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According to him, the time, location and speed of releasing the nano drug into the targeted tissue can be easily controlled.
According to Mahdavinia, the synthesized nano drug has magnetic properties which enables it to be guided toward the target tissue by applying an external magnetic field.
Another important result from Mahdaviniaa€™s research is the sensitivity of the drug delivery system to the alternating external magnetic field. For billions of people, mostly in poor, undeveloped regions, intestinal roundworms are a debilitating fact of life.
Delivering or developing expensive anti-roundworm treatments to billions of people in the Third World isn’t a practical solution.
Aroian and his team discovered several years ago that a protein from a soil bacterium related to those used to kill insects naturally on organic crops was a highly effective treatment for intestinal parasitic roundworms in experimental animals. In a preliminary research effort funded by the Gates Foundation two years ago, Aroian found that a genetically similar bacterium Bacillus subtilis natto, used by Japanese to ferment soybeans in a popular dish called natto, can also produce a biologically active form of the Cry5B protein.
Scientists at the University of California, San Diego and Yale University have discovered that a natural protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium sprayed on crops by organic farmers to reduce insect damage, is highly effective at treating hookworm infections in laboratory animals. Their discovery, detailed in this week's early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could pave the way for the development of more effective treatments for hookworm and other soil-transmitted nematode infections, which are a major global health problem in developing countries. The UCSD-Yale team found that a protein produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, given orally to laboratory hamsters infected with hookworms was as effective in eliminating the parasites, curing anemia and restoring weight gain in the hamsters as mebendazole, one of the drugs currently recommended to treat infections in humans. Hookworms cause anemia by attaching to the intestine and feeding on their host's blood and nutrients, causing anemia and weight loss. The discovery is particularly relevant to global health, because of concerns about the potential emergence of resistance in human intestinal nematodes to currently available medicines. Other authors of the study are Richard Bungiro and Lisa Harrison of the Yale medical school and Larry Bischof, Joel Griffitts and Brad Barrows of UCSD. Aroian met Cappello, a pediatric infectious diseases specialist who studies hookworm, at a meeting of the Burroughs-Wellcome Fund and decided to collaborate on a project to see if crystal proteins could be effective against hookworm infections.
Colleagues in Cappello's lab then carried out additional experiments that demonstrated that Cry5B was comparable to mebendazole for treating hookworm infection in laboratory animals. The study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

Nanoparticles designed to block a cell-surface molecule that plays a key role in inflammation could be a safe treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to researchers in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University and Southwest University in China. The scientists developed nanoparticles, or microscopic particles, to reduce the expression of CD98, a glycoprotein that promotes inflammation.
In the United States, as many as 1.3 million people suffer from IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, conditions with chronic or recurring abnormal response to the body's immune system and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests the development of nanotherapeutic strategies could be an alternative to currently available drugs, which are limited by serious side effects, in treating inflammatory conditions such as IBD. In the study, researchers formed the nanoparticles by combining CD98 siRNA, small interfering RNA that inhibit CD98 gene expression in macrophages (immune cells involved in IBD), with urocanic acid-modified chitosan (UAC). Researchers found the nanoparticles had a desirable particle size and no apparent toxicity against macrophages and colon epithelial cells. Bo Xiao et al, Urocanic acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles can confer anti-inflammatory effect by delivering CD98 siRNA to macrophages, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces (2016). Researchers can build complex, nanometer-scale structures of almost any shape and form, using strands of DNA.
Among the valuable holdings in London's Wellcome Library is a rough pencil sketch made in 1953 by Francis Crick.
UK researchers have discovered a new way of observing designer nanomaterials a€“ materials 400 times smaller than a human hair. Rice University scientists have advanced their graphene-based de-icer to serve a dual purpose. 25 (MNA) a€“ Iranian researches from University of Maragheh have produced a type of nanodrug for targeted delivery into the tissue, leaving increased therapeutic effects and less side effects on healthy tissues. On the other hand, the large size of the drug particles and its inability to pass through cell membranes necessitates the consumption of a large dose of medicine which will in turn cause high toxicity in the body. According to the observed results, with increasing the magnetic field, the amount of drug released into the tissue also increases, a characteristic that can be used in cancer treatment. These parasites, which include hookworms and whipworms, infect four million children, causing stunted growth, poor mental development and malnutrition.
But an innovative idea by a UC San Diego biologist to develop strains of bacteria that possess a crystalline protein toxic to intestinal roundworms that can be easily eaten in yogurt and soybean dishes could offer hope.

He and his colleagues—who include Joseph Pogliano, an associate professor of biology at UC San Diego, Todd Klaenhammer of North Carolina State University, Gita Shankar of SRI International and Joseph Urban of the U.S. Many of the nearly two billion people worldwide infected with these intestinal parasites are children, who are at particular risk for anemia, malnutrition and delayed growth.
The scientists also discovered that this protein, called Cry5B, targets both developing, or larval, stages and adult parasites, as well as impairs the excretion of eggs by female worms. The researchers said in their paper that because this naturally-produced protein is safe to humans and other vertebrates and can be produced inexpensively in large quantities, it has the potential to substantially improve this global health problem. Three years ago, Aroian and his colleagues purified Cry5B toxin and sent it to Cappello, who then tested the compound in a laboratory model of hookworm infection. Additional studies also determined which life cycle stages of the parasite were most susceptible to Cry5B and at what concentrations.
IBD gets worse over time and causes severe gastrointestinal symptoms, such as persistent diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain, fever, rectal bleeding, loss of appetite and weight loss. His team of biologists and his collaborators were awarded this month with a two-year $1 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to conduct further research on the biology of this approach that could eventually lead to a way to treat those afflicted with roundworms. Department of Agriculture—now want to find out if this bacterium and other bacterial species that ferment milk into yogurt can be modified into bacterial food products that can be fed to the developing world to treat and prevent intestinal roundworms. Surgery is required when medication can no longer control the symptoms, and patients also have an increased risk of colon cancer, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. When introduced to macrophages, the nanoparticles had an anti-inflammatory effect on these immune cells.
The bacteria could be dried and put into packages like yeast, Aroian said, then delivered to Third World countries, where they could be added to food and drink. However, since the toxin can't bind to the cells of mammals or other vertebrates, Cry proteins can't hurt humans.

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04.09.2014, author: admin

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