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Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings. Turkish Miniature & Painting Workshops,(2 Hours Lesson - Per Student ) ,2 - 5 Student,55 Euro ,6 - more 40 Euro ,1 Student,65 Euro ,Lesson Includes.
The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook. In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period. Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace. Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture. The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns. Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt. The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life. The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire. Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century.
Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire.
Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems. The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction.
At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni.
Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page.
The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect. The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers. Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression. The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events. Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”. This is the fourth in a series of articles sponsored by the CAA Committee on Intellectual Property (CIP), in which a hypothetical question is posed on some aspect of rights, permissions, fair use, and related topics.
A: Artworks created in the US on or after January 1, 1978, are automatically protected by copyright from the moment they are fixed in tangible form (on canvas, paper, video or audio tape, hard drive, floppy disk, maquette, and so on). A threshold requirement for copyright protection is that your creations must be a€?original works of authorship.a€? a€?Originala€? in this context means that you created the work independently and did not copy someone elsea€™s work.
Copyright law gives you exclusive rights over all uses of your work, subject to certain limitations and exemptionsa€”including fair uses by othersa€”for a period of time.
Historically, including a copyright notice was necessary to maintain copyright protection, but this requirement was abolished March 1, 1989. If a copyright notice is affixed to the work, no one can claim that they a€?innocently infringeda€? your work. Even though you need not register your copyright to secure protection, registration with the Copyright Office does offer certain benefits and advantages. Registration with the Copyright Office is relatively straightforward and inexpensive ($45). Copyright laws were revised in the United States in 1976 and again in 1988, when legislation was passed enabling the US to join the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the most comprehensive international copyright treaty. It is also helpful to recall that copyrights give artists the right to authorize copies of a work. You are not required to place a copyright notice on your work to preserve copyright protection. It is not necessary to register your work with the US Copyright Office to obtain protection under the US copyright law. As August starts to roll around, we as teachers begin thinking about our classroom and resources, some of the things we want to do the first day, week and so forth!
Now is the best time to head on over to Teachers Pay Teachers as they are offering a SITE WIDE SALE for all your purchases beginning August 4-5! In addition, as we all know just how important it is to stock up on great resources as you head back to school, we are offering an ADDITIONAL 15% OFF your items!!
We’re looking forward to beginning a new school year and with that will be working on adding new products to our store, as well as, great resources for free here on our website!! I particularly love the paint your pinky blue campaign from Secret and promoted by Demi Lovato. Douglas Reeves, Richard Allington, Vygotsky, and Robin Alexander have a€?linked academic success with the capacity to engage in conversation and to as and answer questions in full sentencesa€? (p. We have been using this strategy during our TLLP math journal project and we have noticed an improvement in student problem solving and analysis. As you know, we were given the wonderful opportunity to become Scholar’s Choice Content Champions on their Teacher Blog!
The post Getting You Ready for Back to School with Scholar’s Choice appeared first on Teaching Rocks!. There may be several reasons for the lack of discourse during math classesa€”perhaps there may not be enough time, students may not have enough to say, or students tend to lose track and start socializing.A  I know that I have overheard my students discuss weekend plans when they should be discussing the methods they used to solve their math problem!
In order to solve this overall problem, I decided to create discussion starter prompts.A  I created these on legal size paper as I will be posting them on my math focus wall on a rotating basis.
Along with working on creating fantastic resources for our fellow friends here at Teaching Rocks, I have also taken interest in a new, creative and unique hobby! I have also created a folder filled withA personalized subway art and decorative posters to match any of your sets, or to make a special gift on it’s own! Not only is the site providing you with great deals for all your back to school items,A but many stores are also discounting their products! Check out our Teachers Pay Teachers store where we will be providing an additional 15% off your items! The post Designing a Math Focus Wall for Your Classroom: The Planning Stage appeared first on Teaching Rocks!. The post The Tuesday 12: 12 Essential Components of a Math Focus Wall appeared first on Teaching Rocks!. Ia€™ve decided to turn this into a series of posts from the initial ideas to the final creation!A  So join me in creating a math focus wall for my classroom and then adapt the ideas for your own grade levels!For my next post, Ia€™ll draw some pictures to help me visualize my ideas.
Wea€™ve created a student science journal with 52 prompts to help you integrate writing in your science classes.A  The journal prompts are organized by week, so the entire 2013-2014 academic year is already planned out for you!A  Each journal is labeled with the corresponding week of the year, provides a prompt and space for student responses.A  You can either photocopy the entire bundle for your students at the beginning of the year and work through it each week or photocopy individual weeks as you progress through the year! The writing prompts alternate between historical events, creative responses, opinion pieces, persuasive arguments, national awareness themes, and science process skills.
If you have purchased this product already, then simply log into your Teachers Pay Teaches account and download the updated version! As I returned to work after an extended leave, I found my students were working on an art project that was quite amazing. Find below pictures of completed projects and I am looking forward to seeing your projects as well!
The post Guest Post: Producing Engaging Lesson Plans via Social Media Trends by Albert Roberts appeared first on Teaching Rocks!. Perhaps the main challenge for using social media with Middle Schoolers and other age ranges is that theya€™re usually already familiar with social networks, but dona€™t always know how to use them as part of their assignments; therea€™s often just too much content to sift through.
For example, run a search on World War II, and you get Twitter messages linking to recent news stories about memorials and veterans; you can also find Pinterest links to World War II books, and Twitter and other social network links to photographs. Bringing all the content you can find on social media together into something tangible and relevant can engage students.
If youa€™re putting together lesson plans, selecting sources from a social media trend search can lead to a series of questions and projects for students. Debating Bias – show students examples of how a topic theya€™re looking at in class is being debated – what are the key arguments that are coming out, and do they reinforce or contradict what they might already know? Relevance – discuss with your students why some social media sources are more useful than others: why is a well-researched blog better than someone making their case on Twitter? At the same time, social media trend searches can be discussed more directly with students as a way for them to carry out work in their own time. Social media trends can be an excellent way to identify relevant and topical debates beyond your usual sources, and can make students more aware of how they can improve their knowledge online.
After the success of our six poster set “What Does a Good Scientist Do?”, we created a corresponding math poster set!
This bright and colorful seven poster set helps teachers introduce math process skills to their students.
The post The Tuesday 12: 12 Essential Resources for Math Teachers to Read appeared first on Teaching Rocks!. The following list of resources is on my summer reading list (hahaa€¦it seems to be quite an endeavour, but I hope to check off as many as possible).A  If youa€™ve read any of these resources or if there are others you can recommend, please leave your comments below! However, for this particular activity, although the painting part is abstract and can be done in any which way, they were to draw an natural image (ex.
I gave students two different options so that they can individually choose which option works best for them as we all know that students have various strengths and weaknesses. Option one allowed students the choice to draw the image on black construction paper, cut it out and then glue it on a piece of white paper.
The second option gave students the choice to paint the white sheet of paper first, keeping with the same idea as in option one; however, in this option they do not have to paint within lines of an image. Regardless of the options the students chose, which again, was to help them complete this activity in a way in which they felt comfortable with, the final pieces turned out great!
I have included quite a few examples just to show you how these abstract paintings turned out. DESCRIPTION: Christopher Columbus was marooned in Jamaica for almost one year during his fourth voyage. Alessandro Zorzi, a Venetian who gathered accounts of explorers and travelers, was in Rome when Bartholomew arrived. The cartographical concepts are complicated and represent a retrogression precipitated by the Columbus brothersa€™ disappointment that no passage to Asia could be found in Central America.
The distance between Europe and Asia is grossly underestimated, a tenet basic to Columbusa€™ thinking. South America is called by Columbus Mondo Novo [The New World], a term generally credited to Vespucci. The confusion experienced by the most well informed minds in the early years of discovery is underscored on these sketches.
It is certain, however, that Bartholomew and Christopher Columbus themselves made a map of Central America, for Peter Martyr saw such a map at Burgos in 1513 when it was in the possession of Fonseca, the President of the Indian Council.
The three sketches here reproduced would seem to be that map, because, first, they were found in the Florence edition, above referred to by von Wieser as marginal drawings in a copy of Christopher Columbusa€™s letter from Jamaica, dated July 7, 1503 which is the Admirala€™s description of his fourth voyage; and, second, the central point of the three maps, the identification of North America with Asia, accords with the conception of Columbus set down in the Jamaica letter. Columbus speaks of the river Ganges as being ten daysa€™ journey away, and merely on the other side of a peninsula from where he then was, sheet two. The mathematical and astronomical foundation for the belief of Columbus that he had been in Asia is to be found in the interesting inscription along the west coast of Africa, sheet three, which reads, a€?According to Marinus and Columbus, from Cape St. It is curious that despite this rejection, the mapa€™s description of Ptolemya€™s reckoning, Bartholomew Columbus drew the map according to Ptolemya€™s figures, making the distance at the equator from western Europe to eastern Asia 180 degrees.
The belief in the connection of the new continent with Asia lasted for a number of years after Columbus, and exercised considerable influence on early American cartography (see #311, 312, 316, 323, 326, 338). India, with its two large rivers, the Ganges and the Indus, and with Calicut on its western coast, though far from correct, is superior to the India of the La Cosa map (#305). The suggestion of a strait, separating Mondo Novo from Asia, the forerunner of the Panama Canal of the present day, is a necessity of the geography of Marco Polo. Bigelow combats Wiesera€™s assumption that these maps are a copy of Columbusa€™ map of Beragua (Central America). The scholar Roberto Almagia had almost finished his study (Monumenta Cartographica Vaticana) when Bigelowa€™s article was published, consequently it is an independent work. To cast additional light on the origin of the sketch maps Almagia calls attention to other map sketches of the fourth voyage in a Ferrara Codex, also made by Alessandro Zorzi. From the existence of these sketches in the Ferrara Codex, Almagia concludes that Zorzi, before he knew of the Informatione, already had the germ of the sketches known as the Bartholomew Columbus maplets. Almagiaa€™s conclusion is that there is nothing to authorize the belief that the three map sketches are derived from Bartholomew Columbus, but in fact they originate with Zorzi himself and represent, not the concepts of Columbus, but those of Zorzi personally. Sometime before Columbus made his first voyage a new world map was made by some unidentified cartographer. South America is called by Columbus Mondo NovoA  [The New World], a term generally credited to Vespucci. The belief in the connection of the new continent with Asia lasted for a number of years after Columbus, and exercised considerable influence on early American cartography (see #311, 312, 316, 323, 326, 338).A  The close general resemblance between the southeastern coast of China, as shown on the maps of the then contemporary editions of Ptolemy, and the unfolding shoreline now known as the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, must have been a source of confusion to the explorers and mapmakers of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, when they tried to locate the new discoveries reported from time to time in the west. The suggestion of a strait, separating Mondo Novo from Asia, the forerunner of the Panama Canal of the present day, is a necessity of the geography of Marco Polo.A  Without the strait there would be no way apparent on the map by which Marco Polo could have traversed the seas from the eastern coast of China to the Indian Ocean, a voyage that he is known to have accomplished. This collection was first called to notice by Baldelli-Boni in 1827 in his Il Milione di Marco Polo. A A  (2) The new map represented by the Behaim globe and the Toscanelli letter extended the mainland of Asia to 240 degrees east longitude.
The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known.
In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons.
For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state. In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court.
These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz.
A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders.
A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak. Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library.
These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand.
The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display. The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah. Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase. The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day. The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society. The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs. In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans. Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events.
We provide a short answer on the legal aspects of the question, followed by commentary from a practical perspective. In the US, your works would be subject to copyright for a period of 70 years after your death. You will retain all of these copyright rights even after you sell the work itself (the painting or a copy of the videotape), unless you have specifically agreed to license those rights to the buyer (or someone else).
Even so, to put the world on notice that you own the work (potentially important if you were to sue for copyright infringement) it is prudent for you to affix a copyright notice to the painting (it can be on the back), on the outside of the videotape case, or at the beginning or end of the video work.
Avoiding a claim of a€?innocent infringementa€? can be important because courts can reduce significantly the damages that an a€?innocent infringera€? would have to pay to you if you won your case against the infringer. Registration is an absolute requirement before you can bring any legal action against an infringer. It is important that you use the right form, depending on the type of work; for example, there are separate forms for works of visual art (such as a painting) and audio-visual works (your videotape). By adhering to the Berne Convention, the US signaled to the rest of the world that its law is aligned consistently with international standards. The most recent publications by the US Copyright Office and organizations such as the Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts are your best bets for trustworthy information.
In this way, they enable the artist to earn income from the sale of copies, which can be a significant benefit, especially for artists who work in media such as video.
If your work is infringed, however, the presence of a copyright notice may assist you to overcome an infringera€™s claim that his or her use was a€?innocent.a€? Damage awards for innocent infringement are significantly lower than damages for willful infringement. Mackiea€™s recent experience in court with an infringer can be an eye-opener for artists who forego formal registration for their copyrights.
Reiser1 is Mackiea€™s Dance Steps, a locally famous set of bronze footprints embedded in a Seattle sidewalk that maps steps to dances such as the tango.
How was Mackiea€™s potential income from this copy of his work directly or indirectly affected by infringement? Because his copyright was not registered prior to the time of the infringement, he could not collect reimbursement for his legal fees, which amounted to more than ten times his award. What better way to get some great new ideas then to head on over to Teachers Pay Teachers to check out some of the great resources and school items that will make planning and heading back to school that much easier!! Just click on the link below to check out some really great products that will start you off in September, and keep you organized all year long!! Definitely check back for new updates and don’t forget to share our page with your colleagues! By talking to a partner during math lessons, students are able to improve and broaden their math vocabulary. I used this approach during my measurement unit when students had to discuss the various area activities we were solving.  It worked out very well and it had everyone talking! By having students turn and talk with a peer, they are showing how well they are attaining the concept and then have a better understanding of how to approach a problem and solve it successfully. They also make the perfect gift for others who may be expecting, have just had a little one, got engaged, married, accomplished something great, graduated from school, having a special birthday, a token of thanks to friends, teachers and SOA much more!
I have been getting some special requests such as initials for teacher’s desks, welcome blocks, name blocks and much more! They’re an excellent and engaging way to incorporate English Language Arts in your Science classes! A spot for our learning goal and success criteria which we will be co-creating with each new lesson. As I said before, until I can go into my classroom and begin arranging all the different sections, this list cana€”and most likelya€”will change! A My students were exceptionally engaged and they exhibited pride in creating their own masterpieces. Often, students complain about the outcome of tests, feedback from projects, and marks received on report cards.A  Sometimes, the complaints are substantiated, but more often than not, these students are upset they did not reach their goals when they really have invested minimal effort into their work.
When used properly, social media can allow us to engage students with topical discussions, while getting a perspective on issues like bias and how to use different sources.
You can take a similar approach to searches on Barack Obama, or on controversial debates (although you may want to be careful not to end up with offensive material). Social network trend searches can make older subjects more relevant, or can put current debates into a real-world context; this kind of access to debates can then be combined with other uses of social media for students, from carrying out Twitter polls to writing blogs and posting class photos. Similarly, question how far we can trust commentatorsa€™ reliability, and what sources they use to back up their arguments. Look at what results they would receive if they searched on keywords when in class, and why what they find could be seen as useful or not for assignments.
However, a big part of using these resources should be about instructing students on bias, and how far they can trust different sources. The following math process skills are included: problem solving, reasoning and proving, selecting tools and strategies, reflecting, connecting, representing, and communicating.
Since Lisa, Elita, and I will be working on a TLLP math project this year, we will be using our blog to review useful resources, the progression of our project, challenges to overcome, and successes we achieve. Although somewhat alike in many ways, each piece of artwork was different, interesting, creative and quite unique.


From there on July 7, 1503, he wrote a letter to King Ferdinand, reporting on his exploration of Nicaragua and Panama.
Zorzi, assisted by Bartholomew, embellished an Italian translation of Columbusa€™ letter with these three sketch maps. Before the fourth voyage, they presumed the New World was in fact a separate enormous island. The landmass in the northwest of the first section has a configuration similar to that in the Cantino map (#306). The shape of the coastline reflects the explorations of Columbus in 1498 and Ojeda in 1499. The pre-Columbian world, represented by the Martellus map and the Behaim globe (#256 and #258), was being forced to accommodate a a€?fourth parta€? of that world, America.
The Sammel Codex in the Biblioteca Nazionale in Florence, Italy, relates that Bartholomew Columbus brought a map and a description of Central America to the Pope in Rome, to induce the latter to intercede with the King of Spain to persuade that monarch to grant to Bartholomew a commission to colonize and Christianize the Central American coast. The places which he visited in his fourth voyage, according to the letter from Jamaica, are here placed on the map, sheet one, as on the coast of Asia, namely Cariai, Carambaru, Bastimentos, Retrete, and Belporto. Vincent [in Portugal] to Cattigara [in southeastern China] is 225 degrees, or a difference in time of fifteen hours; according to Ptolemy, 180 degrees, which is twelve hours.
This collection is in four parts and is now in the Biblioteca Nazionale in Florence, Italy. Then Henry Harrisse printed the text of the Informatione di BartA° Colombo in his Biblioteca Americana Vetustissima in 1866, but he did not publish the three sketch maps. Almagia, like Bigelow, notes that Wieser thought that the three sketch maps were a map disegnio de litti di tal terre mentioned in the Informatione.
Because Zorzi graduated the maplets on 57R, Florentine Codex, according to the scale of Ptolemya€™s 180 degrees rather than according to Columbusa€™ 225 degrees, Almagia concludes Zorzi subscribed to the Ptolemy concepts. He further adds in a footnote that Bartholomew and Christopher Columbus had only a superficial and limited knowledge of the geography of Ptolemy. This map was a combination of Ptolemya€™s world map with the descriptions from Marco Polo Travels. This meridian on Ptolemya€™s map was identical with the second meridian and fraction of degrees west of the Sacrum Promontorium [Cape St. This Codex is older than the Alberico.A  Its last entry is a letter of Girolamo Vianello da Burgos dated December 23, 1506. The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480. The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period.
Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets. Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century.
While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions. We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection.
In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new.
There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture. In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an. There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries.
Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting. The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject. This feature is intended to provide general information and does not constitute legal advice.
Moreover, if you had registered the work prior to the time of an infringement, then, if you win the suit, you can apply to the court for the infringer to pay your attorneya€™s fees and court costs.
Some confusion persists about the rules regarding a copyright notice that apply to artworks created in the US prior to the 1976 and 1988 revisions.
An artist who creates unique paintings usually earns his or her primary revenue from a one-time sale. Since artwork created in the US after 1977 is automatically protected by copyright, the rationale for filling out US Copyright Office registration forms (which must each be accompanied by a $45 registration fee) seemed obscure to Mackie, as it does to many of his peers. In addition to names of the dances, bronze plates next to each set of steps include Mackiea€™s copyright notice. Symphony lawyers argued that Mackie should be awarded $1,000, the fee charged by a stock photo house for a photograph of his work. Mackie appealed the ruling, hoping to avoid establishing a precedent justifying low payments for future artists in similar circumstances.
Be sure to check it out and use the code BTS14 to take adantage of the some of the greatest deals!! Ita€™s completely free and youa€™ll be able to purchase great teacher resources written by teachers, for teachers! When we find resources that are useful and done really well, we utilize, share and discuss them. Join in and let us know what initiatives you have in your classrooms, schools and communities! Simply put, these blocks and letters, among other things can be created to match any theme, print or occasion! Some students are not willing to put in the time, effort, and determination to complete their work to the best of their abilities.
Our students are always on social media, so why not use social media in the classroom for educational purposes?A  Read on to find out how! One way in which we might try to use social media in productive ways for lesson planning is to look at social media trending tools that allow you to put together a lot of different responses to a subject. What you have, then, is a lot of content that can be filtered and turned into examples that can be shown to students.
They could choose to paint section by section, with each section have a specific color or they could start with one color, leading into another and then another, creating an overall interesting effect.
Once they have painted the white sheet, they can put this aside to dry and move on to creating their image on a sheet of black construction paper. If you do not read Chapter 2 thoroughly before you read this chapter, you probably will not be able to properly diagnose your machine!!!!5-1 BASIC OPERATIONThe old-style GE design uses a single-speed reversing motor, which is belted to the transmission.
They appear as marginal illustrations and together comprise an equatorial zone map of the world. Afterwards, however, they reverted to the belief that the mainland they explored was part of the Asian continenta€™s eastern coast. This area has been interpreted variously as representing either Columbusa€™ concept of Cuba, the peninsula of Florida, or perhaps the Asian mainland.
Among the few recorded place-names, a€?the Sea of Fresh Watera€? designates the mouth of the Orinoco.
The three a€?mapletsa€? are treasured artifacts revealing the beliefs of Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus. Bartholomew Columbus gave another copy of a map of Central America with a description of the coast to Brother Hieronymous of St. But if the inhabited part of the world, from Western Europe eastward to eastern Asia, extended 225 degrees, the unknown portion of the eartha€™s surface, westward from Europe to Asia, extended 135 degrees.a€? To Columbus, therefore, the Atlantic Ocean was 135 degrees wide.
Apparently he did not recognize in the three sketches the map of Bartholomew Columbus given in Rome to Frate Hieronimo. According to Bigelow, Columbusa€™ primary objective on his fourth voyage was to discover golda€”not to find a strait leading into the Indian Ocean. This conclusion Almagia does not accept because the three sketch maps constitute a map of the equatorial regions of the entire globe.
The sketch on 60V of the Florentine Codex was an attempt to show the relation of the coasts explored on the fourth voyage to the Antilles and to Mondo Novo. We best know this map through the globe of Martin Behaim (#258) There are other examples in the Martellus map (#256) and the Laon Globe (#259).
This extension was based on a misconception of the identity of the lands of Cathay and Mangi as described by Marco Polo and therefore duplicated the lands of far eastern Asia. He points out that the Emperor of Cathay wished wise men to be sent to him from Europe to instruct him in the Christian faith; and he pledges himself to convey to their destination all who would volunteer for such service. It contains the Jamaica letter of Christopher Columbus but not the Informatione of Bartholomew. We best know this map through the globe of Martin Behaim (#258) There are other examples in the Martellus map (#256) and the Laon Globe (#259).A  Nunn agrees with De Lollis and Almagia that the maker of this map was very probably Toscanelli, about 1475 (#252). The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below. In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found. One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R.
His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style. This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century. We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli.
According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils.
The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia. Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style. While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base. Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style. Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence. The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century.
As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin. Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality. Importantly, you also may choose to recover a€?statutorya€? damages (which may range up to $30,000 for an infringement, or $150,000 for willful infringement).
Forms are available from the Registrar of Copyrights, United States Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave. Without Mackiea€™s knowledge or permission, a designer for the Seattle Symphony incorporated a photograph of the work into a 1996 promotional brochure, adding color and altering a few details of the work to enhance her design. The judge agreed with the symphony, even though the photo house had been marketing the image without Mackiea€™s consent.
A The only material required is a variety of colored construction paper, a hole puncher, popsicle sticks or blunt pencils, a sheet of paper to sketch and apply the art to, and glue. It is important for students to understand that only through hard work and determination will they achieve their goals and reach success.
After doing so, they will complete the same steps – cut it out and then glue it in their painting (which should be dry as they are using water colors). When viewed from the top, the motor turns clockwise for the agitation cycle, and counterclockwise for the spin cycle (Figure GE-1.)A simple centrifugal clutch prevents the motor from taking heavy shock loads when starting.
These surviving examples were included in a geographical manuscript written by Zorzi about 1522. Westward on the same continent, Columbus inscribed names for China from ancient maps by Ptolemy: Serica, Serici Montes and Sinarum Situs.
NordenskiA¶ld, that these anonymous and undated sections of a world map were drawn by Bartholomew Columbus to illustrate the voyage along the coast of Central America known as Columbusa€™ fourth voyage. Here he rejects the worlda€™s greatest authority in geographical matters, Ptolemy, who taught that it was 180 degrees eastward from Western Europe to eastern Asia, and that the Atlantic was 180 degrees wide. Along with the narratives there are found in the margins many sketches of maps, plans, and items of interest, including these three sketch maps attributed to Bartholomew Columbus.
The sketches are not found in the margin of the Informatione but belong to the 7th of July letter and starts 19 pages following the Informatione. Neither in Columbusa€™ report on this voyage nor in his letter of instructions is there any mention of a strait leading to China or India. Furthermore, Zorzi had a custom of placing his sketches in direct relation with the corresponding text. The 51R Sinus Magnus and Cattigara are both added conjecturally on the basis of Columbusa€™ 7th of July letter. Exact comparisons are impossible for many reasons, but the part of the China coast very probably to be identified with Cattigara (this assumes that Cattigara (Kattigara) is probably Hang-chow) is 120 degrees east from Greenwich and 138 degrees east of the Ptolemy meridian.
This duplication extended the mainland of Asia 102 degrees beyond the fact and placed Cypangua€™s east coast 30 degrees farther to the east.
The sketches are not found in the margin of the Informatione but belong to the 7th of July letter and starts 19 pages following the Informatione.A  Next, F. These Ferrara Codex sketches Almagia terms cruder sketches than those attributed to Bartholomew Columbus. Columbusa€™ frequent mention of Cypangu, Zaiton, Mangi, Gamba, Cattigara and the Ganges make evident the influence of Marco Polo and his concepts. After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace. Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720). Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application.
The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism.
If you register the work after infringement takes place, you can only obtain the a€?actuala€? damages you suffered. Under the 1909 Act, a copyright notice was required to obtain and maintain federal copyright. The beneficiaries of licensing copies of unique objects are often well-known artists whose works are reproduced in books, posters, and the like. When Mackie complained, the symphonya€™s lawyers initially denied that the design violated Mackiea€™s copyright.
If they decided to avoid studying for a test, produce a lackluster project, or submit incomplete assignments, then they are responsible for the poor marks they will receive.A  By teaching students that they are responsible and accountable for their achievements, then they will begin to understand that they have the power to change their actions and reach their goals.
Bartholomew was seeking the Popea€™s support to persuade the King of Spain to grant a commission for colonizing and Christianizing the Central American coast. Places Columbus visited along the Honduran coast on the fourth voyage are recorded on the first section as if they were on an Asian coastline west of the West Indies but attached to South America. To the south Columbus imagined a narrow isthmus (Panama, later to be discovered by Balboa). The sketches are believed to represent the mature conclusions of Christopher Columbus as to the proximity of his discoveries to Asia. There is also a manuscript entitled Informatione di Bart Colombo della Navigatione di ponente et garbin di Beragua nel Mondo Novo, and an Italian version of Christopher Columbusa€™ letter of July 7th, 1503, under the heading Como Colombo navigo per ponente et trovo la€™Asia, et navigo per la Costa de India de la€™equinotial ver il Polo Arctico et arrivo nel Regnio del Cataio. Next he addresses the passage of the map and the Informatione from Bartholomew Columbus to the Frate Hieronimo, to Alessandro Zorzi, and finally, by his hand into the Codex 81.
However, in this case the three sketch maps are in the margins, not of the Bartholomew Columbus Informatione, but in the margins of the Christopher Columbus 7th of July letter. The other two sketches, 56V and 57R, are perfected copies of the sketches in the Ferrara Codex. Therefore Ptolemya€™s 180 degrees extent of his known world was an exaggeration by 42 degrees.
This false extension to the east had the effect of correspondingly reducing the true distance by way of the Atlantic between Europe and eastern Asia.
The sketches are believed to represent the mature conclusions of Christopher Columbus as to the proximity of his discoveries to Asia.A  The circumstantial evidence to support this conclusion is strong. On these Ferrare sketches appear Catigara, Beragua, Ciab, Vestimete, Giorni (between Ciab and Ciguari), and Giorni (between Ciguare and Gages f.).
His identification of Cuba as a part of the Asiatic mainland is an important part of his concept.
Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989). At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent. The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608.
The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95). Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made. After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted. His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting.
Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced. Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi.
Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam. From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book. Some forms of art, such as video, artista€™s books, sound art, and digital-format art, may be created in an edition or be licensed by the artist for exhibition in various venues. By the time the case came to trial in 2000, the symphonya€™s attorneys admitted infringement; the issue to be resolved at trial was the damages Mackie might be awarded. West of the isthmus, he labeled the sea, Sinus Magnus, the classical name for the waters east of Asia.
The library still possesses a copy of this description as well as an extract from it made by Zorzi; but both these manuscripts now lack the accompanying map, which was long supposed to be lost.
The three sketch maps are found at the bottoms of folios 56 verso, 57 recto, and 60 verso in Codex 81. Bigelow distinguishes between the Bartholomew Columbus map and the map sketches; and between the descriptive notes of Bartholomew Columbus, the Jerome description or version, and the Zorzi Memorandum a€” the first two and the last three considered identical by Wieser. They represent an attempt on Zorzia€™s part to show that the coasts explored on the fourth voyage might be a part of Eastern Asia. Columbus knew Ptolemya€™s Geography well enough to be acquainted with Ptolemya€™s correction of Marinus of Tyrea€™s longitudes, a correction available nowhere else except in Ptolemya€™s own work.
That chart, now lost, had been with Bartholomew in 1506 and was reportedly seen by the contemporary historian, Peter Martyr, in 1516.
On sketch 47 V, Codex II, Biblioteca di Ferrara ailo appears the name of Mundus Novus and the legend distatio ab egno?
He modified the Ptolemy-Marco Polo combination of cartography with his 56.67-mile measure of an equatorial degree. The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life. This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish.
The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting. The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits.
The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque.
In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude.
It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century.


The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. The Berne Convention Implementation Act eliminated notice as a condition of copyright protection for works created after March 1, 1989. An infringer who distributes copies of a videotape or digital file may be undercutting the artista€™s primary source of income from the work.
Because the work had not been registered with the Copyright Office when the infringement occurred, the artist was only entitled to a€?actuala€? damages.
I think I had them at abstract –A  for some, I think it is a relief when they know that their final picture does not HAVE to look like something. On the second portion, these same names appear again along an indisputably Asian coastline. He even included a strait through the isthmus to account for the sea route Marco Polo had used to return from China two centuries earlier. Bigelow denies that the three map sketches are a reproduction of the Bartholomew Columbus map, and that the Zorzi Memorandum comes from Bartholomew. Also there remains today, in the Columbina Library in Seville, Columbusa€™ own copy of Ptolemya€™s Geography edition of Rome, 1478, with Christopher Columbusa€™ own signature together with the mystic triangle of letters he loved to use.
This had the effect of placing Cypangu [Japan] and eastern Asia nearer to Europe on the map by way of the Atlantic than it is in fact.
There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting.
However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character. Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio.
The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent.
Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work. Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence. Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. An artist who works in film, video, or digital media would be especially well advised to register his or her creations with the US Copyright Office. It seems best to study these sketches in a brief resume of Columbusa€™ geographical conceptions and especially of the aims of the fourth voyage and the alterations of the Columbus concept as a result of that voyage.
NordenskiA¶ld gave the maps wide publicity in his Periplus where he published the map sketches but not the Informatione of Wieser. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation.
After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance. By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts.
Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period.
Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it. Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting). The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part. In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India. Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works.
This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style.
Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style. Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. There is less chance of chipping or scratching the finish.2) Inside the lid, on the top right side, is the recirculation nozzle. He makes one map of the African-Indian Ocean sections and a separate map of the Mondo Novo section.
With this natural setting it will then be easier to treat with the various points raised by Bigelow and Almagia. After NordenskiA¶ld, many scholars have used the sketches repeatedly without questioning their origin with Bartholomew Columbus. The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art.
Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art. It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90. The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities. Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures. Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word.
Bigelow further makes a point that the three map sketches are not marginal sketches but are an integral part of the text of the Christopher Columbus letter. Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio). Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well. Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts. It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures. They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures. Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718.
Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing.
When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. Finally, he concludes that the sketch maps are the work of Alessandro Zorzi made between 1522 and 1525. In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time. For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work.
The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library. The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting.
Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works.
In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse.
The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures. In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen").
New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted. The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world.
There is a small inspection hole (figure GE-4) in the pump body that weeps water when the pump's internal seal is leaking. Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed. The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories. Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs. Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks.
Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities. For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities. The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy". You may not see any water directly, but you will see its tracks leading down the pump body.
The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar. To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki.
In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul.
This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician. See section 5-4 on pumps. 2) These washers are quite different from others in that the tub is attached to the cabinet, rather than the transmission. Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595). The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink. The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period. From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat. In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes.
New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404). The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines. One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (? With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion. Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames. The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200). The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision.
The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature. These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief.
Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans. Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants. It can develop leaks, or even shake loose, causing a MASSIVE leak (during the fill cycle, the water dumps straight onto the floor instead of filling the tub).
Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended. The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed.
They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars.
No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art.
Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures. Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced. Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples. Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy.
Usually such holes will appear around the top of the tub.If you have holes worn in the tub, you can sometimes patch them with an epoxy patch kit, available at your appliance parts dealer. It may prove to be a temporary repair, but you can always do it again, and it's cheaper than trashing the washer.
Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi. As of this writing, it is not yet widely available, but ask your dealer or call 800-936-5282. 4) The tub fittings may leak. If you detect a leak from the tub drain or other tub fitting, remove the basket as described in section 5-6. 5) You may get a calcium or detergent buildup around the fill or recirculation nozzle.
Replace it as described in section 5-4. If the machine is not pumping out water because the coupling has come off the pump, check the pump for jamming. Therefore, a locked transmission will not stop the motor from turning, but a locked pump will. 1) If NOTHING on the machine works, and it's not even making any noise, check the power supply. In others, only the spin cycle is interlocked, and the machine will still fill and agitate with the lid raised. Check as described in section 2-5(a) and tighten or replace as described in section 5-10.3) Often a sock or something has jammed in the pump. You will also hear the motor trying to start, then tripping off by the motor overload switch, because it is being stalled by the pump. An additional confirmation of this diagnosis is that if you look at the pump coupling while the motor is trying to start, it will be twisted tightly. See section 5-4. 4) If the transmission pulley is turning, but either agitate or spin or both are not working, the transmission is bad. Replace as described in section 5-13. If the pump is turning, but the transmission drive pulley is not turning, stop the washer and disconnect power.
If the transmission pulley will not turn in one or both directions, the transmission needs to be replaced.
See section 5-13.If the transmission pulley turns fairly easily by hand, but the clutch drum is turning slowly or not at all under motor power, the clutch may be bad. Usually you will hear the motor buzzing as it tries to start, then dropping out on the overload. Check as described in section 5-12. 6) If the washer spins but does not agitate, check the agitator splines. Section 5-5. 7) If you have a two-speed machine and the slow (gentle) speed is not working, the clutch solenoid may not be working.
See section 5-11. If the machine makes a squeaking noise, especially during the spin cycle, the snubbers are probably worn out. This is especially true if the machine has difficulty balancing during spin, even after you redistribute the clothes. Replace the snubber blocks as described in section 5-14.5-4 PUMP AND PUMP COUPLINGA vast majority of GE-built washers use the pump shown in figure GE-4. Disconnect the pump coupling at the TOP end, then the remove the three pump mounting screws.
Then cut out the little piece of plastic in the center of the hub with a knife; this will expose the top of the agitator shaft. There are locking tabs that you must twist to remove the larger agitator from the smaller one. Once the screw is removed, the "handwash" agitator should lift out easily. If you need to remove it, it is simply clamped to the transmission top and to a lip on the tub by two big round clamps. If it has simply shaken loose and not torn, you can just clamp the old one back in place, but you'd better check the snubber blocks as described in section 5-14 to try to find out why it shook loose in the first place. If the timer dial prevents you from removing the timer, pull off the spring clip from behind the timer knob as shown in figure GE-10. The other design is known as a "clamshell" timer because of the curved shape of its plastic housing.
If your timer is defective, take it to your parts dealer and ask for a rebuilt.5-8 LID SWITCHThe lid switch is located beneath the cabinet top, towards the right rear of the washer. Test with an ohmmeter and replace if defective.5-9 WATER LEVEL SWITCHThe water level switch is located beneath the console. GE washers used several different wiring schemes, so refer to section 2-6(b) and compare with figure GE-11 to determine which terminals to test. If it has no continuity, replace by removing the screw on the underside of the coil. I do not recommend the novice trying to rebuild a two-speed clutch. To service the single-speed clutch, first remove power from the washer and remove the back panel. If you're not sure if the shoes can be re-used, ask your appliance parts dealer, or simply replace them. As you look at the back of the machine, you will find the relay towards the upper left side of the machine. You should now see good continuity. If you do not get the above readings, replace the relay. Slide the transmission towards the right rear of the washer, and reach under the transmission to make sure the drive belt has disengaged from it. Rebuilt GE transmissions are a standard item at most parts stores, and they are not terribly expensive.
Locate the right rear bolt loosely in its hole, then the left front bolt, then the other four. Install the boot, basket, and agitator. As a final step, remove the back from the washer and make sure the belt is seated properly.5-14 SNUBBER BLOCKSThere are eight friction pads, commonly known as snubber blocks, which help to prevent vibration during the spin cycle. There is a small inspection hole (figure GE-4) in the pump body that weeps water when the pump's internal seal is leaking. It may prove to be a temporary repair, but you can always do it again, and it's cheaper than trashing the washer. If it has simply shaken loose and not torn, you can just clamp the old one back in place, but you'd better check the snubber blocks as described in section 5-14 to try to find out why it shook loose in the first place. If you're not sure if the shoes can be re-used, ask your appliance parts dealer, or simply replace them.



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