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For God delights himself in you, and his love for you is higher than the heavens are above the earth, and he cast your sins as far as the east is from the west. For he loves you so much, that he sent Jesus to take the sin of the world, and bear the punishment, so that you would not have to! This is the day that he has made, you can rejoice and be glad in it, because the one, who made you, is always for you and never against you. There has been quite a bit of misinformation published for this family, and so I think it is important to put down in writing a summary of the documentation that may help researchers find the correct trail to our ancestors. In this document, I will merely summarize a bit of our family history in Germany to clarify our heritage so as to address some of the errors made by others. Another error that has been perpetuated is that our a€?Hans Martina€? must have been a young boy, under age 16, when he came to North America, and that his name was therefore not recorded, but that the a€?Hans Martin Kirschmana€? listed on the passengera€™s list must have been his father.
But, to help convince others of that claim, leta€™s begin our story with actual confirming documents from Germany.
In this paper, we will start with: Johann a€?Hanssa€? Martin Kirschenmann, who was born on 26 Feb. Anna Marie born 29 May 1737 -- she had, in 1771, an illegitimate child [male] named Christian born in Pfalzgrafenweiler. Again, the above record comes from the Pfalzgrafenweiler Jakoba€™s Church record, which was the home parish of Hanss. Now, there is a very interesting item noted for this young woman in her own parish record, which says that: she was married on 28 Jan.
This clearly establishes the birth of Johann a€?Hansa€? Martin Kirschenmann (our immigrant ancestor) as the son of a€?Hanss Martin Kirschenmann and his wife, Anna Catharina Schmid, who were married about eleven months following his birth. Not far away, in the village of Goettelfingen (about 6-7 miles northwest of Pfalzgrafenweiler)--as the crow flies, lived the family of Christian Schwarz. Their oldest daughter, Agnes Schwartz is the one who is of the greatest interest to us, as our immigrant grandmother, but also take note of the names of her brothers, as two of those will come up again later. Sometime after the birth of their second child, this family moved to Kaelberbronn, which is about four miles to the south of where they were living, and about half way to Pfalzgrafenweiler. For the source of much of the following information, see: History and Genealogy of the German Emigrant Johan Christian Kirschenmann, Anglicized Cashman by Arthur Weaner and William F. Hans Martin Kirschenmann and his young bride, both about 20 years old, began their migration together down the Rhine River in 1752. This Hans Martin Kirschman was the 20 years old father of our American family by this name. In all of Pennsylvania there were only two Kirschman (Kirschenmann, even by other variant spellings) families that can be found in the time frame between 1752 and 1776. In 1761, after living in PA for nine years, and after succeeding waves of immigrants had arrived in Berks Co. The other family by that name living in Pennsylvania at about that time was that of Johan Christian Kirschman (Kirschenmann) who boarded a ship a€?Hamiltona€?, Charles Smith, Commander, in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and sailed to Cowes, England, arriving at Philadelphia, PA on 9 Nov. Both of the above men were thought to have come from the same general area in Wuerttemberg, Germany. We know the names of the following children of Johann Martin Cashman and his wife, Agnes Schwartz, who were still living in 1804 when Martin made his will in Bedford Co., Virginia--from the gaps between their birth years, there could have been additional children who died earlier than this date. Martin Kirschman was listed as a carpenter, and paid taxes on 1 horse and two cows in Berks Co., PA in 1767 [Tax List of Berks County] and was also listed in the tax list for 1768. During this period, Hans Martina€™s oldest son, George, married in Washington County, MD and had a daughter on 13 Nov. In 1778 (during the war years) Men were asked to take an a€?Oath of Allegiancea€? to the new United States of America. There was also a mention of Adam Bumgartner as a resident of Washington Co., MD, in 1778, the year prior to his marriage. I have seen a claim that Martin Kirschman may have moved to Bedford County, PA about at this time and paid taxes there in 1779. As the Revolutionary War drew towards its close with the surrender of General Cornwallis to George Washington at Yorktown, VA in 1781 thousands of British soldiers were taken as prisoners. We have not been able to find any other records for our Hans Martin Kirschman after this date--except for his will. This surname is just not close enough to say that this was our a€?Martin Kirschmana€? but it is given here only as a point of interest.
Now, we have an even longer stretch without any documentation, but in 1803, Hans Martin & Agnesa€™s youngest daughter, Elisabeth Kirschman, or a€?Betsya€? married Jesse Orendorff in Bedford Coounty, VA (or Botetourt County, VA).
At least by 1804, and probably earlier, our Hans Martin Kirschman and Agnes Schwartz had moved to Bedford County, VA., which occupies most of the area between Roanoak and Lynchburg, VA in southwestern Virginia. This last Will and Testament of Martin Kershmon, deceased, was exhibited in Court and proved by the oath of James Ripley, a subscribing witness and continued for further proof and a Court held for said County the 24th day of September 1804a€”this will was further proved by the oath of Presley Sinclair another subscribing witness and ordered to be recorded. In the 1820 US census, there was only one Cashman family still in the area and this was for a George Cashman in Providence Twp, Bedford Co., PA. As discussed above, Catherine Kirschman was born about June of 1752 in Amsterdam while her family was en route from Germany to America.
Catherine spent her early years in Berks County, PA until she was in her mid-teens, when the family moved to York County, PA, and about 25 years old when they moved to Washington County, MD. There were only two Catherine Kirschmans (by any spelling) that we can find in the USA at that time. It is not clear where and how Catherine next met David Buck, but since he was absent from his home in Bedford Co., PA from 1785 till about 1789.
Shortly after their marriage, they returned to Davida€™s home in Bedford County, PA, where this couple had Davida€™s first child, a son, Thomas Buck, named after Davida€™s father. We do not know the birth years of any of these, but they all would have been born between 1780-86 and probably in Washington Co. David and Catherine remained on Brush Creek in West Providence, Bedford, PA for the rest of their lives. According to David Buck's will, there are two daughters younger than Elizabeth Buck, who was born 2 May 1795. There were many political and religious difficulties multiplied by physical hardships in continental Europe during the 16th, 17th an 18th centuries to make the mind fertile to emigration to America. In 1681 William Penn received from King Charles II of England, 40,000 square miles of land in America, in liquidation of a debt of 16,000 pounds the British government owed William Penna€™s father. The journey to Pennsylvania consumed from eighteen to twenty six weeks.[3] The first part was the journey from the Palatine down the Rhine River to Rotterdam, in our case, or to some other seaport {note that for the family of Johann Martin Kirschman, the embarkation port was Amsterdam}. The Passengers were usually crowded, with insufficient and improper food and water, subjecting many to all sorts of diseases which resulted in the death of many, especially the children. It was of early concern to the rulers of the Province of the emigration of the Germans to English Pennsylvania.
From the dock, the arrivals go to the City Hall, sign the above oaths, and square their account with the Captain.
To what extent Christian Cashman, his wife and family participated in these sufferings is not known, but it is safe to assume that they endured many trials. It is on these ship and oath lists above referred to, that is found the name of JOHAN CHRISTIAN KIRSCHENMANN.
The Foreigners whose names are underwritten, imported in the Ship Hamilton, Commanded by Charles Smith, from Rotterdam, did this day take and subscribe the usual Qualifications. Only the names of males above age sixteen appear, but tradition states he was accompanied by his wife, Catharan (whose maiden name has not been ascertained), and five of his six children,[7] viz: Christian, Barbra, George, John and Susanah. On the Ship Edinburgh, James Russell Commander, from Rotterdam, {Note: the author made an error here. At the same source for the year 1767, under name Martin Kirschman, a carpenter, 1 horse and 2 cows, tax L2.[4] The surname Kerschner appears frequently in Berks County records. Martin Kirschman and his wife Agnes, Daughter Elizabeth, born September 14, 1775, baptized November 26, 1775.
This is all the data found on this family, and no descendants have been ascertained at the time of writing.
List of inhabitants of Providence Township, Bedford County, Pennsylvania, made subject by law to the performance of militia duty, taken by Peter Morgert, the 27th Jany. Martin Cashman a€“ The Ancestral File of the LDS Church contains a family from a€?Paa€?, where the fathera€™s name is a€?Martin Cashmana€? born 1764 in Pa.
I know that Martin Jr and Elizabeth (wife of Jesse Orendorff) moved their families to Breckenridge County Kentucky in the early 1800s. Martin Sr's wife Agnes Schwartz had two brothers, Frederick and Chrisian who located in Botetourt County Virginia around 1790-1800. There has been quite a bit of misinformation published for this family, and so I think it is important to put down in writing a summary of the documentation that may help researchers find the correct trail to our ancestors.A  For additional information on this family while living back in Germany (Wuerttemberg) before their immigration to America, please see Our Kirschenmann Haritage in Wuerttemberg, Germany by Lionel Nebeker also available on this web-site in the a€?Librarya€?. Another error that has been perpetuated is that our a€?Hans Martina€? must have been a young boy, under age 16, when he came to North America, and that his name was therefore not recorded, but that the a€?Hans Martin Kirschmana€? listed on the passengera€™s list must have been his father.A  Indeed, the man listed on that passengera€™s list (and wea€™ll discuss that below) was our only immigrant by that name--and he was 20 years old at the time of his migration.
Not far away, in the village of Goettelfingen (about 6-7 miles northwest of Pfalzgrafenweiler)--as the crow flies, lived the family of Christian Schwarz.A  He was not born there, and we do not have any indication of his homeland, but he moved there in time to marry Anna Maria Kuhn (b. To the extent that it is based on the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, there are rhumb-lines (thirty-two out of each of sixteen centers) and two unlabeled scales; also the map features shields and flags over Europe and kings in tents elsewhere. The language of the fifty-two legends, apart from the one in Latin on the Canaries, is Catalan. The oldest of the portolan charts to survive are of Italian origin, made at Genoa and Pisa; those dating from the latter half of the 14th century are mainly Catalan. Scarcely less valuable and certainly more interesting for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth.
However, on one matter the mapmaker could hardly refrain from speculating, for this reason: land exploration had for a long time now outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, for example, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe in the same latitudes.
The shape of Africa on this map is unique, and it is much enlarged in relation to Europe and Asia. That the great western gulf reflects some knowledge of the Gulf of Guinea is more probable.
Some surprise has been expressed that a map of 1450 should contain relatively up-to-date details coupled with antiquated ideas in other areas, and this has produced some rather involved explanations. The merit of the Catalan cartographers lay in the skill with which they employed the best contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, rarely proceeding further than the evidence warranted. In the case of the Catalan-Estense map, whose date was earlier conjectured to be 14th century, the determining area would appear to be the west coast of Africa.
Further south, no discoveries are evident in the Gulf of Guinea later than a friara€™s journey, ca.
A prominent feature of this map is the very long extension of the Gulf of Guinea eastwards, linked apparently by a river to the Indian Ocean, which is given a gulf south of the Horn of Africa.
Africa contains half a dozen reigning monarchs, from Musamelli to Prester John, sitting in splendor in their royal tents. The course of the Atlas Mountains is very similar to that on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, even including a curved northern prong in the central area. With the development of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the a€?harmonizinga€™ problem became increasingly acute. The circular Catalan-Estense map, measuring 113 cm in diameter, is very colorful with a large number of princes shown throughout Africa (where Prester John has been placed), 52 legends, castellated towns for major settlements, loxodromes, ships, mermaids, domesticated reindeer and horses. The northern portions of Asia and Europe on the Estense map, which lay outside the limits of the Catalan Atlas, significantly, contain very little detail. Recollections of medieval maps include the Earthly Paradise with Adam and Eve and the tree, here not in Mesopotamia but in Abyssinia, between the eastern branch of the Nile and the Red Sea, at a spring from which the four medieval rivers of Paradise flow.
In the hinterland of Asia the most prominent feature is the Caspian Sea, orientated northwest-southeast as in the Topkapu Siray fragment, but similar in shape to Ptolemya€™s. The account of China is also derived from Marco Polo, who mentions charts and gives occasional bearings, and from whose voyages the map that existed in 1459 in the Palace of the Doges, Venice, was drawn.
To the generally good delineation of European coasts there are exceptions, especially in more northern areas. In the 14th century the Catalonia-Valencia-Majorca region was a flourishing center of trade and culture where Arab and Jewish elements blended with Christian culture. The far north in Europe and Asia is more frightening than Africa, showing a naked giant pursuing a fox, a nine-headed idol being adored by two worshippers, and a strange hanging head, which appears on several other 15th century world maps.
The entire map has been shifted to the east in its circular frame, thus making more room in the Atlantic for its islands.
The combination of archaism and modernism is an outstanding characteristic of this map, and it is interesting to note that the cultured and humanistic Duke of Ferrara, Ercole da€™Este, the owner of this map, also had in his library a copy of Ptolemya€™s Geography, edited by Nicholas Germanus.
According to Chet Van Duzer, a legend that says that there are three types of sirens in the Indian Ocean on the Catalan Estense mappamundi.
Destombes, M., a€?Fragments of two Medieval world maps at the Topkapu Saray Library,a€? Imago Mundi 12 (1955), pp.
Stevenson, Edward Luther, Marine chart of Nicolo de Canerio Januensis, 1502 (circa) (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1908). Andrews, Michael Corbet, a€?The boundary between England and Scotland in the portolan charts,a€? Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh, ser. Andrews, Michael Corbet, a€?The British Isles in the nautical charts of the XIVth and XVth centuries,a€? The Geographical Journal, London, LXVIII (1926), pp.
Crone, Gerald Roe, Maps and their makers, an introduction to the history of cartography (London: Hutchinsona€™s University Library, 1953), pp. Destombes, Marcel, a€?Fragments of two medieval world maps at the Top Kapu Saray Library,a€? Imago Mundi, XII (1955), p. Taylor, Eva Germaine Remington, a€?Pactolus, river of gold,a€? Scottish Geographical Magazine, Edinburgh, pp, 129-144. Uzielli, Gustavo and Amat di Filippo, Pietro, Mappamondi, cartenautiche, portolani ed altre monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XVII, 2nd ed. Winter, Heinrich, a€?The changing face of Scandinavia and the Baltic in cartography up to 1522,a€? Imago Mundi, XII (1955), p. Located near the territory of Prester John between Nubia and the city of Arin [Civitasarim], the latter prominently marked and centrally placed in the Horn of Africa, not far from the Indian Ocean in which six islands of various sixes and colors are depicted. The circular Catalan-Estense map, measuring 113 cm in diameter, is very colorful with a large number of princes shown throughout Africa (where Prester John has been placed), 52 legends, castellated towns for major settlements, loxodromes, ships, mermaids, domesticated reindeer and horses.A A  Although almost a hundred years later, it is clearly related to the pivotal Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235). The Lord is your light and your salvation, whom should you fear, the Lord is the strength of your life, of whom should you be afraid! 1733 in Pfalzgrafenweiler to Johann Martin Kirschenmann, a rafter there, who was the son of Jacob Kirschenmann, who was a baker there. And on the motion of Isaac Sinclair, the Executor therein named, who made oath together with Alexander Simmons his Security entered into and acknowledged their Bond in the Penalty of Five Hundred Dollars conditioned as the Law directs Certificate is granted him for obtaining Probate thereof in due form.
It was the largest tract of land ever granted in America, under which Penn was made the proprietor and invested with the privilege of creating a political government.
Pleasant township, Adams County, Pa., in 1788, it seems highly improbable this entry could refer to him.
1733 in Pfalzgrafenweiler to Johann Martin Kirschenmann, a rafter there, who was the son of Jacob Kirschenmann, who was a baker there.A  This date matches exactly with the record in the Pfalzgrafenweiler parish given above.
Unlike many medieval scholars the draftsmen of Majorca showed a praiseworthy restraint in this respect.

The earlier draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. Below the Gulf of Guinea, which nearly cuts the continent in two, is a large crescent-shaped appendage extending to the east and forming a southern shore for the Indian Ocean. The continent ends in a great arc, conforming to the circular frame of the map, and extending eastwards to form the southern boundary of the Indian Ocean.
The design of the northern half of the continent in general resembles that of the other Catalan charts, but the northwestern coast embodies some details of contemporary Portuguese voyages as far as C. Taking into consideration the lack of details and names in the southern regions of Africa, we may plausibly conjecture that, as an exception to the usual conservatism, the draftsman, in Africa at least, had removed all the detail for which he had no evidence, to obtain a framework on which to insert the latest Portuguese discoveries. In the same spirit they removed from the map most of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred, for example, to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa a blank rather than to fill it with the Anthropagi and other monsters which adorn so many medieval maps.
The map names Cape Verde, which was discovered by Dias in 1444 and whose first recorded mapping is by Andrea Bianco in 1448 (#241). 1350, recorded in a book called Libro del conoscimiento de todos los reynos y tierras [Book of knowledge of all kingdoms and lands]. A waterway linking east and west Africa is reminiscent of the tradition going back to Crates of Mallos (168 BC, Book I, #113) and Macrobius (AD 400, Book II, #201), according to whom northern and southern Africa were separated near the equator by a body of water.
The mapmaker omits the usual array of monsters in Africa, and the only animal depicted is a camel with a rider, sedately proceeding along the caravan route to the sea.
The continent widens out again enormously, and the peninsula presents a curved south coast roughly parallel to a surrounding sea.
Kimble calls a€?harmonizinga€™ established facts with long-held a€?traditionsa€™; a practice which became very popular from the 14th century onwards.
On the southern coastline of Asia there are some differences, generally slight, between the two maps.
A legend of the Genoese world map of 1457 (#248) in the Central National Library of Florence (Port. Southern Asia, separated from Africa by a Red Sea colored red, has a flattened and too northerly coastline. This refers not to Sri Lanka which appears as Silan (so is not the Ptolemy Taprobane) but to Sumatra, called by the Genoese world map of 1457 Taprobane and Ciamutera and by Fra Mauro Siomatra or Taprobana. The Catalan Atlas of 1375 is the earliest still surviving to incorporate material from Marco Poloa€™s text. Britain, as in many medieval maps, is shown split in two, or almost so, by a stretch of water, which may or may not reach the east coast between Scardenburgh [Scarborough] and Bernie [Berwick]. Countless maps by this cartographic school have survived, including the Estense world map featuring characteristics typical of portolans - rhumb lines, and flags and coats of arms to identify kingdoms and cities - but not obviously this map was made a€‹a€‹as a navigation aid. On the edge of the Gulf of Guinea, a river or strait connects the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans and an enormous land mass emerge to fill the base of the map.
As mentioned above, Jerusalem is not in the center and has no city vignette; it is simply marked San Sepulera and located on the River Jordan.
Circular in shape, with different religious and legendary motifs along with certain Arab influence, it retains the rigor of portolans.
The three types of sirens are half-woman half-fish, half-woman half-bird, and half-woman half-horse, and all three types of sirens are depicted below. Heinrich, a€?Die katalanische Weltkarte der Biblioteca Estense zu Modena,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, Berlin, XXXII (1897), pp.
Heinrich, a€?Die katalanische Weltkarte der Biblioteca Estense zu Modena,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, Berlin, XXXII (1897), no.
This resemblance in the content of the two maps strengthens the contention that the latter was derived from a circular prototype.
For when a man finds a “wife” he finds a good thing and obtains favor from the Lord! 1770 -- little is known of his life, but he was listed as one of Johanna€™s sons in the 1804 will.
Johna€™s Evangelical Lutheran Church in a€?Elizabeth Towna€? (now Hagerstown) Maryland on 13 Nov. Liberty being granted the other Executors to join in the probate thereof when he shall think fit.
1681 in Tumlingen, Schwarzwaldkreis, Wuerttemberg, as the son of Hans Jacob Schmid and Anna Maria Helber) who had married on 2 Aug. The map aims at covering all the lands of the Old World, but including the whole of Africa. Textually comparable are the legends on the Catalan map at the Central National Library, Florence Port.
It is more than that; for while the latter is essentially a sailing guide concerned with coastwise navigation, the Catalan map is really a world map built up around the portolan chart. Thus we may look almost in vain for those fanciful creatures with which the cosmographers of that age filled their empty continents. A thin canal across its narrow waist implies a passage between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
On the west, a long narrow gulf from the circumfluent ocean almost severs this southerly projection from northern Africa. It must remain debatable whether the outline of the southern extremity represents some knowledge of the Cape.
Though drawings of men and animals still figure on their works they are in the main those for which there was some contemporary, or nearly contemporary, warrant; for example, Mansa Musa, the lord of Guinea, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324, or Olub bein, the ruler of the Tatars. The Cape Verde islands, which although discovered in 1444 also appear cartographically in Benincasaa€™s map of 1468, are not featured on the Catalan-Estense map. Nevertheless it is interesting that his islands Gropis and Quible reappear on the Catalan-Estense map in the west-east order of the friara€™s navigation (the cartographer does not change the order to east-west as Kimble implies).
South of the narrowest point, rather irrelevantly, is a legend which may be translated: Africa begins at the R.
The Saharan cities that appeared on the Catalan Atlas also appear here; among them are Siguilmese, Tenduch, Tagort, Buda, and Melli. 1) tells us that some have put Paradise in this part of Africa, while others have said it is beyond India.
The description of its alleged cannibals comes from Marco Polo (III,10), as does the similar description of Java, here named as Jana. The Catalan-Estense map not only incorporates no new material, but some omission and corruption have occurred. One may wonder if this originated as a misunderstanding of Hadriana€™s Wall or of a line of hills, for example the Cheviots. It can be considered to be a paradigm of the artista€™s technique, logical extensions of historical vision extending beyond the Mediterranean to the frontiers of the known world. Stylistically speaking, the most noteworthy characteristic of the Catalan school is the series of portraits of the lords of the desert in their tents, some of whom are actual sultans and others legendary figures.
Other than the coastal cities, only the Dead Sea (Mar Gomora), Judea, and the Jordan are mentioned. Next to the Canaries, a long Latin text, drawn from Isidore and the voyage of Saint Brendan, describes the Fortunate Islands of antique fame. The duke owned a copy of Mandevillea€™s Travels as well, which he must have treasured, as there survives a letter he wrote demanding its return from a borrower. The half-woman half-fish siren holds a mirror, symbolically indicating beauty but also vanity.
On the contrary with real but heedless enthusiasm they set about the task of pouring the new wine into the old skins, an occupation offering more and more difficulties as exploration extended the known world. The nomenclature and the numerous legends on the Catalan-Estense, mostly in Catalan with a few in corrupt Latin, are often very similar to those of the 1375 Atlas. A 50-60 CE: Apostle Thomas brings the Torah-Gospel of Christ to the Jewish Community of Malabar, India who gladly embrace it and share it with the wider India who joyfully become Torah-Observant followers of the Jewish Messiah, Ya`shua. 1777 [Washington County, Maryland Church Records of the 18th Century, by Family Lines Publication, 1988. The central point is not Jerusalem but near the abode of the mythical Christian king Prester John [Presta Iohan], placed in Nubia between the two branches of the Nile.
It is true that in some cases the term a€?worlda€™ connotes simply the habitable, or known earth as conceived by the author, nevertheless, in others, as the Catalan-Estense map, it is interpreted to include lands not yet discovered, but only posited. At the same time, these men saw nothing strange about a belief in the Terrestrial Paradise, or in a hydrographical system stretching from sea to sea. The southern landmass, which may be intended for a separate continent, has no place-names or pictures, demonstrating remarkable restraint on the part of the artist. The southern interior is blank save for the legend Africa begins at the river Nile in Egypt and ends at Gutzola in the west: it includes the whole land of Barbaria, and the land in the south. The outline may be entirely imposed by the frame of the map: at the most, it may reflect the kind of report that we find on Fra Mauroa€™s map (#249). In this spirit of critical realism, the Catalan cartographers of the 14th century threw off the bonds of tradition, and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance. This coastline looks in the Modena map rather similar in its outline to Biancoa€™s 1448 chart.
Nor can we prove a date from the legend to a mountain near the same gulf, which may be translated as This mountain is called by the Saracens Mt Gibel Camar, which in our language means Mountain of the Moon; this mountain is on the equator. A pass in the eastern part of the range is called a route of Islamic pilgrims, another piece of evidence of Arab sources.
The Catalan-Estense map also gives a short caption on diamond mountains, said to be guardians of the Earthly Paradise. Thus the capital [Beijing] of Cathay is said to be Cambalec and to have had an ancient city called Garibalu nearby.
Of the northern islands, the furthest northwest is Islanda [Iceland], one of eight in an archipelago. The anonymous artist of the Estense world map combines details from literature of certain regions of the world with empirical facts about the Mediterranean area. These are the earliest European maps to acknowledge and record the presence of Islamic power in the Mediterranean. To the south the Indian Ocean is greatly enlarged and full of brightly colored islands, but only three are named: Silan, Trapobana, and Java.
Platoa€™s tale of Atlantis is recalled near an island labeled illa de gentils; it was once as large as all Africa but now, by the will of God, is covered with water. Such a map implies several highly complex unknown factors as regards the level of realism aimed at by the artist.
The sirens on the Catalan Estense mappamundi are of particular interest because they provide insight into the techniques for making sea monsters in a cartographic workshop. The single river originates in the middle of the Garden before flowing out of it into a lake, there after to separate into four streams. In some instances the legends are more complete, in others they are less detailed; they suggest, therefore, not direct copying but possibly a common source.
Their descendants will later be persecuted mercilessly by the Roman Catholic Cult in 1671.A Indian Torah-Observant Evangelists travel Eastwards (60-70 CE) carrying their Message throughout other Asian nations to China.
The map belonged to the collection of the Dukes of Ferrara, who since 1452 had also been Dukes of Modena and Reggio.
The abandonment of Jerusalem as a central point is found on several other European mappaemundi of the 14th and 15th centuries. There are also linguistic and topographical similarities with a fragment of a Catalan world map in the Topkapu Sarav Library, Istanbul. This aggravated the cartographera€™s task very considerably for it meant that he was continually being faced with the problem of choosing between scanty and often poorly substantiated fact on the one hand, and plausible and often well-attested theory on the other.
Five rivers are shown flowing north from it, one of them a river of gold, flowing through a lake not connected with the Nile.
A legend on the island of Meroe on the White Nile claims this as the place where there is a deep well, on the bottom of which the sun shines; similar ones on the Pizigano map of 1367 (Parma) and the Florence Catalan map mentioned give the month when this happens as June. The northern coast of the Gulf continues east almost straight, the whole coast of India being much foreshortened. As a result, details from the tales of Marco Polo, known centuries before, can be seen in the descriptive outline of China, with details about the Portuguese recent explorations of Cape Verde, circumnavigated for the first time in 1444 by Dias too.
A Chinese junk, identified in a legend, sails through the water, menaced by three half-human figures: one part fish, one part bird, and one part horse. In the north is a group of colorful islands marked, These islands are called a€?islandesa€™, which may be a reference to Iceland.
It is, for example, inconceivable that contemporary seafarers believed that a large expanse of land actually existed in the south of Africa. The wavy lines representing the water are discontinuous at a rectangle around each of the sirens, indicating that a blank space had been left for each creature, and that the sirens were painted by a different artist, no doubt a specialist in decorations such as sea monsters.
These Mountains of the Moon are stated to be on the Equator, and the streams are called the riu de lor. But as they were predisposed to eschew wild guesses and to be skeptical of travelersa€™ tales, their maps do not afford the best illustrations of this characteristic.A  As a single example, at the beginning of the Catalan period the Rio del Oro [River of Gold], a heritage of classical geography, was made to debouch into the Atlantic immediately south of Cape Bojador. This similarity is also evident in the delineation of the main features, most of those in the 1375 Atlas are to be found on the Estense map. Many of them had collections in more than one place and the Estense library is very rich in their collections of different periods. Africa, to which the cartographera€™s attention was clearly directed as new discoveries were incorporated, is enlarged, crosses the equator, and reaches a southern coast. As these Catalan maps developed, some of them aimed at including the latest information available from European navigators and compilers. It is a tribute to the integrity of these men that their work contains so much that subsequent investigation has proved true.
Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the African coast, south of Bojador. Differences in ink and supposed linguistic variants caused earlier scholars to wonder if two different periods of composition were involved, but George Kimble (1934) pointed out that the handwriting had been judged the same throughout.
This river of gold is different from the Riu del Or reported in the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) as having been discovered in 1346; that is an inlet in the former Spanish protectorate of Rio de Oro. Near Cape Verde we are told, a€?At this cape is the end of the land of the west part of Africa. There is nothing corresponding to the Malay peninsula, only a gentle bend leading north-westwards to surrounding Ocean. The circumference of the capital in Marco Polo is 24 miles, in the Catalan-Estense map 24 leagues. But south of it is inssula [sic] destillant, whose inhabitants are said to be Norwegian-speaking Christians. The same discontinuity in the wavy lines is visible around the two ships on the map, and given the similarities between the faces of the sirens and those of some of the sovereigns painted in Africa, it is tempting to conclude that one specialist painted all of the more artistically sophisticated decorative elements on the map: the sirens, the ships, the sovereigns, and so on.
It is a tribute to the integrity of these men that their work contains so much that subsequent investigation has proved true.A  In fact it is this careful sifting of evidence that constitutes one of the chief merits of the Catalan school of cartography, in an age when intellectual honesty was none too common.
We may therefore assume that the headwaters of the Niger marked the approximate limit of contemporary knowledge in this region, and it is not improbable that reports of the sea to the south had been received.

With the extension of trans-Saharan commerce in the 14th century, and, along with it the enlargement of geographical knowledge, the Rio del Oro was pushed, little by little, farther south until at length in the Catalan-Estense map it is located approximately in the latitude of the Senegal-Niger system, which no doubt, it is intended to represent. Those leaders include, Demas, Philetus, Alexander, Hymenaeus and Phygellus.`They Loved Not The Truth`.
The map was taken there in 1598 by Cesare da€™Este who was the illegitimate son of Duke Alfonso I. A Mons Lune [Mountain of the Moon] is also found by the Gulf of Guinea on the Medici Atlas (#233), whose world map is now thought to be 15th century. The island of Trapobana is much enlarged, and is placed on the southeastern margin of the map. Despite this primitive cartographic approach to Asia, the evidence given above from West Africa seems conclusive on the dating.
This island is surely not a misplaced Estland [Estonia], as Kretschmer gives, but Shetland [Hjaltland], for which compare Ilia de Scillanda, near Archania, in the 1375 Catalan Atlas.
Or that theologians could accept that Paradise, which ceases to appear in Asia following Marco Poloa€™s travels, could be relocated to Ethiopia.
The legends about sirens on the Catalan Estense mappamundi derive ultimately from the so-called Tuscan bestiary, perhaps by way of a Catalan bestiary. The value of the Catalan maps, as commentaries upon the state of contemporary knowledge at once becomes apparent and we are hardly surprised to find that the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) has the finest delineation of Asia Europe had seen up to that time, or that, in its knowledge of Cathay [China] and the Sudan, the same map is surpassed in the Middle Ages only by the 1459 Fra Mauro map (#249). These may have induced the cartographer to accept the western gulf of Ptolemy, but to enlarge it considerably.A  Again, the name Rio del Oro [River of Gold] recalls the inscription on the Catalan Atlas and the classical tradition. In the interior the Catalan-Estense map has the land of the King of Melli said, as on the Paris and Florence maps, to be rich in gold, to which the Modena map adds that it is poor in salt, which comes to be worth its weight in gold. So the Pillars of Hercules have slipped down the coast and will eventually disappear completely.
The surrounding ocean, the Mar deles indies is filled with numerous nameless and featureless islands.
It is also difficult to imagine that they believed that the laws of God and nature ceased to apply beyond the frontiers of Europe and that it was possible anything was there. Therefore, apart from a small portion of the coastline, the map owes nothing to Portuguese exploration. Maritime exploration had hardly begun to yield fruit while the land explorations of the Poloa€™s and their contemporaries had not yet produced a systematic revision of current ideas. The rest were exiled from Israel and scattered throughout the known world, adding to what is now called the `Diaspora.` Judaism was no longer recognized as a legal religion.
They were forbidden, upon pain of death, from practicing circumcision, reading the Torah, eating unleavened bread at Passover, etc.
A temple dedicated to the Roman pagan god Jupiter was erected on temple mountain in Jerusalem. Gregory empowered by the Emperor DiocletianA  forces 4 Million Jews and Torah-Observant Christians of Armenia to become Catholics or face death. A 306 CE: The Catholic Church Synod of Elvira banned marriages, sexual intercourse and community contacts between Christians and Jews and prohibited them from eating together.
A 315 CE: Constantine published the Edict of Milan which extended religious tolerance to Catholics. And may I be anathema in the world to come, and may my soul be set down with Satan and the devils. James Parks, `The Conflict Of The Church And The Synagogue`; `Atheneum` - New York, 1974, pp. The Cult of Mithras followed devoutly by Roman soldiers (`man-only` managed Cult) along with the Orphic Cult (a singing cult whose main tenet was `celibacy`) and the Roman Empire under Constantine amalgamate at Nicaea. They stated: "For it is unbecoming beyond measure that on this holiest of festivals we should follow the customs of the Jews. It is evident that this is the religion that is followed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic sanctity; that is, according to the apostolic discipline and the evangelic doctrine, we shall believe in the single Deity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, under the concept of equal majesty and of the Holy Trinity. We command that those persons who follow this rule shall embrace the name of Catholic Christians. The rest, however, whom We adjudge demented and insane, shall sustain the infamy of heretical dogmas, their meeting places shall not receive the name of churches, and they shall be smitten first by divine vengeance and secondly by the retribution of Our own initiative, which We shall assume in accordance with the divine judgment (27 February 380). Cunctos populos, quos clementiae nostrae regit temperamentum, in tali volumus religione versari, quam divinum petrum apostolum tradidisse Romanis religio usque ad nunc ab ipso insinuata declarat quamque pontificem Damasum sequi claret et Petrum Alexandriae episcopum virum apostolicae sanctitatis, hoc est, ut secundum apostolicam disciplinam evangelicamque doctrinam patris et filii et spiritus sancti unam deitatem sub parili maiestate et sub pia trinitate credamus.
Once the code was enforced, Jews in the Empire could not build synagogues, read the Bible in Hebrew, gather in public places, celebrate Passover, or give evidence in a judicial case in which a Catholic was a party. Canon XXX decreed that "From the Thursday before Easter for four days, Jews may not appear in the company of Catholics." Marriages between Catholics and Jews were prohibited. Day Sabbath Observance, Kashrut Law, Civil and Ceremonial Laws all reflect Torah adherence.
A 1035 CE: Slavic Tribes again re-conquered by Catholic Armies and forced into Roman Catholicism.
They also fought long and hard against the restrictions placed upon them by Rome before being mercilessly crushed and subjugated by the Romish religion. A 1078 CE: The Pope, under Inge`s authority stole the magnificient Church at Upsala, Sweden, which in earlier times belonged to Torah-Observant Christians. As the soldiers passed through Europe on the way to the Holy Land, large numbers of Jews were challenged: "Christ-killers, embrace the Cross or die!".
12.000 Jews were slaughtered in Mainz, Cologne, Neuss, Altenahr, Weveling-hoven, Xanten, Moers, Dortmund, Kerpen, Trier, Metz, Regensburg, Prague and other locations.
A 1099: The Crusaders mass-murdered Moslems at Jerusalem and forced all of the Jews of Jerusalem into a central synagogue and set it on fire. Bernard of Clairvaux, a Militant Roman Catholic, confiscates the Clairvaux Valley-lands from the Torah-Christians, slaughtering many of them in doing so, and urges the 2nd Crusaders to "Kill, Kill for Christ!" A 1146: The Second Roman Catholic Crusade began. King of England, has the Rev.Gerard and 30 other Torah-Observant Christians murdered at Oxford. A 1179: Third Lateran Council prohibited certain medical care to be provided by Christians to Jews. Vatican records declare that in all, 68 Million Persons were killed in the Inquisition by Roman Catholic Clergy during those 6 Centuries. Catholic Government of France under Bertrand de Got, is so appalled at the gross wickedness of Pope Boniface 8th. A 1337 CE: Starting in Deggendorf Germany a Jew-killing frenzy reaches 51 towns in Bavaria, Austria, and Poland. A 1338: The councilors of Freiburg banned the performance of anti-Jewish scenes from the town's passion play because of the lethal bloody reactions against Jews which followed the performances. This was undoubtedly due to the Jewish sanitary and dietary laws, which had been preserved from Old Testament times. Rumours circulated that Satan was protecting the Jews and that they were paying back the Devil by poisoning wells used by Catholics. Killing Mob led by Catholic Archbishop Ferran Martinez, 4,000 were slain, 25,000 sold as slaves. Their identification was made easy by the brightly colored "badges of shame" that all Jews above the age of ten had been forced to wear. Yet it does not deny that after the passion of Christ up to the promulgation of the Gospel they could have been observed until they were believed to be in no way necessary for salvation; but after the promulgation of the Gospel it asserts that they cannot be observed without the loss of eternal salvation. All, therefore, who after that time observe circumcision and the Sabbath and the other requirements of the law, it declares alien to the Christian faith and not in the least fit to participate in eternal salvation, unless someday they recover from these errors."A Pope Eugene IV, Papal Bull Cantate Domino, `The Sources of Catholic Dogma`, Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, from the Thirtieth Edition of Henry Denzinger's `Enchiridion Symbolorum`, published by B. The Spanish Inquisition was set up by the Catholic Church in order to detect insincere conversions. Many migrated to Turkey, , thousands died on their way from starvation and the cold, where they found tolerance among the Muslims.
It was located in the South Girolamo parish and was called the "Ghetto Novo." This was the first ghetto in Europe (outside of Italy). They didn't, and he began to write and preach hatred against them.A (Luther has been condemned in recent years for being extremely antisemitic. However he was typical of most brought up in Catholicism during his era, which is no excuse for Jew-Hatred).
Michael Servetus for refusing to accept Romish `Trinitarian Doctrine of Godhead`A 1539: A `passion play` on the death of Christ was forbidden in Rome because it prompted violent attacks against the city's Jewish residents.
Distressed by their reluctance he developed a hatred for Jews, as expressed in his letters to the Reverend Spalatin when he was 31 years of age.
For as we have heard, God's anger with them is so intense that gentle mercy will only tend to make them worse and worse, while sharp mercy will reform them but little. Luther and Catholic Priests join forces in order to exterminate thousands of Torah-Observant Christians and Jews.
Living conditions were dreadful: over 3,000 people were forced to live in about 8 acres of land.
Jewish records estimate that a total of 100,000 Jews were murdered and 300 communities destroyed.
All Europe was aflame with the burnings of literally hundreds of thousands of Jews by Papal Authority.
They sought citizenship as well as the same rights and treatment as were enjoyed by non-Jews. This appears to have provoked sporadic hatred of the Jews which hatred caused non-Jews to engage in anti-Jewish violence.
During these centuries the Killing-Fields of Rome sent an estimatedA 68 MILLION SOULS TO DEATH.
By it , it had aquired Billions of Pounds in wealth and property and literally millions of acres of land 1840: A rumour spread in Syria that some Jews were responsible for the ritual killing of a Roman Catholic monk and his servant. As a result of horrendous treatment and extreme tortures, some local Jews confessed to a crime that they did not commit.
1846 - 1878: Pope Pius IX restored all of the previous restrictions against the Jews within the Vatican state.
All Jews under Papal control were confined to Rome's ghetto - the last one in Europe until the Nazi era restored the church's practice. They were often supported and even organized by the government.) Thousands of Jews became homeless and impoverished. The evidence against him consisted of a piece of paper from his wastebasket with another person's handwriting, and papers forged by antisemitic officers. After 10 years, the French government fell and Captain Dreyfus was declared totally innocent.
A half century later, the state of Israel was re-born.In 1894, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, an innocent Jewish Officer in the French Army, was convicted on false evidence for a crime of high treason. He was stripped of his rank, publicly degraded and deported to the penal colony of Devil's Island to serve a sentence of life imprisonment in total isolation and under inhumane conditions.
The fight to prove his innocence was to last 12 years.The Dreyfus Affair which ensued caused a deep rift between intellectuals not only in France but in all of Europe and the United States. It unleashed racial violence and led to the publication of history's most famous call for justice 'J'accuse' addressed to the President of France by Emile Zola, who was to become in the words of Anatole France "the conscience of mankind".The repercussions of the Affair were felt worldwide for decades to come and continue to this day. A Russian Orthodox (Catholic) child was discovered murdered and a young Orthodox (Catholic) woman at the Jewish Hospital committed suicide. When the smoke cleared, 49 Jews had been killed, 500 were injured; 700 homes looted and destroyed, 600 businesses and shops looted, 2,000 families left homeless. Later, it was discovered that the child had been murdered by its relatives and the suicide was unrelated to the Jews.
A 1915: 600,000 Jews were forcibly moved from the western borders of Russia towards the interior.
This led to a series of antisemitic articles in the Dearborn Independent, which were published in a book, "The International Jew." The Protocols were sold on Wal-Mart's online bookstore until they were removed on Sept.
Later he was photographed being awarded the `Grand Cross Of The German Eagle` medal from Adolf Hitler.
Widespread pogroms occur in Greece, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, Rumania, and the USSR.A Radio programs by many conservative American clergy, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, frequently attacked Jews. In the 1930's, radio audiences heard him rail against the "threat of Jews to America's economy and defend Hitler's treatment of Jews as justified in the fight against communism." Other conservative Christian leaders, such as Frank Norris and John Straton supported the Jews. Many universities set limits on the maximum number of Jewish students that they would accept. Harvard accepted all students on the basis of merit until after World War I when the percentage of Jewish students approached 15%.
Julius Streicher organized a one-day boycott of all Jewish owned businesses in the country. Jews were barred from civil service, legal professions and universities, were not allowed to teach in schools and could not be editors of newspapers. IMPORTANT NOTICE LITTLE BLOOMS CHILDREN`S ORPHANAGE INDIA MY INDIA MISSIONS TRIP APOSTOLIC BIBLICAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY NEW DELHI INDIA NAZARENE ISRAELITE ??? INTERESTING VIDEOS OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT OBAMA NAZI GENOCIDE PERSECUTION OF THE JEWISH RACE HITLER`S HOLOCAUST BLUEPRINT CHRIST KILLERS???

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