, viral and bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting conditions, and serious complications are rare. Amoeba or fungi could cause keratitis, aside from viral and bacterial strains.Eye Infection Symptoms - BasicsA lot of eye infections have obvious signs, including redness and itchiness. Because there is no specific diagnostic test to differentiate viral from bacterial conjunctivitis, most cases are treated using broad-spectrum antibiotics. Some common eye infection symptoms include fluid or mucus discharge or tearing, swelling and a burning sensation. Patients need prompt ophthalmology referral for aggressive management.4,12 Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is the most common form of bacterial conjunctivitis in the primary care setting. Blepharitis, a common eye disorder, triggers light sensitivity and a sandy sensation when the eyes are open.

The cause of red eye can be diagnosed through a detailed patient history and careful eye examination, and treatment is based on the underlying etiology. Bacterial conjunctivitis and staphylococcal blepharitis can lead to scaling and crusting on the surrounding skin of the eye or along the eyelashes. Recognizing the need for emergent referral to an ophthalmologist is key in the primary care management of red eye.
Staphylococcus aureus infection often causes acute bacterial conjunctivitis in adults, whereas Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae infections are more common causes in children.
Stye patients might exhibit most of these eye infection symptoms, in addition to discomfort during blinking and irritability of the eyes. The eyelids may seem droopy, and the eyes may be abnormally tender when touched.Eye Infection Treatment - OptionsOintments and other topical creams with antibiotic are usually prescribed when it comes to eye diseases. A basic eye infection treatment is eye drops with saline, which sometimes contains non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, prostaglandins, antihistamines, or beta receptor blockers. Different types of conjunctivitis and dry eyes are addressed using antibiotic eye drops or artificial tears. Side effects of these eye drops include brief stinging, changes in the color of the iris or the eyelid skin. In the event that this form of treatment does not suit the patient, oral formulations of antibiotics or antivirals are prescribed. Although chloramphenicol is the first-line treatment in other countries, it is no longer available in the United States. Polymerase chain reaction testing of conjunctival scrapings is diagnostic, but is not usually needed. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of the condition, and symptoms are related to season-specific aeroallergens. Allergic conjunctivitis is primarily a clinical diagnosis.Avoiding exposure to allergens and using artificial tears are effective methods to alleviate symptoms.

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