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A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia.
In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe. According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business. They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East. An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe. Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans.
The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan.
Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns.
New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration.
The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary.
The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained.
And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory.
Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased. The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors.
The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade.
The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English.
The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king.
With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India.
Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy.
One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia. One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather.
His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe.
Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established. Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies.
The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524.
In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France.
By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War.
The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands.
From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean. After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation. After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean.
A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs.
Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China). Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established.
Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€??
The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia!
Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age.
Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia. A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe.
If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€??
Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts.
The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant. Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism.
Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language. The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there.
Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a.
The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient. Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C.
His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages. A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas.
But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations. But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings? On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees. Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross.
After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem.
But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men. Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula. When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God. Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control. As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken.
In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions.
Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America.
Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire.
The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward. De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City. He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river. Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines.
Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force. The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash. Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda.
De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas). From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D.
Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia.
In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves. As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery!
For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate.
The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain.
Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade. The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia. Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade. New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands. Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa.
Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World.
Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands. Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ.
The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline. Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship.
Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline.
The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce.
Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean.
Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands?
What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century?
What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way?
What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain. According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner?
By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands. Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed.
Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3. In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters. A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him.
As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far.
The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path. Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels.
As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs.
As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river. Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings. Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill. According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty.
In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable. My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for.
Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door. Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for. But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins.
Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside! Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times. So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline?
I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame.
But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia. While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam. The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him.
A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors. My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera.
So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights. But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded?
Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives.
He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided.
Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft. Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda). This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire. The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps. Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts.
Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago. Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet.
2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda.
33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical.
34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995).
It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife.
44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a. 49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?. 50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project. Weave hairstyles are versatile, low maintenance, and stylish, making them a great option if you’re looking for a refreshing change from natural hairstyles. Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East.
Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty). They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf. They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency. Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo). China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam).
The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples.
The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers.
Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping.
They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948.
In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name. Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line. But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution. Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish. Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents. By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves.
They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China.
Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes.
Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants.
At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean.
Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education.
Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia.
The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain.
The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas.
He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor).
We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America.
The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon.
Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific. And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast. A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci.
Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits?
Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he? Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture. In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman.
Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white. He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland. Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind. Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God.
In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences. Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English.
Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese.
But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank.
Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags.
As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts.
So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint.
In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy.
Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort.
On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse.
It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water.
Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men.
They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific. In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain.
Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold. They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business.
They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom.
From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492.
Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah. In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain.
What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World?
In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal? Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs? Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec.
Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art.
Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4.
It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions. My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands.
Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge.
And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles.
With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges.
Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars. Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook.
Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures.
After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have? Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records. According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step.
I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken.
Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs. It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec.
So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration.
If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam!
Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet. After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps. The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious.
The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade! Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country! When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled.
First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it.
They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself. No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off.
When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him? The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again.
If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit?
Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him.
It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second.
Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas.
We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark.


They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated.
One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive. The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed.
I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another! On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no.
While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers. Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures. Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov.
The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line. After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art. 3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques. Get ideas from the fabulous hairstyles of popular black female celebrities like Beyonce, Rihanna, Kerry Washington, Naomi Campbell, Chanel Iman, and Keri Hilson. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East. Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China.
It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain. European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia. Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans. Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants. This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia. Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line. Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium. In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec.
In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson.
Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D. So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed. Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge.
It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward.
He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith.
After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic.
Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks. There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble.
He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was.
A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right.
This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses. Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns.
In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost. They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it. And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him. Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees. The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade.
They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage. As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled.
Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away.
Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises.
The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church.
Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea. The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power.
The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer.
Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama).
Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans. The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents. Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch. Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. 18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2. Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting. The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world.
Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO. Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren.
Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals.
I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch!
By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being. A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary. We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads. I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them.
So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr. He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut! After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)? At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries. But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again. Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall!
Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw. After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows. For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime! Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets. Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives. Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP. Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual.
Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him. In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide.
If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance. My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd.
The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes. I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank! From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear.
By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley! If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance. The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage.
Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda. 539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets.
The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels.
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Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations.
Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans.
At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine.
He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580. Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith.
He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli.
Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe.
But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus. However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants.
Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials. They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea. And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St.
He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology. Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person.
Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies. He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely.
That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land. In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania.
Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power. He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father.
The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe.
While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away.
As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies. Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren.
A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces. My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive!
She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence.
Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone.
That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution. And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam!
Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper.
Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda. Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace.
I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly.
In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively.
After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy. Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself. But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing.
These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding.
As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings.
But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend. La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter.
In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp.
Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Mid-length, beachy wavesSensational songstress Beyonce Knowles looks fabulous with her mid-length, beachy waves of hair.
The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers.
A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines).
The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada. Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World. The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes. But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way? At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord. Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church. Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness.
Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever.
All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it.
I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs. For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art.
The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed. I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority.
Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job). Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him.
I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world.
Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs.
I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office.
Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward.
There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories.
Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics.
After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round.
Taylor Swift Curly Hairstyle: Long golden curlsAmerican country music singer Taylor Swift looks adorable with her long, golden curls cascading over her shoulders. Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road. Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands. This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration? I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa.
She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise.
And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power. Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north! So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought. If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking. Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw? Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994).
But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. She wears her hair loose with an off-centre parting, and big, soft waves that cover her high forehead and frame her face.
The blonde highlights are perfect for summer, as they brighten up Bey’s complexion, giving her face a warm and healthy glow. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections.
In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair. Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again! Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate.
At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS!
The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994).
We love her honey-blonde hair color, and the bright gold highlights that warm up her pale complexion and complement her eyes. But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills. From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia. Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table!
Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap. Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. Kerry Washington Weave Hairstyle: Long tousled bob with bangsScandal actress Kerry Washington looks divine with her long, tousled bob and choppy bangs.
Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics. Rihanna Curly Hairstyle: Super-long ombre curlsSongstress Rihanna looks absolutely breathtaking with her super-long ombre curls. This weave hairstyle is very flattering for her heart-shaped face, as the feathered layers soften her angular jawline and pointed chin. The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them.
Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats. RiRi definitely knows how to make a statement, and she has us green with envy over her perfectly styled locks.
First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. Curls look great with ombre, especially if you choose a very gradual fade like Rihanna’s. Kelly Rowland Weave Hairstyle: Long, glamorous curls Advertisement Singer, songwriter and actress Kelly Rowland looks gorgeous with her long, glamorous curls and shimmery raven locks.
Blake Lively Curly Hairstyle: Tousled natural curlsGossip Girl actress Blake Lively looks casual and carefree with her tousled natural curls.
Jet black is classy, simple, and flattering for darker skin tones, making it a popular hue for weaves.
This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods. The curls add width to Kelly’s long face by accentuating her cheekbones, and we love the thick, voluminous locks that cascade over her shoulders. Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary. If you haven’t been blessed with natural curls, you can easily recreate them with a thin-barreled curling iron and some texturizing spray.
Wear your weave in a deep middle parting for maximum glamour, and keep your curls in place with a light, non-greasy hair spray.4. Rihanna Fenty Weave Hairstyle: Sexy blonde curlsBarbadian beauty and singer Rihanna Fenty looks stunning with her sexy blonde curls and candyfloss-pink lips.
Rachel Bilson Curly Hairstyle: Wavy ombre curlsAmerican actress Rachel Bilson is right on trend with her gorgeous wavy ombre curls. This weave hairstyle is casual and romantic, and the warm honey-blonde color is perfect for summer. Her curls start at cheek-level, accentuating her cheekbones and her eyes, and creating a contrast between the straight hair at her crown. For a soft and flirty look, make sure that the tips of your weave are feathered (cut so that they are soft and fluffy, instead of blunt and harsh). To get Rachel’s unstructured curls, prepare your damp hair with anti-frizz serum and volume boosting mousse.
If you have a high forehead like Rihanna’s, add a few soft, wispy bangs to conceal it. Blow dry your hair with a round brush, and then take uneven sections of hair and wrap them loosely around a thick barreled curling iron on low heat.5.
Beyonce Knowles Curly Hairstyle: Dramatic side-swept curlsSinger Beyonce Knowles looks absolutely fabulous with her dramatic side-swept curls and a quirky two-tone hair color. Chanel Iman Weave Hairstyle: Sweeping side-fringeAmerican model Chanel Iman looks superb with her medium length locks and a long, sweeping side fringe. This hairstyle requires lots of volume and hairspray, so stock up on hair styling products before attempting to recreate it. Her weave sports a subtle ombre fade from rich espresso brown to a warm caramel brown, giving her locks extra volume and depth. Make a deep side-parting and comb hair away from your head, securing it with pins or a stylish braid. Create a long, sweeping side fringe by making a deep side parting and combing hair across your forehead. Sweep the rest of your hair to the side, and curl it for a super-sexy and stylish curly hairstyle.6. Use an anti-frizz spray for a sleek finish, and wear your hair loose to show off your gorgeous ombre fade.6. Jessica Alba Curly Hairstyle: Subtle wavy curlsActress and beauty icon Jessica Alba looks stunning with her subtle wavy curls and a lighter hair color. Keri Hilson Weave Hairstyle: Edgy asymmetrical bobSinger-songwriter Keri Hilson looks stunning with her edgy asymmetrical bob and a rich two-tone hair color.
If you’re not sure about going from poker-straight locks to super-curly hair, take inspiration from Jess and try out some subtle curly waves. The asymmetrical bob is angled and uneven, creating a fantastic contrast with Keri’s symmetrical features and her balanced oval face shape. If you like the look, invest in a good quality curling iron and start experimenting with bigger and more structured curls.7.
Giuliana Rancic Curly Hairstyle: Glamorous ombre curlsReality TV star and presenter Giuliana Rancic looks superb with her long, glamorous ombre curls. Jourdan Dunn Weave Hairstyle: Long, glossy locksBritish fashion model Jourdan Dunn looks divine with her long, glossy locks cascading over one shoulder.
Her sleek ash brown locks fade into thick, ash blonde curls in a beautiful and whimsical hairstyle. If you’re struggling to grow your natural hair out and you can’t wait to tie your hair up in a thick ponytail, why not get a long, glamorous weave to speed up the process? Giuliana gives her long hair some playful definition with a combination of soft waves and tight, curled tendrils, and we love the subtle blending of her ash hued hair color.8. Source a high quality human hair weave for best results, and only keep it in for 2-3 months – any longer and you risk hair breakage and unsightly bald patches! Alicia Keys Curly Hairstyle: Half-up, half-down curlsSinger-songwriter and musician Alicia Keys looks gorgeous with her loose corkscrew curls in a half-up, half-down hairdo.
This curly hairstyle is perfect for thick, natural curls as it shows off your locks whilst taming them and keeping them out of your face.
Zoe Saldana Weave Hairstyle: Mid-length layersAmerican actress Zoe Saldana looks gorgeous with her mid-length mocha brown layers of hair and a light berry-hued lipstick. To style your hair in a half-up do, take thick sections of hair from just above your temples and pull them back to secure them behind your head. Katherine Heigl Curly Hairstyle: Short glamorous curlsActress Katherine Heigl look amazing with her short glamorous curls and blonde-bombshell red lips. If you have a long face shape, layers can add width if you concentrate them at cheek level.
This curly hairstyle is perfect for short, thick hair, and you can recreate it by blow-drying your hair in big rollers.
Keep your curls in place with a light-touch hairspray that won’t weigh them down or make them stiff and immobile.
Thandie Newton Weave Hairstyle: Natural curlsEnglish actress Thandie Newton looks beautiful with her hair in natural, bouncy curls. If you’re looking for a soft, romantic look, opt for a curly weave in a neutral hair color. Dita Von Teese Curly Hairstyle: Simple retro curlsAmerican burlesque dancer Dita Von Teese keeps her look simple and sexy with retro raven curls. Use a thin barreled curling iron to create small, tight curls that sit close to your head, and you can even pin them close to your scalp to keep them in place.
Tia Mowry Weave Hairstyle: Long waves with bangsActress Tia Mowry looks gorgeous with her long, wavy locks and eye-skimming bangs.
This glamorous hairstyle is versatile and modern, and the long bangs are very flattering for narrow face shapes, as they conceal a high forehead. Reese Witherspoon Curly Hairstyle: Sleek, structured curlsActress Reese Witherspoon looks divine with her sleek, structured curls swept to one side.
A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole!
Take inspiration from Tia and add a few warm highlights to your weave for a contemporary and stylish look. This curly hairstyle was incredibly popular towards the end of 2013, and the trend has carried over into 2014 with more celebs wearing their hair in side-swept curls on the red carpet. Choose a shade that works well with your hair color, and opt for thin highlights that won’t overwhelm your locks.
Trim your bangs to suit your face shape, and wear your hair straight with a subtle wave for a delightfully romantic touch.11.
Salma Hayek Curly Hairstyle: Medium brunette curlsMexican and American actress Salma Hayek looks gorgeous with her medium-length brunette curls. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Poker straightSinger Beyonce Knowles looks fabulous with her poker-straight blonde weave and a revealing, sparkly dress that shows off her enviable figure. The copper streaks in her dark hair warm up her medium complexion, and we love the soft hazelnut brown tones of her tips. Bey sports a stylish deep middle parting that accentuates her symmetrical, oval-shaped face, and we love her warm, summery blonde hair color. Start off with sleek, straight hair and curl the ends slightly to recreate Salma’s sexy look. Invest in a high-quality ceramic hair straightener to keep your locks smooth and straight for everyday looks and special occasions.
Run a brush through your curls to soften them, and wear them loose for a romantic date or special night out.13.
Finish off with some light hairspray to tame flyaway hairs, and flawless makeup for that perfect diva look.12.
Keri Hilson Curly Hairstyle: Short curly bobSinger-songwriter Keri Hilson looks absolutely divine with her short, curly bob and dramatic dark eye makeup. Kerry Washington Weave Hairstyle: Perfect curlsAmerican actress Kerry Washington looks glamorous with her perfect, mid-length curls and soft, romantic makeup. She sports a quirky asymmetrical cut that looks amazing with structured curls, and a long side-swept fringe that accentuates her eyes. Curls are feminine, stylish, and classic, and mid-length curls will give you a professional and polished look. Take inspiration from Kerry and opt for a medium length weave that grazes your collarbones. Her hair is kept in place with discreetly placed pins, and the delicate face-framing waves soften her features beautifully. Wear your hair in a deep side parting with a long, sweeping side fringe that will soften your features.13. Beyonce Knowles Curly Hairstyle: Wild, sexy curlsSongstress Beyonce Knowles looks sexy and confident with her long, wild curls.
This thick, glossy weave is sexy and feminine, and we love the natural texture and the soft, full waves that frame Kelly’s face. The angled bangs are especially flattering for her long, narrow face shape as they draw attention to her cheekbones and her eyes, creating the illusion of a wider, more oval-shaped face.
Wear your curly hair in a middle parting to keep it out of your face, and keep your locks shiny and healthy with silicone-free hair products. Angelina Jolie Curly Hairstyle: Big, thick curlsActress and humanitarian Angelina Jolie looks beautiful with big, thick curls in her brunette locks.
This curly hairstyle is perfect for long, thick hair, as the curls are concentrated towards the ends of your hair, balancing out thick locks. Create your own bouffant by teasing and backcombing hair at the crown, before securing it with a hairpin or two and some hairspray. Pink Curly Hairstyle: Cute curly mohawkSinger Pink (or P!nk) looks fabulous with her cute, curly mohawk. With medium length hair on top and shaved sides, this hairstyle is edgy whilst still keeping some feminine touches.
Curl your quirky locks for a playful and girly look, and sweep them to one side for extra impact. We simply adore her undone, tousled locks and the subtle ombre fade from a dark and rich espresso brown to a light, warm caramel. We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves.
Ombre is a contemporary, trendy hair color option that’s perfect for summer, as it mimics the natural hair color fading caused by the sun.
Katherine Heigl Curly Hairstyle: Fun, flirty curlsActress Katherine Heigl looks radiantly beautiful a head of fun, flirty curls.
We love her platinum blonde hair color, and the subtle honey-blonde and gold undertones that give her hair extra depth. When curling short hair, be sure to use volume boosting styling products to lift your curls away from your scalp.
The angled bob is a stylish and modern hairstyle that’s versatile and flattering for most face shapes. Keep them bouncy with a light, silicone free hairspray and run your fingers through them for some soft and natural texture.19. Keri has an oval-shaped face, which is the most balanced and symmetrical of the face shapes. If you have an oval face shape, most hairstyles will suit you, but be sure to check with your hair stylist before investing in a weave hairstyle, just to be sure! To recreate this chic hairstyle, tease hair at the crown before making the bouffant, and secure hair at the back of your head with a discreet clip.
Curl the lengths and ends of your hair with a thick barreled curling iron, and fluff your curls out for a super-soft finishing touch.20. Braided hairstyles never go out of fashion (they were popular with royalty even in medieval times!) and they are incredibly versatile.
Selena Gomez Curly Hairstyle: Thick, sexy mid-length curlsActress and singer Selena Gomez looks gorgeous with her thick and sexy mid-length curls. The crown braid is feminine, regal, and practical in warm weather, making it a perfect hairstyle choice for a summer wedding or party.
This curly hairstyle is bold and glamorous, and Selena pulls it off perfectly with smoky eyes and nude lips. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now?
Find a step-by-step online tutorial to find out how to create your crown braid, and keep practicing until you feel comfortable styling your own hair. To recreate Selena’s voluminous curls, make sure that you curl your hair as close to the roots as possible. Use a medium width curling iron on moderate heat to get tight, defined curls that bounce when you move your head.21. Thandie Newton Weave Hairstyle: Long, thick bobEnglish actress Thandie (Thandiwe) Newton looks gorgeous with her long, thick bob and a stylish side fringe. Alicia Keys Curly Hairstyle: Medium length corkscrew curlsMulti-talented singer and musician Alicia Keys looks stunning with her shoulder-length corkscrew curls.
We love the layers towards the tips of her locks, and the gorgeous, healthy shine that brings out her rich espresso-brown hair color.


If you’re not sure whether to go for a short weave or a super-long one, why not compromise and choose a mid-length hairstyle like a long bob? For tight, bouncy corkscrew curls, use a thin barreled curling iron and wrap sections of hair tightly around it for extra definition.22. Candice Swanepoel Curly Hairstyle: Bold blonde bombshell curlsSouth African-born model Candice Swanepoel is a picture of perfection with her bold, blonde-bombshell curls. Naomi Campbell Weave Hairstyle: Poker-straight bob with blunt bangsFormer British supermodel Naomi Campbell looks amazing with her poker straight bob and blunt bangs. Her super-long locks have been swept to one side and styled in big, delicate curls that frame her face and soften her jawline. For smooth, perfect curls, prepare your hair with anti frizz shampoo, conditioner, and hair serum. The long bangs accentuate Naomi’s fabulous cheekbones, and she further emphasizes her eyes with smoky eye-shadow and super-long lashes. Then, use a flat iron to smooth out your hair, and a curling iron to create gorgeous, ribbon-like curls.23. Invest in a high-quality ceramic hair straightener to keep your weave poker-straight and sleek, and use a light, non-greasy hairspray to tame flyaway hairs. Rihanna Curly Hairstyle: Fiery red spiral curlsBarbadian beauty and singer Rihanna looks phenomenal with her fire-engine red spiral curls. Avoid hair styling products that contain silicone, as they can leave hair looking limp and greasy.20. RiRi certainly knows how to make a style statement, and we love the deep shade of red she’s chosen for her locks. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Low ponytailSongstress Beyonce Knowles looks fierce with her highlighted locks in a sassy low ponytail. If you’re keen to dye your naturally curly hair, bear in mind that color treatments can be drying and damaging for your hair.
Invest in some color protection hair care products, and treat your locks to a nourishing hair mask once a week.24.
If you want long, straight hair without relaxing or damaging your natural locks, then a weave is the perfect choice. Jessica Alba Curly Hairstyle: Glam wavy curlsActress and beauty icon Jessica Alba looks divine with her glamorous wavy curls. Choose a high quality human hair weave, and don’t leave it in for longer than 3 months, as you risk damaging your hair permanently.
Once again sporting a side-swept style, she keeps her look polished and sophisticated with sleek, glossy locks. Take inspiration from Jess and add a few very thin highlights to your brunette locks to brighten up your complexion.25. Halle Berry Weave Hairstyle: Tousled bob Actress Halle Berry looks gorgeous with her short, tousled bob and summery blonde highlights. A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience? This weave hairstyle is very flattering for Halle’s heart-shaped face, as the curls and layers soften her angular jawline whilst drawing attention away from her slightly pointed chin. To recreate this casual and feminine curly hairstyle, use volume boosting styling products and blow-dry your hair with a round brush. Short hair can be incredibly feminine, and short hairstyles are perfect for spring and summer. Then, create loose curls with a thick barreled curling iron and pull your hair back into a simple up’do. Lauren Conrad Curly Hairstyle: Long, twisted curlsReality TV personality and fashion designer Lauren Conrad looks gorgeous with subtle twisted curls in her long ombre locks. She takes a break from her signature afro hairstyle and opts for a long, jet-black weave with loads of pretty, playful curls.
This is a great curly hairstyle for girls with straight hair, as it’s easy to recreate with a curling iron and a bit of hairspray. Create your own curls at home with a thick-barreled curling iron on low heat, and set your curls with a light hairspray.
Simply twist hair around your curling iron and fluff it out afterwards for beautiful, textured curls. If you get a curly weave, you can always straighten out your curls with a ceramic flat iron – just make sure that your weave is made from human hair, otherwise your locks might melt!23. Keri Hilson Weave Hairstyle: Quirky, asymmetrical bobAmerican singer, songwriter, and actress Keri Hilson looks fabulous with her quirky, asymmetrical bob. Tamera Mowry Curly Hairstyle: Mid-length natural curlsIf you’ve got gorgeous natural curls, flaunt them! We love absolutely everything about this hairstyle – the uneven lengths, the pretty, flipped bangs, her honey blonde hair color with its caramel undertones, and the super-smooth texture of her locks.
Actress Tamera Mowry shows off her beautiful mid-length natural curls by wearing them loose and pinned back at the crown. This weave hairstyle is full of glamour and personality, making it perfect for a special occasion or fancy event.
Condition your hair regularly, and use silicone free hair products, as silicone can weigh down hair and make it look greasy. Rihanna Fenty Weave Hairstyle: Super-long ombre curlsBarbadian singer Rihanna looks phenomenal with her super-long ombre curls and bold, cherry-red lipstick.
We love how her hair color fades gradually from a rich espresso brown into a gold-streaked caramel blonde – simply divine. Olivia Munn Curly Hairstyle: Thick, tubular curlsAmerican actress Olivia Munn looks divine with her thick, mid-length tubular curls.
Long hair can be hard to take care of – especially considering the amount of time, hair products, and money spent keeping it in tip-top condition – so choose wisely before getting a super-long weave!
This curly hairstyle is perfect for naturally thick and straight hair, as only the ends are curled, making it much easier to style.
Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? You can always trim your weave when you get tired of the length, but it may be more affordable to choose a sensible length to begin with. Remove the curling iron by pulling it downwards, and you should be left with gorgeous tubular curls.29. Chanel Iman Weave Hairstyle: Half-up hairdoAmerican model Chanel Iman looks gorgeous with her brunette locks in a simple, half-up hairdo. Lea Michele Curly Hairstyle: Tousled, layered curlsGlee actress and singer Lea Michele looks radiantly beautiful with her tousled, layered curls and long, choppy bangs.
The half-up hairdo combines the best of both worlds with half the hair worn in a chic up’do, and the other half worn carefree and loose.
This weave hairstyle is contemporary and practical, and it’s a great look for any occasion. To recreate this hairstyle at home, simply take a section of hair from each temple, smooth both sections back, and secure them behind your head discreetly with a hairpin or two.
This is a great curly hairstyle for super-long hair, as the layers and curls give your locks more definition and character.30.
Julianne Hough Curly Hairstyle: Rolled retro curlsSafe Haven actress Julianne Hough looks divine with her rolled retro curls.
Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Side-swept curlsSinger and actress Beyonce Knowles looks fantastic with her glamorous, side-swept curls and a bold reverse ombre fade. This perfectly coiffed, polished ‘do is great for formal evenings or a wedding, as it is delicate and glamorous. Side swept hairstyles have been trending on the red carpet this year, with side-swept curls being a preferred style by the stars. It is, however, quite difficult to style, so be prepared to spend a few hours with heat styling equipment and hairspray.
Alternatively, you could take this picture along to your hairdresser, and get it done professionally (with a lot less tears).31. Tyra Banks Weave Hairstyle: Poker-straight with blunt bangsFormer supermodel and current TV personality Tyra Banks looks fierce with her poker-straight locks and blunt bangs. She’s chosen structured spiral curls that form gorgeous ringlets, and a sweeping side fringe that accentuates her eyes. She sports super-long bangs that skim her eyes whilst cleverly concealing her high forehead, and we love the smooth, silky texture of her locks . Hair accessories are a great way to update a simple hairstyle – look out for pretty headbands, metallic hair slides, and interesting hair ties to give your hairstyle some extra character. You can even tuck a freshly picked flower behind your ear for a whimsical, romantic touch.32.
Thandie Newton Weave Hairstyle: Soft, wispy layersBritish actress Thandie Newton looks utterly gorgeous with her soft, wispy layers of hair. Beyonce Knowles Curly Hairstyle: Long, wispy curlsSongstress Beyonce Knowles looks gorgeous with her long, wispy curls worn loose and fluffy. We love her warm mocha-brown hair color, the soft texture of her hair, and the subtle, flattering layers that frame her face.
She wears them with a middle parting to keep them out of her face, and her curls are extra defined at cheek-level to accentuate her cheekbones and her eyes.
When choosing a hair color for your weave, take into consideration your complexion, your natural hair color, and your eye color. Your chosen hue should complement your complexion by brightening your skin tone and accentuating your eyes. Blake Lively Curly Hairstyle: Big side-swept Hollywood curlsGossip Girl actress Blake Lively looks absolutely divine with her big, side-swept Hollywood curls.
Rihanna Fenty Weave Hairstyle: Curled, voluminous bobSinger, songwriter and fashion icon Rihanna Fenty looks superb with her curled, voluminous bob in a vibrant shade of bright red. To recreate the hairstyle at home, start by using volume boosting hair care products and blow-drying your hair in rollers.
Rihanna Curly Hairstyle: Messy blonde curlsSinger-songwriter Rihanna looks gorgeous with her messy, mid-length blonde curls.
Use volume boosting mousse when styling, and try blow drying your locks in curlers or with a round brush. Ever the hair color chameleon, RiRi has chosen a rich honey blonde hair color that suits her dark complexion. Keep your side fringe in place with some light hairspray, and finish off your look with shimmery eye-shadow, peachy cheeks, long lashes, and glossy lips for extra impact.30.
To get her textured beachy curls, try braiding your hair and sleeping with the braids in overnight. Alicia Keys Weave Hairstyle: Thick, romantic curlsSinger, songwriter, and musician Alicia Keys looks stunning with her thick, romantic brunette curls.
Alicia takes a break from her edgy braided hairstyles and indulges in some classic glamour with long, voluminous locks and seductive eye makeup. Minka Kelly Curly Hairstyle: Loose, natural curlsActress Minka Kelly has nailed the girl-next-door look with her loose, natural curls. If you’re looking for a pretty and elegant everyday weave hairstyle, this is a great option.
Solid hair colors look the most natural, so stick to one hue if you’re looking for a simple and classic style. Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest. You can always style your hair differently for a special occasion – simply use heat styling tools to straighten or curl your hair, and add an embellishment or two for extra glamour. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Tousled platinum locksSinger Beyonce Knowles looks phenomenal with her tousled platinum blonde locks and bombshell red lips.
Cheryl Cole Curly Hairstyle: Tousled mid-length curlsSinger-songwriter Cheryl Cole looks divine with her tousled mid-length curly hairstyle. This super-long weave is full of sex appeal, and we love that Bey’s kept her dark roots for a stunning color contrast.
This is the perfect curly hairstyle for thick locks, as the curls give your hair some much-needed definition. Lighter hair looks amazing in summer, especially if you plan on spending a lot of time at the beach. For a softer look, opt for more natural curls with loads of texture, and choose a romantic color palette of pastels for your makeup.32.
Kelly Rowland Weave Hairstyle: Straight and fineSinger-songwriter Kelly Rowland looks fabulous with her straight, fine weave and long choppy bangs.
Lily Cole Curly Hairstyle: Big, voluminous curlsEnglish actress and model Lily Cole looks divine with her big, voluminous curls.
She’s right on trend with her long bob, and the length of her weave hairstyle is very flattering for her long, oval-shaped face.
If you have naturally thick and curly hair, it’s best to keep heat styling to a minimum as it damages and dries out hair. Keep your curly hair healthy and well hydrated with hair care products specially for curly hair, and it’ll be a lot more manageable and easier to style.
Take inspiration from Kelly and add a few complementary highlights to your hair for a contemporary twist. Emma Stone Curly Hairstyle: Soft, wispy curlsActress Emma Stone looks gorgeous with her short, soft, wispy curls and and a small side fringe. Kerry Washington Weave Hairstyle: Side-swept curls with mahogany streaksScandal actress Kerry Washington looks fabulous with her side-swept curls and a few bold mahogany streaks in her locks.
She seems to suit every hair color, and we think that she looks particularly striking as a blonde. She sports a faux side-shaved hairstyle by wearing her hair scraped back on one side, and her curls piled up on the other.
Use a texturizing spray and run your fingers through your hair for naturally tousled, wispy curls.39.
If you don’t want permanent color streaks in your hair, you can use hair chalk to brighten up your look. Emmy Rossum Curly Hairstyle: Cute cascading curlsAmerican actress and singer-songwriter Emmy Rossum looks gorgeous with her cute cascading curls. She wears them with a stylish side parting, and she lets a few curls stray from the rest to frame her face. If you have natural curls, it’s important not to subject them to excessive heat styling. Chanel Iman Weave Hairstyle: Mid-length locksAmerican model Chanel Iman looks divine with her layered, mid-length locks.
There are many no-heat styling ideas, such as braiding hair or twisting it, and your hair will look fantastic without the damage caused by heat styling.40.
Her deep side parting gives her hairstyle a touch of glamour, and we love the fine, tousled, side-swept layers that frame her face. Jessica Biel Curly Hairstyle: Mid-length tendrilsActress Jessica Biel looks stunning with mid-length, tendril-like curls. Fine hair can be tricky to keep in place, so buy a light hairspray to help you tame your locks. Use a flat iron to get your fringe sleek and straight, and a thin-barreled curling iron to create tiny tendril-like curls to frame your face.41.
Rita Ora Curly Hairstyle: Fluffy platinum blonde curlsSinger Rita Ora looks strikingly beautiful with her fluffy platinum blonde curls and bright red lippy. Rihanna Fenty Weave Hairstyle: Sexy pixie cropSongstress Rihanna looks smoking hot with her jet black pixie cut. This hairstyle is all about volume and texture – make sure that your curls are big and fluffy by skipping the anti-frizz serum, and try out rollers in your hair when blow-drying.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! This short weave hairstyle is modern, sexy, and playful, and we think that Rihanna totally rocks it.
Wear your hair with a side-parting to keep your big curls out of your face, and use some light hairspray to keep it in place.42. The long, sweeping bangs add to this hairstyle’s sex appeal, and we love how the angled edges accentuate her eyes. Corrine Bailey Rae Curly Hairstyle: Fabulous natural curlsWe are super-envious of British singer-songwriter Corrine Bailey Rae’s natural curls!
This haircut suits most face shapes, although you’ll need to alter your weave slightly to suit your own face shape. She wears her halo of springy curls piled up on one side of her head, creating a contemporary and quirky hairstyle.
Take inspiration from Rihanna and show off your bold, confident personality with an edgy and sexy haircut and bright makeup.36. The trick for recreating this style is to use discreet hair pins and ties to keep your hair in place.
Kali Hawk Weave Hairstyle: Long, loose wavesAmerican actress, comedian, and model Kali Hawk looks stunning with her long, loose waves of hair.
She sports perfectly integrated highlights and tousled layers that add volume to her long locks. Olivia Palermo Curly Hairstyle: Thick, wavy curlsReality TV personality and socialite Olivia Palermo looks superb with her thick, wavy curls. Take inspiration from Kali and start adding highlights to your weave at cheek level – this will accentuate your cheekbones and draw attention to your eyes. This hairstyle is perfect for thick, straight hair, as the curls are very subtle (more like waves, really), and it requires minimal styling. Olivia Wilde Curly Hairstyle: Casual tousled curlsActress Olivia Wilde looks phenomenal with her long, casually tousled curls and a trending ombre fade. If you have naturally thin hair that is hard to style, then a thick, voluminous weave is an easy solution. Olivia’s curls soften her strong jawline, making this a very flattering hairstyle for square shaped faces. Choose a manageable length and thickness (bust length is best) to minimize the time needed to style your hair each day. If you have naturally straight hair, start curling your hair just below your jawline for best results.45.
Super-long curls may look fabulous, but you’ll soon grow weary of washing, brushing, and styling them for hours every day. Invest in a few hair styling tools and vary your weave hairstyle slightly whenever you get bored – and, you can always trim your weave for a shorter, more updated style!38. Rihanna Fenty Weave Hairstyle: Brunette bobSongstress Rihanna Fenty looks gorgeous with her sleek and sexy brunette bob. For soft and romantic hair texture like Taylor’s, skip the anti-frizz serum and work some texturizing spray into your hair with your fingertips. This may be one of her tamer weave hairstyles (see her bold fire-engine red ‘do a few points back), but it still turns heads. We love the fine texture of her hair, and the subtle golden highlights that brighten up her medium complexion.
Tyra Banks Curly Hairstyle: Soft, wavy curlsFormer supermodel and TV show hostess Tyra Banks looks fabulous with her long, soft, wavy curls.
When you get your weave, ask your stylist to feather the ends of the hair for a soft and romantic touch.39.
Tyra knows exactly how to work with her face shape – the middle parting is very flattering for her oval-shaped face, and the symmetrical waves partially conceal her high forehead. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Asymmetrical, angled bobSinger, songwriter, and actress Beyonce Knowles rocks a short, asymmetrical and angular bob in a light shade of blonde. Take inspiration from Tyra and get a few highlights in your curly hair to brighten up your complexion.47.
Amber Heard Curly Hairstyle: Thick, dreamy curlsSultry actress Amber Heard looks drop-dead gorgeous with her thick, dreamy blonde curls. She sports a long side-swept fringe that frames her face beautifully, and a shallow side-parting that keeps her hair from overwhelming her face. Keep the length of your hair uneven for an edgy look, and choose a flattering hair color that suits your complexion.40. To recreate Amber’s luscious curly hairstyle, start off by pumping your hair full of volume. Tika Sumpter Weave Hairstyle: Sleek topknot bunAmerican actress, singer, and model Tika Sumpter looks gorgeous with her long raven locks up in a sleek topknot bun. Use volume boosting shampoo, conditioner, and mousse, and then blow-dry your hair with a round brush before curling.48.
If you have a long, straight weave, you have many styling possibilities, including fancy up’dos and bun hairstyles.
Blake Lively Curly Hairstyle: Soft, sophisticated curlsGossip Girl actress Blake Lively looks divine with her soft, sophisticated curls. She wears her thick hair in a side parting, with a side fringe that has been teased at the roots for extra volume.
When you can’t bear to have your hair in your face in summer, simply wind it up into a high bun and secure it with a discreet hair tie. You can also wind a section of hair around the base of the bun to conceal the hair tie, or add a pretty hair accessory for extra glamour.41. Kerry Washington Weave Hairstyle: Sexy waves and side fringeScandal actress Kerry Washington looks divine with her dark hair in sexy waves, and we love her flattering side-fringe. Solange Knowles Curly Hairstyle: Big, bold natural curlsSinger and style icon Solange Knowles looks absolutely phenomenal with her big, bold head of natural curls. If you have a long face and high forehead like Kerry’s, a side fringe or bangs can be extremely flattering. She wears them loose with a middle parting, and she keeps her makeup minimal for extra impact. Fringes and bangs conceal a high forehead, drawing attention back down to the lower half of your face. Keep your natural curls healthy by using silicone free moisturizing hair products, and ditch the heat styling, as it damages and dries out your hair.50. Adjust the bangs on your weave according to the height of your forehead – the higher your forehead, the longer your bangs. Bella Thorne Curly Hairstyle: Soft, romantic curlsTeen model and actress Bella Thorne looks beautiful with her half-up hairdo and soft, romantic curls. Kelly Rowland Weave Hairstyle: Super long blunt bangsSinger, songwriter, and actress Kelly Rowland looks superb with her long, wavy locks and super-long blunt bangs. Not everyone can carry off such a heavy fringe, but Kelly rocks this style by keeping her locks slightly thinner towards the ends.
Kelly Osbourne Curly Hairstyle: Side-swept lavender curlsFashion TV presenter Kelly Osbourne looks gorgeous with her quirky side-swept lavender curls. To get Kelly’s casual waves, wrap thin sections of hair around a thick-barreled curling iron on low heat.
Once you’ve made loose curls, brush them out gently to create soft, unstructured waves. If you have blonde hair, consider getting some pastel streaks, or use pastel hair chalk for some temporary, colorful whimsy.52. Marion Cotillard Curly Hairstyle: Classic curly bobFrench actress and singer Marion Cotillard looks chic and feminine with her classic curly bob.
Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Big, bouncy curlsSongstress Beyonce Knowles looks fabulous with her signature big, bouncy curls. The bob is making a comeback this year, with many celebrities sporting fabulous new bob hairstyles on the red carpet this awards season. This playful weave is bold and feminine, and it suits Beyonce’s bubbly personality perfectly. Sarah Jessica Parker Curly Hairstyle: Mid-length messy curlsActress and style icon Sarah Jessica Parker looks radiantly beautiful with her mid-length, messy curls. Wear your hair in a deep side parting to keep hair out of your face, and comb your fringe to one side for a contemporary look.
You can also wear your hair in a simple half-up hairstyle to tame your curls, or a loose ponytail with lots of loose tendrils to frame your face.44.
Tessa Thompson Weave Hairstyle: Mid-length wavesAmerican actress Tessa Thompson looks divine with her mid-length waves of hair.
Taylor Swift Curly Hairstyle: Sleek structured curlsCountry music singer Taylor Swift looks beautiful with her sleek, structured curls and a sweeping side fringe.
She wears her hair loose with a side parting, and her fringe is clipped back to keep it out of her eyes.
This is a great everyday weave hairstyle for summer, as the hair is fine, light, and easy to style. To recreate Taylor’s girl-next-door curly hairstyle, use heat protection hair products before curling hair with a thick-barreled curling iron. Lighter locks look fabulous in summer, and they suit fair to medium complexions, whereas darker locks suit every season and most complexions.
Emma Stone Curly Hairstyle: Mid-length, textured curlsQuirky actress Emma Stone looks absolutely fabulous with her mid-length, textured blonde curls and rich crimson red lips. Tika Sumpter Weave Hairstyle: Hollywood curlsAmerican actress, singer, and model Tika Sumpter looks fabulous with her long, Hollywood style curls. This weave hairstyle is all about the volume, and we love the puffy bubble side fringe atop Tika’s head. Twirl each curl around your fingers while styling to give them extra definition and texture.56.
HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?
To get really big and full curls, build up the volume from the very beginning with volume boosting shampoo, conditioner, and styling mousse. Beyonce Knowles Curly Hairstyle: Soft, fuzzy curlsSongstress Beyonce Knowles looks fresh-faced and casual with her long, fuzzy curls cascading over her shoulders. Blow-dry your hair in curlers or with a round brush, and use volumizing hair spray for extra effect. She wears her hair in a deep middle parting to keep it out of her face, whilst keeping a few tendrils free to draw attention to her eyes and cheekbones. Once you have the desired curls, finish off your hairstyle with an anti-frizz spray to tame fuzz and flyaway hairs.46. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Glamorous curlsSongstress Beyonce looks divine with her glamorous, structured curls and a warm honey-blonde hair color.
Rihanna Curly Hairstyle: Dramatic side-shaved hairdo with curlsBarbadian singer-songwriter Rihanna looks absolutely phenomenal with her dramatic side-shaved hairdo and super-long curls.
This weave hairstyle is pure glamour – the swirly side bangs, the impressive volume, the color – simply amazing! Although it may not be for everyday wear, we can imagine rocking this weave at a prom, wedding, or other special occasion where dressing up is required.
Get your stylist to do the difficult bits, and keep your weave looks fab with a light hairspray and a lot of anti-frizz serum.47. We all find that one person who fills our stomach with butterflies and gets us tongue ties every time we just look at them. Tiffany Hines Weave Hairstyle: Posh bobAmerican actress Tiffany Hines looks gorgeous with her posh bob hairstyle and shimmery blue eye-shadow. Jennifer Lopez Curly Hairstyle: Fabulous curly high ponytailSinger and actress Jennifer Lopez looks stunning with her super-long, curly locks pulled up into a sexy high ponytail.
We love her asymmetrical haircut (short at the back and longer in front), and the quirky, flipped bangs that accentuate her beautiful eyes.
This curly hairstyle is all about texture – combine natural texture with texturizing spray for dynamic and touchable curls. This weave hairstyle is very flattering for her heart-shaped face, as the subtle layers soften her angular jawline and draw attention away from her slightly pointed chin. Some of us are luck and we manage to turn our frustrating crush into something more while others find that it’s simply not meant to be. Take inspiration from Tiff and add some flattering highlights to your raven locks for a more contemporary look. Finish off with some bright, shimmery eye makeup, cerise lips, and sparkly earrings, and you’re good to go!48. To help you out with that, I’ve been trawling the internet to find one hundred quotes that sum up how just about all of us feel when we have a crush. She sports medium length tousled tresses and soft, piecey bangs that partially conceal her high forehead.
They cover the butterflies in your stomach, the frustration, the longing, the hope, the happiness, and just about every other feeling that comes hand in hand (see what I did there?) with having a crush.
Half-up hairdos are perfect for curly hair, as they tame wild locks around your face whilst letting the rest go wild and free.
Ask your stylist to add layers to your long weave, and make sure that your shortest layers are below chin level for a sleek outline.49.
Dianna Agron Curly Hairstyle: Voluminous half-up hairdoGlee actress and singer Dianna Agron looks beautiful with her voluminous half-up hairdo and big, sexy curls. Zoe Saldana Weave Hairstyle: Long bob with romantic curlsAmerican actress Zoe Saldana looks divine with her long bob full of romantic curls. This simple-yet-stylish hairstyle is perfect for long, thick and straight hair, and you can add as many curls as you like, depending on the look you’re going for. The length of her weave is perfect for her face shape, and it draws attention to her shapely neckline.
To recreate Dianna’s gorgeous hairdo, tease hair at the crown before securing it in a puffy bouffant.
Pull hair back away from your temples and secure it behind your head, creating a simple half-up ‘do. That is one of my favourite sayings because it’s one of the few sayings that are completely and utterly true. Then, curl your locks with a thick-barreled curling iron, and set the curls with a light hairspray. Finally, curl the ends of your hair, and use some light hairspray to keep everything in place.61.
Avoid hair products with silicone, as they can weigh your hair down, making it look greasy.
Lily Cole Curly Hairstyle: Fiery, wavy curlsEnglish model and actress Lily Cole looks divine with her naturally fiery, wavy curls worn loose and messy. Rather choose extra strength hairsprays that still allow your hair to move around naturally.50. Beyonce Knowles Weave Hairstyle: Glamorous ponytailQueen B looks phenomenal with her glamorous high ponytail and pretty chandelier earrings. Coloring naturally curly hair can dry it out, causing unnecessary damage, so make sure that you take good care of your hair by investing in hydrating color protection hair products.62.
Jessica Alba Curly Hairstyle: Side-swept ombre curlsActress and beauty icon Jessica Alba looks phenomenal with her side-swept ombre curls and a gorgeous peachy-coral hued dress.
Side-swept hair is trending in 2014, with many celebrities debuting stunning side-swept hairstyle on the red carpet.
Give your long side-swept hair a romantic touch with soft, structured curls and a subtle ombre fade from chestnut brown to ash blonde.63. I for one know that I could talk for hours about why I love my fiancee but then again people (and him) might think I was just rambling.
You can even tease hair at the crown for extra sex appeal, or keep it slicked back for a formal look. Charlize Theron Curly Hairstyle: Sexy curly bobSouth African-born actress Charlize Theron looks sultry and sexy with her short curly bob hairstyle.
Finish off this chic look with smoky, metallic eye makeup, nude lips, and glowing, dewy skin.So there you have it – our 50 Best Black Weave Hairstyles!
She sports loose curls and sweeping, piecey bangs that partially cover her eyes, giving her a subtly mysterious look.
We hope that you’ve been inspired to update your look by trying out one of the fabulous hairstyles featured here.
Marion Cotillard Curly Hairstyle: Chin length curly bob French actress and singer Marion Cotillard looks stunning with her chin length curly bob. This is a great curly hairstyle for spring and summer 2014, as it’s stylish and very practical for staying cool in warm weather. Thanks for commenting!Reply santhosh July 29, 2014 at 5:30 pmIt is great to see the divas in their weaves. Bella Thorne Curly Hairstyle: Gorgeous auburn tendrilsTeen model and actress Bella Thorne looks utterly gorgeous with her whimsical auburn tendrils and middle parted bangs. Thanks for sharing and keep up the good workReply web admin April 13, 2015 at 6:56 pmThere are a number of other articles on this site that could interest you, John. Take care when curling fine hair with heat, as it’s more prone to breakage and heat damage. Perhaps a search of the Internet would reveal some good sites, or you could ask some of your friends where they go to get their hair done.ReplyLeave a Reply Cancel replyYour email address will not be published.
Invest in a good quality heat protection serum and keep your hair moisturized with weekly hot oil treatments.66. Her bouncy ringlets frame her face beautifully, and we love the vibrant volume of her locks.
Vanessa Hudgens Curly Hairstyle: Classic curly bobActress and singer Vanessa Hudgens looks divine with her classic and chic curly bob. She’s right on trend with her short bob hairstyle, and she keeps her curls loose and wavy for a toned-down yet sophisticated look. Delta Goodrem Curly Hairstyle: Crowning braid and long curlsAustralian singer-songwriter Delta Goodrem looks positively ethereal with gorgeous curls in her long golden locks. She joins the braided hair trend by sporting a crowning braid, and she keeps her look sexy with big, luscious curls. This curly hairstyle is perfect for long, straight, and thick hair, as the curls give straight locks some definition.69. The biggest and best relationships are built upon these simple things after all.Crush Quote #13This would be an amazing superpower. Tyra Banks Curly Hairstyle: Luscious mid-length curlsFormer supermodel and TV show host Tyra Banks looks superb with her luscious mid-length curls. I bet anyone with a crush wishes they could read minds just so they could know what he thinks about them. She wears them with a deep middle parting to keep them out of her face, and the soft ringlets are very flattering for her perfect jawline.
Take inspiration from Tyra and add a few thin highlights to your hair to brighten up your complexion.70. Thandie Newton Curly Hairstyle: Cute curly topknotActress Thandie Newton mixes up her look by wearing her hair in a cute curly topknot.
This curly hairstyle is pretty and contemporary, and it’s a great way to keep cool in summer 2014.
Find a strong but soft hair tie to keep your hair secure without causing any breakage or damage.71.
Emma Stone Curly Hairstyle: Edgy asymmetrical curlsActress Emma Stone looks breathtaking with her edgy asymmetrical curls and seriously vampy red-wine lips. This medium length curly bob suits almost every face shape, and the curls soften a strong jawline. The asymmetrical aspect of the hairstyle balances out a heavy jaw or high forehead, making this a very flattering curly hairstyle.72. If it was more than four months ago then you may need to rethink some things…Crush Quote #18Awww, I love this! To get Rachel’s flirty, curly hairstyle, try blow-drying your hair in rollers and then curling the ends with a curling iron.
Use a texturizing spray to finish off your hairstyle if you want natural, romantic looking locks.73.
Zoe Saldana Curly Hairstyle: Glossy, wavy curlsActress Zoe Saldana keeps her look chic and simple with her mid-length glossy curls. You may like a song but you never really understand it until an event in your own life ties up with it. This hairstyle is very flattering for her long face shape, as the curls add some width to her face around her cheekbones.
Minka Kelly Curly Hairstyle: Braided headband and long, natural curlsActress Minka Kelly looks divine with a simple braided headband in her hair, and long, natural curls. This curly hairstyle is perfect as an everyday hairdo, as it’s cute, casual, and easy to recreate at home. Julianne Hough Curly Hairstyle: Mid-length structured curlsSafe Haven actress Julianne Hough looks fabulous with her mid-length structured curls. We love everything about this hairstyle: the flattering collar-bone length, the smooth, soft texture, the golden honey-blonde hair color, and her gorgeous structured curls. You have to stop fretting over whether your crush likes you back, you have to stop getting butterflies every time you see him, you just have to let go and be you. This hairstyle requires a good cut as well as expert styling, so make sure that you make a hair appointment with a stylist you trust.76. Her piecey side fringe creates some asymmetry in her hairstyle, balancing out her heavy jawline by drawing attention away from the lower half of her face. Lily Cole Curly Hairstyle: Low ponytail with subtle curlsEnglish model and actress Lily Cole keeps her look simple and classic with a low ponytail and soft, subtle curls. This curly hairstyle is perfect for bad hair days – all you need to do is tease your hair a bit for extra volume, and pull it into a sleek ponytail. Lauren Conrad Curly Hairstyle: Long, glamorous curlsReality TV personality and fashion designer Lauren Conrad looks gorgeous as always with her long, glamorous curls. Kirsten Dunst Curly Hairstyle: Short, curled bobActress Kirsten Dunst looks stunning with her short, curled bob and some bright coral lippy. This curly hairstyle is chic and sophisticated, and it’s perfect for spring and summer 2014. It’s so romantic!Crush Quote #30For all my readers who are scientific, this one’s for you!
You can glam up your simple curly bob with pretty hair accessories like headbands, clips, slides, and even flowers.80. Chelsea Kane Curly Hairstyle: Tousled, beachy curlsAmerican actress and singer Chelsea Kane shows off her tousled, beachy curls by wearing them loose with a side-parting.
What a way to put a new and serious spin on age old feelings!Crush Quote #31Never be embarrassed if he catches you looking at him. Simply treat your hair with anti-frizz serum before braiding it, and then sleep with the braids in. Leighton Meester Curly Hairstyle: Soft cascading curlsGossip Girl actress Leighton Meester looks poised and confident with her soft, cascading curls. This curly hairstyle is delicate and romantic, and it’s a perfect look for lunch with the girls or a relaxed first date. Kerry Washington Curly Hairstyle: Edgy side-swept curlsScandal actress Kerry Washington looks amazing with her edgy side-swept curls and mahogany highlights in her raven black locks. The worst he can do is say no.Crush Quote #35When you’re with your crush do you ever feel different?
Taylor Swift Curly Hairstyle: Loose, golden curlsCountry music singer Taylor Swift looks divine with her loose, golden curls cascading over her shoulders.
Like you’re free and all of a sudden you can just be you and not worry about what other people think of you?
Your curling iron and hairspray are essential tools for recreating this hairstyle at home.85.
Megan Fox Curly Hairstyle: Curly ponytail with bouffantAmerican actress and model Megan Fox vamps up the classic ponytail hairstyle by wearing hers high up on her head with a puffy bouffant. To recreate this sexy look, tease hair at the crown to create a big bouffant, and use some anti-frizz serum to keep your bouffant smooth and sleek. In fact, if you knew the truth you’d probably be incredibly surprised and hopefully a little delighted too. Jennifer Lopez Curly Hairstyle: Voluminous curly ponytailActress and singer Jennifer Lopez shows off another variant of the curly ponytail with voluminous low ponytail secured at the nape of her neck. There may well be someone out there feeling the same towards you as what you do towards you crush. This curly hairstyle is perfect for long, thick hair, and it works with both straight and naturally curly hair.87. Maybe the person feeling this is your crush, wouldn’t that be a major bonus?Crush Quote #39What is it that you look for in a person? Her natural curls have been swept up into a bun, with a few tendrils of hair left loose to frame her face.
For me, I believe in thoughtfulness, intelligence, and generosity just like good old Ashton Kutcher. Emma Roberts Curly Hairstyle: Rumpled side-swept curlsAmerican actress, model, and singer Emma Roberts looks striking with her rumpled, side-swept curls.
We love the combination of caramel, honey and platinum blonde streaks in her dark blonde hair, and the effortlessly sexy curls that tumble down over her left shoulder.89. All you need to do is secure your hair in a loose half-up style, and curl the lengths for some instant glam.90. Ashley Tisdale Curly Hairstyle: Messy low ponytailAmerican actress and singer Ashley Tisdale keeps her look casual and sexy with her messy low ponytail.
If you have naturally curly hair, the ponytail is one of the easiest styling options for everyday wear. Just be brave, you never know what wonderful things may come of you opening up to the world and letting your crush know how you feel.Crush Quote #42Imagine if your crush just came up to you and asked you outright how you felt?
Emmy Rossum Curly Hairstyle: Va va voom curlsAmerican actress and singer-songwriter Emmy Rossum looks breathtaking with her super-sexy, va va voom curls. This hot bed-head look is perfect for a hot date or an outdoor festival, and it looks amazing with dark and sultry eye-makeup. Keira Knightley Curly Hairstyle: Voluminous curly ponytailEnglish actress Keira Knightley looks gorgeous with her mid-length curly hair in a voluminous ponytail.
Wind a section of hair around your hair tie to conceal it for a polished finishing touch.93. If you answered the former then I think it may be time you moved on (though you never know but I get the feeling you’re not going to be brave enough to say all this) and if you answered the latter then I suggest you go and tell your crush exactly how you feel. Alyson Hannigan Curly Hairstyle: Edgy asymmetrical bobActress Alyson Hannigan mixes her look up with a daring and edgy asymmetrical bob. Long towards the front and short in the back, the asymmetrical bob is a modern and stylish hairstyle choice for 2014.
If your crush or your boyfriend treats you like there are a million more of you out there then it’s time you kick him to the curb. Unless your guy can see just how amazing you are and treats you as such then I suggest you get rid of him immediately. Her waist-length locks are worn loose and tousled, with a shallow side parting to keep stray hairs out of her face. You deserve to be treated like a princess, never forget that.Crush Quote #44I love this because it’s simply so cute! If you have naturally curly hair, simply let it dry naturally and brush it when dry for soft, fuzzy tresses.95. Kerry Washington Curly Hairstyle: Chic curly bobScandal actress Kerry Washington looks divine with her chic curly bob and a little side fringe.
Her glossy raven ringlets are worn loose with a shallow side-parting, with a few wayward curls to frame her face. Both scenarios are frustrating for their own reason but in this case your plight can often feel near hopeless.Crush Quote #46Don’t we all feel like this about someone? Keira Knightley Curly Hairstyle: Long curly bobEnglish actress Keira Knightley is smoking hot with her long, curly bob and red-wine hued lips.
In fact, scratch that, no matter what’s going on in your life then you should always remember this quote. Paris Hilton Curly Hairstyle: Smooth, ribbon-like curlsHeiress and socialite Paris Hilton looks fabulous with her long, ribbon-like curls.
Seriously, if you don’t ask for something then how the heck can you ever expect to get it? Vanessa Hudgens Curly Hairstyle: Mid-length raven curlsActress and singer Vanessa Hudgens looks sultry and confident with her mid-length raven curls.
Think about it, if your crush doesn’t know how you feel then why on Earth would he ask you out? Her middle parting draws attention to her eyes and mouth, making her face appear slimmer and narrower than it really is.
To recreate her chic curls, try blow-drying your hair in big rollers, and use some extra shine hair serum for glossy, smooth curls.99.
Sure, none of us are perfect and yes there may be girls prettier or smarter than us but that by no means means that we ought to be overlooked.
Jessica Chastain Curly Hairstyle: Side-swept structured curlsActress Jessica Chastain looks absolutely divine with her curly auburn locks swept to one side. This glamorous curly hairstyle is perfect for long shaped faces, as the asymmetry creates the illusion of a wider, more oval shaped face.
Now, how to get our crush to figure that out…?Prev1 of 2Next Tweet Pin It Related Posts How to Catch a Cheater How to Catch a Cheater 10 Things He Will Do to Show You That He Cares 10 Things He Will Do to Show You That He Cares 50 Disappointment Quotes 50 Disappointment Quotes How Well Do You Know Me? Start curling your hair at cheek level (the widest part of your face) for best results.100. Emmy Rossum Curly Hairstyle: Hollywood curls American actress Emmy Rossum is a picture of perfection with her sleek Hollywood curls and dramatic winged eyeliner.
40 Questions for Couples 46 Comments← Older Comments Jerald Vinzzy April 5, 2016 at 9:45 amIm a guy and i really like this!!
If you liked this article, there are a number of other articles with quotes, texting ideas and love messages on Her Interest—check them out if you have the time. It would mostly depend on how dry or damaged your hair is now, and the color you will change it to.
Admit You Have a CrushYou know what they say: “the first thing to do in recovery is admit you have a problem”- and in this case, your certain ‘problem’ is your crush. And there’s absolutely nothing wrong with that, even if it didn’t work out the way you planned.2. Thanks for answering my question (hopefully) Reply web admin November 21, 2015 at 11:33 pmHe might have just been busy, or he may not know what to say next.
He was probably being honest when he said that he appreciated you getting in touch and that it was not creepy–after all, moving to a new place can be extremely lonely and many friends do not end up keeping in touch. But you need to accept the outcome before you try and move on- or else the rest of your ‘recovery’ will be a waste.3. You getting in touch with him was probably a bright spot for his day and a reminder that people from his old home still care.
Don’t Dwell on ItOne of the worst things you can do- in any bad situation, really- is dwell on it. He may have just been happy about hearing from anyone from his own life, so don’t read too much into it yet. But why should you spend every second, minute, and hour of the day wondering “Why?” or “What if?” That’s just a waste of time, energy, and emotion. If he does not, it could mean that he either is not interested or that he does not have much hope for starting a long distance relationship.
They will probably have a story you can relate to about that “special guy” in their math class 20 years ago. And you know what they say, the best way to get something off of your chest and feel better about a situation is to simply talk about it. Or maybe the reason is the two of you just didn’t ‘jive’ and there was no flow of conversation. There could be a million reasons why he didn’t like you back, but you shouldn’t take it to heart.
Don’t Get Angry or DepressedI think I’ve already said this at least once in this blog- but there is absolutely no point in dwelling over the situation and getting angry or depressed about it.
You will spend a whole lot of precious time and energy on something that really doesn’t matter in the long run. Sure, it hurts now, but that just means there’s someone a million times better just waiting for you.7. But getting over him or her will be a MILLION times easier if you just try to block him out of your mind as much as possible (that is, if you’ve already discussed it and come to terms with the outcome of your crushing).
Focus on YourselfNow that you’ve realized the two of you are never going to be ‘one’, it’s the perfect time to focus on yourself.
Maybe now you can join an art class and transform your surge of sad emotions into a beautiful masterpiece.
Maybe now you could decide to totally switch things up and try out that new, quirky, yet totally hot hairstyle you’ve been dreaming about. And trust me- whether you do something as simple as spending more time with friends or going to get a massage, you will feel a hundred times better about yourself.9. Flirt With Someone ElseSo, just because you are still kind of crushing on someone you can’t flirt with someone else? I’m not saying you need to run into the arms of another man or woman right away in a terrible attempt to take your mind off of that special someone. You never know what may come of it, and in the mean time you can exchange some saucy words with a handsome looking fellow in the meantime. When we have a crush on someone, we have a tendency to put them on a pedestal and think they are perfect. Maybe they had a funny personality, but they never knew how to be serious so they could never hold a serious relationship. Just remember to admit you have a crush, admit it didn’t work out, and try to spend as much time as possible talking it out and doing things for YOU that will take your mind off of them. In the end, it’ll be easier than you thought and you’ll realize there’s someone better out there! What’s your best way to get over a crush? We used to talk little, but whenever there was a conversation, we used to look straight in the eyes. I thought he would say no but the next thing that i come to know is that he is in a relationship with her. The most hard part for me while trying to get over him is that we still smile at each other and lock eyes.
I havent told him that i like him, so should i even tell him??Reply web admin November 28, 2015 at 1:33 amSince you never did anything more than smiling at him and locking eyes, it makes sense that he would go out with the other girl.
It sounds like he is just shy in general, so he was too afraid to ask you out since he had no clue that you liked him.
I would not tell him right now out of respect for his relationship and the fact that, if he were to leave her for you, you would always be afraid that he would do the same thing to you. I got over my ex-crush with songs relating to the situation, Taylor Swift works best for me. Plus, I have this specific notebook where i jot down everything I want to accomplish, feel and experience.So anyone reading this article, GOOD LUCK! If you ever need help, there are plenty of articles on Her Interest about romance, and you can always leave a comment. What do I do?Reply web admin September 17, 2015 at 7:43 pmIt looks like you have already done most of the hard work in getting your crush to be interested in you! Both of these factors mean that he probably does like you and would be interested in dating you. Every relationship has a risk, and there is no reason to miss out on what could be an amazing relationship–many of the best relationships and marriages start out as friends first. Let him know that you are willing to take the chance of being hurt if it means that you can be with him, and tell him that you want to remain friends with him afterward no matter what happens.



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