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Inflammation of the bronchi or the airways in the lungs and the windpipe is called bronchitis. Antibiotics are used only when a bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract triggers bronchitis. When bronchitis causes difficulty in breathing, bronchodilators are used to ease breathing. Corticosteroids are usually inhaled and occasionally taken orally to reduce inflammation of the bronchi.
One common cause of opportunistic infection is clostridium difficile (klos-TRID-e-uhm dif-uh-SEEL). Blood tests and imagingAlthough the above measures are not often used due to low sensitivity and specificity measures or unavailable equipment in clinics, the following tests are most often used in patients that have a delayed lumbar puncture due concern of a intracranial, space-occupying lesion.
Steroids, namely dexamethasone, have also been used in conjunction with the various antibiotics explained above.
A new study conducted in Finland shows that the exaggerated use of antibiotics while traveling in order to treat diarrhea is strengthening the resistance of particular germs to such treatments.
The study has covered information from 430 subjects that have been tested before and after returning from their trip outside of Finland. Another important percentage noted was of the travelers that went to South Asia: 80% of them were treated with antibiotics for their diarrhea and developed resistant gut bacteria in return. An interesting but yet worrisome fact is that those who contacted the bacteria had few symptoms, but were able to spread the microbe in the territory they came back to. The study has been recently published on the 22nd of January in the Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Stomach flu is a form of gastroenteritis caused by a viral, bacterial or parasitic infection. In some cases, stomach flu may develop as a side effect of certain medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, laxatives, steroids and caffeine.
Fluoroquinolones are traditionally used for treating stomach flu caused by bacterial infection.
Given the rising incidence to resistance to fluoroquinolones, macrolide antibiotics are usually preferred by doctors for treating stomach flu caused by a bacterial infection.
Ondansetron stops vomiting by inhibiting the activities of serotonin, a substance that triggers nausea and vomiting. Prochlorperazine can be taken orally or used as a rectal suppository for stopping vomiting. As diarrhea helps to eliminate the microbes from the gastrointestinal tract, doctors usually avoid prescribing anti-diarrhea drugs for treating diarrhea caused by stomach flu.
By slowing down muscle movement in the gastrointestinal tract, loperamide hydrochloride increases water absorption from the stools, thereby making the feces firmer. The thinner the mucus, the easier is it to cough up the mucus and eliminate it from the lungs, thereby clearing the airways naturally. Honey is a popular natural expectorant that can be taken instead of a pharmacological expectorant. According to scientific studies, herbs that can be used in treatment for bronchitis include Echinacea, ginseng, peppermint, South African geranium, lobelia and andrographis. Adding few drops of essential oils of eucalyptus, lavender, jasmine, tea tree, myrrh, bergamot or sweet fennel to hot water and inhaling the vapor helps to alleviate the symptoms of bronchitis. However, antibiotics will not work when a viral infection causes inflammation of the airways.
They are usually recommended for people with chronic bronchitis with moderate to severe breathing problems or COPD.
You accept that you are following any advice at your own risk and will properly research or consult healthcare professional. Although meningitis is usually spread through respiratory secretions, it can also be spread by surfaces, often surviving on hard surfaces for days.
Traditional antibiotics include vancomycin; however, vancomycin is used in conjunction with either ceftriaxone or cefotaxime in infants and children suspected of being infected with bacterial meningitis. When used together with antibiotics, steroids significantly reduce the rate of mortality, severe hearing loss, and irreversible neurological injury in adolescents and adults (Assiri, Alasmari, Zimmerman, Baddour, Erwin & Tleyjeh, 2009). As a result, scientists advise patients who suffer from this uncomfortable problem to use antibiotics only in severe cases and not do it without medical supervision.
The souvenir is also found in high risk regions like East and Southeast Asia, Middle East and North Africa.

According to the study, travelers should be particularly cautious with their use of antibiotics in such situations in order to lower the quantity of men and women who get infected with resistant bacteria. He promised us that he will keep his articles short but he always seem to stop only when the character count maximum.
Antibiotics classified as fluoroquinolone include ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin and levofloxacin. Erythromycin is traditionally used for killing the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.However, the new generation macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are considered more effective in treating bacterial stomach flu. Your physician may recommend a single dose of the drug or a one dose each day for up to five days for killing the protozoa.
However, when stomach flu is caused by a non-toxic substance, doctors may prescribe an antidiarrheal to reduce excessive loss of fluid from the body. This drug is occasionally recommended for treating diarrhea in children below 12 years of age. Inflammation of the bronchi can also be triggered by inhalation of irritants such as dust, smoke or chemicals.Although people of all ages can develop bronchitis, the risk of developing chronic or severe bronchitis is higher in older adults, smokers, people who are exposed to irritants for a prolonged period and individuals with impaired immune function.
The expectorant effect of ginger can help to thin the mucus and clear the congestion in the airways.
Phosphorous, ipecacuanha and aconitum are usually effective at the early stage of bronchitis.
An important point to note with this test is that it is not performed prior to antimicrobial therapy.
Additionally, the lumbar puncture is delayed and blood tests also taken if the patient is experiencing short, convulsive seizures or if the patient has a history of seizures. Ceftriaxone and cefotaxime are recommended along with vancomycin in some adults as well [1]. Stomach flu may also be sign of food intolerance, food allergies or exposure to heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and mercury. Stomach pain, constipation, appetite loss and vomiting are possible side effects of the drug. Drowsiness, dry mouth, ringing in the ear and vision problems are possible side effects of the drug.
The dosage of the drug varies according to age.Dizziness, drowsiness, stuffed nose, dry mouth, difficulty in urinating and increased appetite are possible side effects of the drug. The goal of bronchitis treatment is treating the inflammation of the airways and improving airflow through the lungs.As viral infections are associated with majority of cases of bronchitis, medications are rarely needed for treating the infection. Drinking several cups of hot ginger tea several times a day provides relief from the symptoms of bronchitis. At the advanced stage of bronchitis hepar sulphuricam and antimonium tartaricum can be used for treatment. Seizures pose a concern because they may be responsible for transient increases in intracranial pressure [1]. Other types of antibiotics used to treat bacterial meningitis besides vancomycin include:Cephalosporins.
Anu Kantele of Helsinki University Hospital in Finland believes that usually, the cases of diarrhea that appear when people are traveling are mild and resolve on their own, but the panic and the pain that is related to the issue pushes the one in cause to access his supply of medication instantly. Poor hygienic practices are widely responsible for transporting the disease causing microbes into the stomach and intestines. Usually 5 mg of the drug is taken three to four times a day.In some cases, this drug may cause constipation, bloating, stomach pain and loss of appetite. The breathing difficulties and coughing triggered by the lung infection can be treated with bronchodilators and expectorants. Thus, lactate concentration could be used as a positive discriminative factor for bacterial meningitis with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100%.
Third-generation cephalosporins have also been proved to be effective in treating meningitis, especially meningitis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli.
In addition to killing the infectious agents thriving in the gastrointestinal tract, medications are sometimes needed for treating diarrhea and vomiting, the common symptoms of stomach flu. Vision problems, shortness of breath, drowsiness and dry mouth are rare side effects of the drug.
These rich sources of vitamin C stimulate the natural healing mechanism of the lungs by strengthening the immune system. However, this test is not widely used to diagnose bacterial meningitis because it does not provide much diagnostic information [2].Determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrationC-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and is released six hours after an acute inflammatory reaction, which means CRP could provide a measure of immunity response after infection with meningitis. This vaccine, known as pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), is active against seven types of pathogens that cause meningitis.

The dosage varies according to the type of antibiotic drug and the severity of the infection.
Garlic, onion and hot peppers are common natural expectorants that can be taken to clear the congested bronchi. Meningococcus vaccines also exist for groups A, C, W135, and Y to protect the public against meningitis. If given cephalosporins, 78-94% of patients recovered compared to 40-90% mortality of previous treatments, including aminoglycoside, with or without chloramphenicol [9]. Researchers concluded that CRP sensitivity ranged from 69-99% and specificity ranged from 28-99% [3].
A Gram stain is important in clinical diagnoses because it can be performed faster than a culture and can help a patient receive timely treatment.
Another type of vaccine, known as Bacillus Calmette-Guerin has also been used to lower the risk of children developing tuberculous meningitis.
Cefepime, a fourth-generation cephalosporin, has been used primarily in infants and children because it is generally considered safe and just as effective as third-generation cephalosporins [10]. However, because of the wide ranges, this measure for confirmed diagnosis is also not widely used.Determination of procalcitonin concentrationAnother measure for meningitis diagnosis might be the presence of procalcitonin. Latex agglutination is not usually used as a primary decision mechanism for meningitis because there have been some false positive reports. However, latex agglutination is most useful for patients that have been pretreated with antibiotics and their Gram stain and CSF cultures results are negative. Although rifampin cannot be used along due to significant bacterial resistance, it does distribute throughout the body, including in high concentrations in the CSF.
Both sensitivity and specificity were up to 100% for procalcitonin concentration in adults [4]. This allows clinicians to provide a correct positive diagnosis for patients that have already been on antimicrobial therapy [1].Limulus lysate assay. Because of the significant bacterial resistance, rifampin must be used in combination with vancomycin or a third-generation cephalosporin [1]. These high sensitivity and specificity results provide a positive outlook on using procalcitonin concentration as a diagnosis measure of bacterial meningitis.
Limulus lysate assay is most often used in patients that have exhibited a gram-negative result when meningitis is suspected.
However, the equipment used to test for procalcitonin concentration is not readily available in clinics, so it is not often used as a diagnostic tool to test for meningitis [4]. Limulus lysate is prepared from the amebocyte of the horseshoe crab, known as Limulus polyphemus, and provides a positive test result when there is endotoxin in the sample [1]. Though, this test is not commonly used first in response to suspected meningitis because the test cannot distinguish between specific gram-negative organisms. Thus, the Limulus lysate assay does not dismiss diagnosis of gram-negative meningitis, which is why it is only used when other tests yield false readings or inconclusive results [5].Polymerase Chain Reaction. Meropenem is especially effective in patients that have meningitis caused by gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to previous medications listed above [11]. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify DNA from patients with meningitis to see if common meningeal pathogens are present. PCR allows detection of pathogens to become easier, since the sample is amplified and provides a more sensitive analysis.
Fluoroquinolones are only used in multi-drug resistant gram-negative bacilli or when patients do not respond to traditional therapy with medications explained previously. Because of the high accuracy of this test, PCR may be significantly influential in decisions to begin or discontinue antimicrobial therapy [6].Postmortem The last method in which meningitis can be identified is through an autopsy. Fluoroquinolones are not well tolerated by the body and therefore should only be prescribed once other drug therapies have proven to be ineffective [1]. The medical examiner will often look for inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid layers of the meninges to confirm meningitis was the cause of death. Another sign that meningitis was present at the time of death would be by inspection of the CSF.

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23.03.2015, author: admin
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