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We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecture hidden in the maze of city streets, the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbul’s scenic panoramas.
Balat is known as a Jewish quarter--with a small Armenian population-- dating back to the Byzantine period. Please remember that our tours are flexible soo if you want to visit any specific place; we can easily add it to the schedule.
Idea : This tour is for professional, semi professional photographers or the people who is interested in taking pictures.
Balat is known as a Jewish quarter--with a small Armenian population-- dating back to the Byzantine period.
Cue Mechanics Pool School - Some league players and students ask me this question: How do you aim?
At the end of July, crewed by Ron and Celia Swan and Peter Heard, we went across on the popular LTSC Meet to Cherbourg and St Vaast.
Being of an independent frame of mind I set off a day earlier than the rest on Wednesday 27th July, just to check that Cherbourg was still where it used to be, and to leave Thursday free for enjoying the town. We left almost on time at 0700 on the Wednesday, a day of the flattest calm, and had to motor the whole way. Thursday we mooched around Cherbourg in the sunshine, and in the evening after the others arrived we went with Rick Underhill and his crew Chris Everitt and Chris Barr and had a good meal in La Calle on the Place de La Republique. St Vaast was pretty full, as perhaps can be expected when a Meet takes place on a weekend which leads right up to 1st August and thus the French annual holidays. All the other LTSC boats left on the Sunday morning, but the weather was set fair for another couple of days, Ron had managed to postpone his various Monday meetings, and so on Selene we lingered on until Monday morning and had a great Sunday lunch in Les Fuscias whilst we were at it. Monday was again flat calm and apart from a couple of hours in the afternoon we had to motor the whole way back to Lymington.
The next bit of distance was the Weymouth Meet on the Bank Holiday weekend of 27th - 29th August, after which we went down to Dartmouth for a couple of nights. Eventually we brought up alongside Jim Seya€™s Second Rebellion in the Cove, on the port hand side where the Weymouth Harbour authorities had reserved plenty of space for the eleven boats that attended. Unfortunately our location in the Cove had caused a certain amount of controversy over the air waves.
The rest of Saturday was spent relaxing, and with a pontoon party on and alongside Second Rebellion.
The next day a pre-lunch visit was made to the recently renovated Royal Dorset Yacht Club, where we were all to dine that evening.. On the Monday morning most of the fleet left at an early hour to return home, leaving only Mike and Andie Smith in Merryl, and us in Selene, both of whom were proceeding to points west around Portland Bill, Merryl to Lyme Regis, and Selene to Dartmouth.
Before departure we decided to fill Selenea€™s fresh water tank, and we were taken aback when water started to come up through the cabin sole!
Once the bilges were reasonably dry again we set off past Portland Harbour down to the Bill and the inshore passage. We continued across Lyme Bay, sailing until the wind dropped and headed us, and catching up Merryl who then tacked and went across our stern on their way to Lyme Regis.
Bank Holiday Monday was supposedly the last day of the Dartmouth regatta, and I was concerned about finding a decent berth, but when we got past the Royal Dart Yacht Club and the lower Ferry, there was plenty of room on the visitors pontoons at the Darthaven Marina at Kingswear.
So on Tuesday we had a nice lunch together in a real pub-style pub called the Market Square Inn, Mike departed, Peter, Robyn, and I played Pool, and then we all went our separate ways for the afternoon. We left the pontoon at 0631 on Wednesday and were alongside in Lymington at 2230, having reached Bridge Buoy at 2114, one minute earlier than my pre-departure predicted time. I am running out of suitable photos, so here is an easy one (anybody with good examples please feel free to send them to me!). So on Tuesday we had a nice lunch together in a real pub-style pub called the Market Square Inn, MikeA  departed, Peter, Robyn, and I played Pool, and then we all went our separate ways for the afternoon.
Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany.
It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St.
The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano].
Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St.
In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci.
A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico. In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance. This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name. In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula.
The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger.
Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him.
Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?. WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus.
Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond. Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets.
WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend.
One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores. The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World. Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history. Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery. Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured.
The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501.
Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement. The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil.
The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections. Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua?
The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim.
An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others).
While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days. The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps.
Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio. That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school.
In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map. The earliest attempts at colonization in Jamestown, Virginia had great struggles, but after the planting of Puritans in Plymouth, Massachusetts in December of 1620, more English families were willing to give Virginia another try. Our John and Mary (Pembroke) Pead, with their young children, arrived in Lower Norfolk (now, Princess Anne) (another record though, says they did not come until 1637). The record shows a Robert Peed who owned land in York County, Virginia by 1651, but this could have been a brother, or an unknown son of our John.
The name of Williama€™s wife is not known, but they probably married in Lower Norfolk County in about 1675.
At a court held the 7th April 1742 this the written last will of John Peed, Deca€™d was presented in court by his Execa€™x who made oath thereto and being proved by the oath of Henry Griffin witness thereto is admitted to Record. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand & seal this first day of February, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred Fifty six.
Philip died suddenly in 1779, very close to the birth of his last child, leaving Martha with a large family to raise on her own. We are not aware of Martha remarrying a second time after Philipa€™s death, but that is a possibility. With his marriage and no real prospects to keep him in Virginia, Richard and his new wife looked to the west. Daniel Boone himself had found a spot on the River where a large flat rock slab made a natural pier convenient for tying up boats, and the town of Maysville, KY soon sprang up. We have been a long time in answering your letter as we have been trying to run down some information. The first I ever heard of was that 3 brothers came from England and bought thousands of acres of land in Southern Virginia. Now, I think this is more family history than it is information as I know no dates or names.
A true and just inventory and appraisement of all the personal estate of Richard Peed Senr, Deceased which was produced to us by William M.
We do certify that the foregoing appraisement was truly and justly made of the personal property of Richard Peed Sena€™r which was produced to us by his Administrator to the best of our judgment all of which we respectfully submit to the Mason County Court. Nancy was the oldest child of Richard Peed and Hannah Griffin, and was born in 1792, very shortly after the arrival of her parents in Mason County, KY. At the time the Peeds arrived in Mason County, it was a relatively small, but rapidly growing settlement.
The young couple settled down and started their family in Mason County, where their first five children were born. William and Nancy (Peed) Waddle, packed up their four surviving young children in 1828 and made their way down the Ohio River, and then up the Mississippi to Pike County.
About a year after the birth of this youngest child, Nancy became ill and died on 25 June 1833. While this almost concludes the a€?Peeda€? line in our family, there is one more link that will be mentioned here. The William White & Nancy Peed Waddle (Waddell) farm and cemetery are located at #2 (hand-written) on the map in north-central Pike County (Peno Twp). A John Peed was listed as a landowner in Henrico County, VA in 1637.A  [Cavaliers and Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1666.
The record shows a Robert Peed who owned land in York County, Virginia by 1651, but this could have been a brother, or an unknown son of our John.A  [Cavaliers and Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1666. Since there is no mention of his wife, we assume she died before William made his will.A  We do not even know her name, other than Mrs.
Daniel Boone himself had found a spot on the River where a large flat rock slab made a natural pier convenient for tying up boats, and the town of Maysville, KY soon sprang up.A  It was to this boomtown that the Peeds came, presumably floating down the river from where the new National Road from Cumberland, MD struck the river at Wheeling, VA (now WV). We do certify that the foregoing appraisement was truly and justly made of the personal property of Richard Peed Sena€™r which was produced to us by his Administrator to the best of our judgment all of which we respectfully submit to the Mason County Court.A  Given under our hands this 25th day of June 1844.
Nancy was the oldest child of Richard Peed and Hannah Griffin, and was born in 1792, very shortly after the arrival of her parents in Mason County, KY.A  Here she grew to young womanhood, helping her mother as all of the other siblings came along. With your own private guide, you will know where to go, when to go, how to get there and exactly how to get the most out of your visit – from behind the lens.
Balat's winding streets provided a meeting ground for navigators, seafarers, street vendors and porters. Not that there was much of it in the first place, but at least I managed to put some water under Selenea€™s keel and catch up on my early season lack of distance. Cherbourg I always feel is a good place, plenty of things to look at, lots of bars and restaurants to enjoy, and a general sense of je ne sais quoi. The next day when the crowd arrived I discovered the one problem with having a full Class B, transmit and receive, AIS system as opposed to merely a receiver. On this occasion, aided by a favourable tide, we had enough wind to sail, and we dropped sail just before the final mark into St Vaast, Le Gavendest, in nice time for the lock, having logged 9.5 knots over the ground on the way down.
After a few abortive attempts to find a finger pontoon in the areas we were supposed to go to, I spotted an English yacht complete with drying washing rafted outside a Dutch yacht on a hammerhead, and asked if we could come alongside. It was a bit misty, and in the usual way it thickened to about 200 metres visibility just as we approached the East-bound tanker tracks. This time my crew was Peter Heard and Robyn Bolam, plus Michael Knowles who was the organiser of the Weymouth Meet. This worked fine - the Cove these days has a proper pontoon with electricity and water on it, and it is further from the pubs etc on the other side, which on a Bank Holiday weekend are very noisy with loud music blaring. Michael Knowles believed that in organising things he had booked specific berths on the starboard side just below the Harbour Office, and he called them on Channel 12 from Selene as we came in. Their club house with its distinctive pitched roof can be seen behind the stern of the motor boat in the photo. During the dinner I did as I had been instructed as LTSC Cruising Captain, and thus, supposedly, a€?the senior LTSC Officer presenta€?, and conducted an exchange of Burgees with the RDYCa€™s Rear Commodore, Ben Harris. We had had a previous occasion like this when Meandering, when we discovered that the inspection cap on the water tank was unscrewed and the tank had overflowed. There seems to be an advantage in doing this on a Bank Holiday Monday in that there were far fewer lobster pots than the last time I went that way two years before, presumably because the fishermen were in the pub having a Bank Holiday treat with their wives. RT conversations about possibly meeting up in Brixham a couple of days later were made redundant by a subsequent change in the weather. If you decide to go to Devon (where better?), time your departure appropriately for the tide, take care about the weather, and just go.
Dartmoor, behind Torbay, tried its usual trick of pretending to be nearby land when actually there were many miles still to go, but I was surprised to find I could see the Dartmouth Day Mark on Froward Point above the entrance from 20 miles away. The Marina told me that attendance at the regatta had been well down this year, which they attributed to the lack of the Red Arrows after the tragic accident at the Bournemouth Air Show, and that those boats attending had simply waited for the fireworks on the Sunday night and then departed. There is a splendid view of the Royal Naval College towering above the Dart, and of Dartmouth itself. My original plan had been to stay in Dartmouth at least until the Thursday, but a careful study of the likely weather using PocketGRIB on my iPhone and other tools showed this might be a bad plan.
We lost the tide just before Portland Bill, and I went inshore from 5 miles off the Bill, skirting the Shambles Bank, in the hope of cheating a bit, which looking at it since was probably a mistake, it would have been better to head out further still. This time my crewA  was Peter Heard and Robyn Bolam, plus Michael Knowles who was the organiser of the Weymouth Meet. Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner.
Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507.
Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept.
He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507. Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?. Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator.
In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia.
In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus.
Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus).
At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript. Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.


The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million. Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse.
Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe. To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon. He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville. The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him. After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover. It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St. This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World.
The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew.
He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin. That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears. He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522.
That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work.
Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale. Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history.
The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits. This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking.
Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection.
Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486.
The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr.
The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. Pead for first choice of his part of my land, of the one field of the (___) that is by (___) up by the side of my plantation and that my sone Jno (John) Jr. Following the earthquake of 1894 and a series of fires that affected not only the neighbourhood but whole city of Istanbul, the social structure of Balat underwent significant changes: The wealthiest section of the inhabitants left the district and moved to Galata, which is the current location of the Jewish institutions including the Chief Rabbinate and major synagogues. Amazing how one leaves an England full of constant media tripe and schadenfreude about Europe being in supposed chaos because of the Euro, how lucky we are (!) that we did not join the single currency, and other tosh.
This was the first time I had had the chance to use my all-singing, all-dancing, AIS system in anger as opposed to merely practice. When they told him we were in fact in the Cove, a rather protracted on-air conversation resulted about the difference between reserving sufficient space (which they had done) and booking specific berths (which they do not do).
The Royal Dorset is now affiliated with LTSC and is a nice place to drop in for a drink if you are in Weymouth.
At that time I had assumed that somebody had for some reason removed the cap and not replaced it. I used to keep my boats in Devon until 1985, and, after I moved base to the Solent, getting back to uncrowded Devon and Cornish waters, family on board, for the summer holidays was the regular objective. I first got there, from Exmouth, in my own little 22 foot boat thirty-four years ago, and the thrill and beauty of the entrance past the Mewstone and the steep sides up to the castle until the town opens up remain just as exciting to me today. The passenger ferries run every few minutes in the summer, and for A?1-50 you can be in Dartmouth before you know it.
The wind had already come round into the East, and Thursday looked like it could well be Easterly Force 6 (which in the event came true). The tide turned fair again just after St Albana€™s ledge, and the sun set just after we reached Anvil Point, exactly as per my passage plan. This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author. Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians.
He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?. The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent. Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America).
In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri. A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography.
Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression.
The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era.
In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored.
By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands. The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike.
To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity.
Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr.
Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work.
Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved. In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi. In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word.
Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty?
It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib. Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world. In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe.
In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores. In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license. The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist.
WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps.
By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. I give to my son John Peed my riding horse and the last [Ded?] on the house but one, and furniture belonging thereto in full of his portion.A  Item. 1740, while his younger brother (in our records) is shown as being born on that same day, and receiving his deceased brothera€™s name. There was always a love of horses in the whole Peed family so you see what the gift meant to him. Les Arts Turcs trained staff will take you to the interesting places, great visuals, interesting people. The emigration followed and one fourth of the population of Balat left for Israel after its establishment. It is going to be an unique experience walking in the streets of istanbul with your camera. One then arrives in a France proceeding serenely along with its usual style, no sense of crisis, citizens always confident that if anything does go wrong they will take to the barricades and bring the Government down, but in the meantime lets all have another glass of pastis?
What a joy it is to be able to lock the vessel the system computes will come closest when it is still about 8 miles away, and thus get a bearing line on it on the screen, so that from then on a glance immediately tells you who is going ahead of whom. And with a weather going tide it kicked up a bit from Anvil Point onwards, with quite a rough sea, breaking at times.
This was essentially terminated because I was by then arriving at the Cove in any case, but I gather was resumed next morning in the Harbour Office. It is more complex than crossing the Channel because of the tides, but the principle is the same.
There is no easy solution, no real port of refuge to break your journey, unless the tide is fair for the inshore passage, so you have to go for it. And you can watch the steam trains on the Dart Valley Railway coming and going - transporting the grockles across from Dartmouth to the train is one reason why the ferries run so frequently. I did not fancy having to crash into that for 89 miles, wind against tide for much of the way.
Other than the fact that we essentially did it all under engine, the wind being bang on the bow and quite light, a satisfying passage. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait.
Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose.
Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail. This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude. All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319).
From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name. Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish. Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland).
His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use. Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name.
Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there.
Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind. The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago. Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean.
Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed.
Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable.
Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. It is going to be an unique experience walking in the streets of istanbul with your camera.E-mail.
This was the first time I had had Selene out for a substantial duration in the open sea in a strong head wind and any sort of a sea running, and I have to say I was delighted with her performance.
Forty minutes were spent pumping out using the fixed manual Whale pump in the cockpit, the automatic electric bilge pump, and a stirrup pump I carry (which is probably the most effective weapon of the three).
There is nowhere to put into (except Weymouth which, if you are not starting from there, is a substantial diversion).
So on Tuesday evening I broke the news to the crew that we would be off at 0600 the next morning with the intent of making Lymington in one go on the Wednesday. This was the first time I had had Selene out for a substantial duration in the open sea in a strong head wind and any sort of a sea running, and I have to say I was delighted with her performance.A  With just one reef down in order to keep the boat moving I held a single tack close hauled from Bridge Buoy to past the SW end of Saint Albana€™s Ledge, about two-thirds of the total distance. Forty minutes were spent pumping out using the fixed manual Whale pump in the cockpit, the automatic electric bilge pump, and a stirrup pump I carry (which is probably the most effective weapon of the three).A  During the pump-out the Whale pump once again failed by the diaphragm pulling loose from its mounting, so that will have to be changed for a different design! The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia. To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future.
On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it.
To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries.
In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two. Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil.
This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World. Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller.


Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D.
It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage.
The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship.
In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg. During the tour the places you will visit ; Istanbul is an enchanting city of ancient beauty and modern charm . Poole, Swanage, and Studland, all of which I have used on occasion, are actually largely delusions.
There was some chuffing from the oldest crew member, which reoccurred during the passage, that I a€?should break the journey and put in somewherea€? (Where??? Also for their continued help and support of Minnie's medical expenses for her Rare stage 4 Sarcoma cancer treatments. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names.
But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name.
In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery.
In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense.
Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages. On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored. He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived.
In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract. 37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions.
But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505.
Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950.
A I didn't put this together using a CAD or ray-tracing software package (the fractional aiming diagrams at the end ARE very accurate but again, weren't done with a CAD program). If you are returning from Devon and have a tide which will be fair through Hurst, turning left at Anvil Point and proceeding up to Poole and finding a place to anchor saves you very little if anything by the time you have brought up compared to simply ploughing on to Lymington, perhaps 60 - 90 minutes at most. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents.
Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east.
While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map.
But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement.
According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara. Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time.
Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business. To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world.
The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection. And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers.
Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R.
They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507.
By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map. Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen. The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns. This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic. In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared. The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America.
And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century. A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci.
As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia.
A Your experiences might vary, especially if the balls you use look like they've been rolling around in the street.If you gain anything by reading this and applying the concepts, great. If you are having a wedding in the future we ask that you support the many wonderful people who have helped them. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. A It's why I put the time and effort into it.A  At my risk, I might add, of making some of the people I play against EVEN better.
The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. Anthony Pagano helped to make this happen and Lauren Taylor is coordinating and securing all the details. Leslie Falerios for posting the Go fund me for Minnie's medical expenses and Mary Legaspi for posting the go fund me for Minnie's dream wedding before her treatments. A In this case, the two lines are one, through the center of both cue and object balls.A Do we need a ghost ball visualization to help aim this shot?
We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecure hidden in the maze of city streets, the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbul’s scenic panoramas.
A If you really want to torture yourself,A  look up Jack Dunbar (last seen in Seattle, I think) and ask him to teach you the 37-or-so aiming systems he knows. We can show you the photogenic side of Istanbul - the mesmerizing blur of dervishes in their whirling dance, the dazzle of the wares of the bazaar, the delicate beauty of long-forgotten gems of classical architecture hidden in the maze of city streets,the serene faces of old men relaxing in the smoke-filled haze of a teahouse, birds-eye views of Istanbul’s scenic panoramas. A If you do, you will likely become very good at aiming shots.A  Even if you don't, knowing about it will still help you gauge your thick or thin hits. In the sisteenth century the tower was used to house prisoners of war, who were usualy consigned as galley slaves in the ottoman arsenal at Kasimpasa on the golden horn. The Harem was in the Ottoman Palace where the Sultan had access to hundreds of beautiful women, all looked after by his mother, the Sultana.
These gorgeous ladies were from all over the world, often stranded within Ottoman borders after wars broke out and a cultural mix occured.TURKISH LIVE MUSIC SONGS FROM EVERY PARTS OF TURKEY SONGS WITH VARIETY OF RHYTHM. Every dog & puppy is important to us whether they reside here or have their new forever families, they are always welcome back at Shamrock Rose Aussies.
We never want any of them in shelters or puppy mills. ?Some pages on our site are under construction. We are busy updating pictures and personal pages for our Aussies and for our Aussies who have their new families. Also your puppy raiser Nancy who did a great job teaching and socializing you and taking you everywhere with her. These gorgeous ladies were from all over the world, often stranded within Ottoman borders after wars broke out and a cultural mix occured.More details,KIZKULESI ( MAIDEN TOWER ) NIGHT SHOWThe Maiden's Tower is a tower located on a stone pile, at an arrow shooting distance from the Asian coast, at the intersection point of Asia and Europe.
Paying respects to those who did not return to embrace their families and memorialized on this wall was a emotional experience the closer I got. He is trained to Task as per ADA Federal Law to deflect self harming, distract when he hears sniffing or smells tears.
Teddy does have a contract for someone and is a sweet smiling dog that makes it hard to be sad when you are with him.
He knew the signs I was displaying by placing my hands to my face and did what he was trained to do. Jolly Rancher Gavin, & Chuckles Davio! We are making more room on this page for available puppies. To see their past puppies individually mouse over the Momma's name and a menu of names will pop up click on the puppy name whose personal page you would like to view. To see Our Aussies on one page click our Shamrocks and Roses page not the pop up menu for each individual dog.
It sounds more complicated then it is.    Shamrock Rose with some of the babies from both litters. BRIANNA New name FREYA is well loved by the Lockwood family! She will also have a Border Collie sibling Bella to run around with at the doggy park and at home where hopefully she will love to swim too. With Harper-Faith's beauty to match she would make so many people smile and bring them some comfort.
I have decided to call her Harper-Faith, I hope you dont mind.   Do you have a number that from time to time I can send you pics through text?  I am not sure how to put them on through email.
She quickly learned how to ring a bell on the door when she wants to go outside. We have set up a small agility course in our yard, and she is an amazing jumper already!
Her favorite by far is soccer :) The kids just love her, and she is getting along great with our Shih Tzu, Nutmeg. I meant to send photos earlier, but here are a few as I'm sure you're curious to see how she is growing! She has a really sweet new Momma and several children to love and play with and keep them busy. He will be doing other doggy sports and going places with them and getting lots of attention! He is now certified as an emotional support dog so next month he will be making a trip to MA with me to meet the rest of his family. He can already come, sit, lay down, leave it and can potty outside (for the most part haha) He is extremely obedient and is by my feet everyyyywhere I go.
He's already a great swimmer as well!I did give your number to a few different people on the beach, as they thought he was gorgeous and we're hoping for one of his brothers or sisters. I hope all is well, we're happy here. Headed to the vet this week for twelve week old shots?!      BRIAN (below) Being loved by STARR! He will be going on trips and being a girls Lacrosse team mascot which his new Momma coaches. You can view more pictures of CHAOS on his personal page under Shamrock Roses past puppies. You can see Jake on his personal page as well if you'd like under Laoise Rose's past puppies.   CHAOS with his new brother  past puppy JAKE! We all went for a buggy ride and as you can see from this picture I hope you get it you made an old man happy. Rosie Jewels is a standard red merle girl who has 2 beautiful blue eyes 1 being marbled and a heart shaped nose.
This litter will be ASDR registered. 4 Blue Merle boys, 2 Blue Merle girls and 1 Black tri boy! Puppies are microchipped with a prepaid Buddy-ID-"mini" microchip. They are very excited to play with their new puppy Twixster Kaedon (new name to be determined) and to teach him new and fun things. Patch may need a little time getting used to having a new brother but once he realizes he is as awesome his Aussie friends who live nearby, I'm sure they will be best buds! We are so proud of them all!!   Teddy was carefully chosen to be a service dog for a young girl named Autumn with PTSD.  He still needs extensive training for this etc. You can read all in detail when you click the link below to help Teddy become Autumn's service dog. You can see Teddy on his personal page in Laoise Rose past puppies. We are asking if you could help in any way at all every dollar will help.
If you cannot help in this way we ask that you please help by sharing the link on your Facebook pages.
Anyone who donates to Autumn's fund from our website will receive a friendship sailor knot bracelet or anklet.
She will be starting her medical training for seizures very soon and will be graduating within the next few months. She has been a little delayed in her training due to an injury she got while at the groomers. She is doing well and has been back in training, We are very excited about this and are so proud of both Weezy and Teddy's accomplishments. Almost as wonderful as being a Grandma :) I would love to share some of them here on our site on their personal pages for their updates, pictures and videos for others to enjoy as well.
XO  Please scroll down to see each litter of puppies individually as they grow each week!  "EXCITING NEWS" Our Lovely  Bit O' Heaven Shining Down LAOISE (Leesha) Rose & Shamrock Roses' Pot O' Gold BIG ED! She is a good size girl & of course Big Ed is a big boy! Puppies are microchipped with a prepaid Buddy-ID-"mini" microchip. He loves to greet you as soon as he sees you being the smallest in this litter isn't a problem for him he uses it to his advantage & wiggles through his siblings or climbs over them to get to you and give kisses. I introduced him to our vet today, who was very impressed with him and all the extra work that you did prior to me receiving Jake. She has seizures and Louise I believe has what it takes and will be a great service dog and help her tremendously. Caitlyn and her family icluding her brother Cameron and sister Cassidy all love her so much!
Their son had a fun time playing with all the puppies too who were successfully escaping out of their new outside pen.  Lilly also will share her Birthday with 1 of her new family members. They have all started training they passed with high marks and are doing very well thus far. Eddie will be training perhaps a little more extensively because he isn't training for a specific person yet. We are very impressed by her as a loving, caring person with a big heart doing great things for many people.
They produced a gorgeous, very intelligent puppy King Blue with 1 blue eye and 1 brown eye previously. They always say he is the perfect dog and they love him so much.They are thriiled with adding Silver Blue to their family.
She has silver running underneath the black color of her coat which gives her a beautiful chocolate appearance. We are always proud of our Shamrock Rose Aussies and love showing them off!  Reilly Quinn   A huge thank you from Shamrock Rose Aussies to ALL who helped us in donating & supporting all the displaced, sick and injured animals in my hometown where I grew up in New York due to the wrath of hurricane Sandy. The devastation up there and so many areas was very real but thanks to you, many animals were helped. I now more than ever strongly believe in microchipping and this is one of the reasons Shamrock Rose Aussies microchips every puppy with a prepaid microchip before they ever leave here. She has plenty of room to run and play and will be visiting Doggy parks and going on car rides. All puppies come with health certificate, first shots, health guarantee, ASDR registered, pedigree & are microchipped with a prepaid microchip.
They are shown basic commands, fetch and sometimes introduced to a harness & leash and swimming if they are here with us during that season and old enough.
Thank you Kristen, Shane, Grady & Sugar for loving 2 of our Aussie boys!  He is very smart & going to be a great big boy!!
XO          Shep with his new Mommy!!  He will meet his new Daddy & big brother Bear soon. Parker will be spending lots of time with his new Mommy Sarah who was very excited and waited patiently for him to be ready for his new home. He will be going for rides in the car and running and playing on several acres with his new Golden Retriever friend. XO                Rose: Red tri girl "Holding " for Sammie, Zach & Angel( No, I didn't name her I swear her new family did!! She will be attending training and possibly pursuing frisbee or agility.  Which ever she pursues I know she will make us proud because she is a Shamrock Rose Aussie!!
We had to switch to several different pens because she kept out smarting us with her buddy Jewels.
She is highly intelligent like her Momma Shamrock Rose & very alert like her Daddy Mister Twister.
He will be well  loved and cared for by his very sweet & friendly new family.  Way to go Rudy!! We may try when the weather clears from this storm, if our ICY BLUE ROSE is up to the task.
I especially love his very light freckles on his nose :) They have np problems playing with the big dogs or our mini Ausssies either. He is a great listener and has caught on to potty training very well with only a few mistakes here and there.
Hughey is very eager to please us and is already playing fetch and is starting to sit on command with only little guidance and a treat. All in all we don't think we could be any happier and Hughey has definitely stolen our hearts.
Dillon & Gallagher went swimming  this past  Sunday for the first  time with several children. His new family are experienced with Aussies, maybe he will even play frisbee :)If you aren't gonna let us go swimming today! He will be active enjoying swimming, boating, waliking, running & numerous other things.
It just seemed easier for people to view them there.  This wasn't something I expected and clearly we love Sparky very much. He has been with us for over 2 years.  After conversing with Rex,  and hearing why they wanted Sparky, I decided to let them meet him and spend some time with him. After I met Rex and Gayle and saw how much they loved him and Sparky seemed to feel the same way. For that I thank them very much.  Sparky not only has Gayle and Rex to love him he also has their daughter and her family to love him and play with him daily which also includes a little boy who adores him and 2 dogs and cats as well. He is truly loving his new family too. Thank you, Rex and Gayle for loving Sparky and giving him a wonderful life and family!
Also for their continued help and support of Minnie's medical expenses for her Rare stage 4 Sarcoma cancer treatments. To see their past puppies individually mouse over the Momma's name and a menu of names will pop up click on the puppy name whose personal page you would like to view. With Harper-Faith's beauty to match she would make so many people smile and bring them some comfort.



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