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The hyoid bone is a very special bone in the human head which is unique in that it is not attached to any other bones in the body; rather, it is supported by a network of muscles and ligaments, which trap it like a fly in amber directly below the tongue. Without the hyoid bone, humans would be incapable of speech as we know it, so this bone represents a major step in human evolution.
This bone is shaped roughly like a horseshoe, and it nestles in the throat below the tongue. In addition to being of interest to living humans, the bone is also sometimes important in forensic analysis.
I am getting the Systrunk Procedure done and with this surgery they break this bone and they said that there is no need for it. I knew from TV that a broken hyoid was indication of strangulation, but had no idea it was necessary for speech or that it was directly under the tongue and difficult to break. I had no idea a bone had anything to do with speech. Thanks for that last paragraph, I've always wondered how a death could be ruled strangulation when there was no skin left to show bruising etc.!
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By clicking 1 Click Bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. Determined to find answers, Vivian reached out to a family friend who is a cardiologist in the United States. In June 2015, Vivian came to Mayo Clinic's campus in Rochester, Minnesota, for an evaluation and diagnosis.
Vivian underwent surgery in September 2015, supported by a rotating cadre of family members and friends, including her loving mother, Ruby. The high-quality care Vivian received is made possible through the generosity of benefactors who previously gave to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy research and education.
The family's gift, in honor of Vivian's parents Paul and Ruby Tsai, recognizes medical excellence and innovation at Mayo Clinic. Learn more about the Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery. These treatments could help correct the severe spinal curve that had developed quickly during a growth spurt, her doctors said. The Christophersons learned about Camden's condition shortly after a family move put her in a different school district.
Designed to treat moderate to severe scoliosis, vertebral body tethering typically is recommended for adolescents during puberty who are still growing. Teresa's investigation took her and Camden to the Philadelphia Shriners Hospital for Children. In Philadelphia, Camden and Teresa met with surgeons that had pioneered vertebral body tethering.
Although it's possible vertebral body tethering may be the last treatment Camden needs for scoliosis, the long-term results for the surgery aren't clear yet because the procedure is so new. From Teresa's perspective, it wasn't an easy road, but the effort to find an alternative solution for her daughter was well worth it. For 33-year-old Tara Brigham of Jacksonville, Florida, living with a heart condition since birth wasn't something that was going to get in the way of living an active normal life. A Minnesota native, Tara was diagnosed with enlargement of the heart during a routine checkup when she was 1 year old. Tara's heart was monitored closely by her doctors at Mayo Clinic and later a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy specialist at the University of Minnesota. Despite the scare and a challenging recovery, Tara resumed her life, finishing high school, attending college and graduate school, and getting married. Tara is grateful that her transplant has enabled her to experience so much more of her life. Audra Popp has a rare tumor – anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, also known as anaplastic PXA. Audra had 20 proton beam therapy sessions to try to destroy fast-growing cells possibly left behind after surgery. After Audra's fourth surgery, her surgeon initially suggested radiation therapy, but that wasn't in the cards. After Audra's most recent surgery, her Mayo Clinic team had a new weapon in their arsenal – proton beam therapy. A registered nurse, Audra lives in Royalton, Minnesota – a three-hour drive from Rochester. Audra had proton beam therapy in the summer – her favorite season – and took full advantage of her time in Rochester.
Raegan Cury didn’t worry at first when she developed a cough in early 2002 that wouldn’t go away.
Even her husband, a pulmonologist, wasn't too worried, until she received a surprising diagnosis.
Raegan, who lives in Atlantic Beach, Florida, had surgery to remove the cancer and woke up with just one lung, due to the extent of the disease. But they also headed to Mayo Clinic's campus in Florida to explore the possibility of lung transplantation. A lung restoration center under construction on Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus could change that by making many more donor lungs viable for transplant. Growing up on a farm in central Florida, Paige Douglas enjoyed a unique childhood, caring for a menagerie of animals, horseback riding, even barrel racing at local rodeos.
But, when she was 10, Paige inadvertently hit her left knee while bouncing on a trampoline. Her knee became so sensitive that the slightest touch or inadvertent bump would “bring excruciating pain, sending me to the ground, screaming and crying,” she recalls.
Paige visited countless doctors near her home in Ocala, Florida, trying different medications, topical treatments and steroid injections. The team developed a customized treatment plan for Paige aimed at not only removing the cancer but saving her leg.
To help bring awareness to others about sarcoma, Paige created “Team Paige,” an online support group.
Last fall Paige nominated the Mayo team for the Sarcoma Alliance 2015 Outstanding Care Award.
Stewart Rosen was beyond anxious when he learned he had a tumor the size of a walnut by his right ear.
Stewart noticed a change in his hearing in his right ear, and a friend had recommended he see an ENT (ear, nose and throat) specialist. Acoustic neuromas are noncancerous, usually slow-growing tumors that develop on the main nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain. Much to Stewart's surprise, his Mayo Clinic doctors told him they'd had a cancellation and could perform his surgery the next day. Stewart continues to be checked to make sure his acoustic neuroma doesn't recur – a very slight possibility. These words from His Holiness the Dalai Lama resonated with Mayo Clinic staff and guests gathered to hear a special talk on "Compassion in Health Care" on Monday, Feb. His Holiness the Dalai Lama spent a good deal of time in his talk emphasizing the "sameness" of all human beings. In a world of 7 billion people, the Dalai Lama says it is important to educate people that we are all human beings.
When we feel anger or irritation toward someone else, it is important to ask ourselves whether that person has been our "enemy from birth," according to the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama offered his advice for dealing with a patient who has received a difficult diagnosis. He also noted it was important to be honest with a person about a diagnosis, so that person can be prepared for the consequences. Biased: While a person may have compassion and loving kindness, it may be limited to those that they are related to or only people they know. Unbiased: Through awareness, 7 billion people can come to think of each other as brothers and sisters and to realize that their futures are interlinked. Even though she's just 24 years old, Megan has had a lifetime's worth of trials and tribulations. At the age of 21, just two months after Megan married her high school sweetheart, she was presented with another challenge.
Megan would require an extended course of chemotherapy to shrink the tumor before she could have surgery to remove it. Soon afterward, she was dealt another blow – one that must have been especially painful for someone who just completed cancer treatment. Bridget Clausen refers to her seven grandchildren and three great-grandchildren as "the love of my life." She treasures each of them and is proud to have a great-granddaughter named after her. At that time, Bridget was being treated for melanoma that had spread to several places in her body. The drug, now available under the brand name Keytruda, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration  in December 2015 as a first-line treatment for advanced melanoma. Bridget's journey to Mayo Clinic and the clinical trial that would be so important to her began in 2008 with a small, bothersome mole on one of her legs.
After reviewing and rejecting several treatment possibilities — and engaging in much discussion and thought — Bridget and her oncologist in Fargo, North Dakota, agreed she would seek care at Mayo Clinic. Although the clinical trial Bridget enrolled in was one of the first research studies to offer MK-3475, and she was among the first people to receive it, its roots stretched back more than a decade at Mayo Clinic. The primary role of the bone is to support the weight of the tongue, allowing people to articulate words while speaking, and enabling the production of a wide range of vocalizations.
The first hyoid bones appeared in hominids around 300,000 years ago, and they were accompanied by a phenomenon known as the larynx drop, which allows the larynx to settle deeper into the throat after childhood, further enabling speech. This bone is also sometimes called the "lingual bone," in a references to the fact that it gives humans the power of speech. The main "body" is like the heavy base of the U, while the greater cornu are the horns which make up the arms of the U. When the hyoid bone is broken, it is a strong indicator that someone was strangled, as the bone is otherwise extremely difficult to break. It feels like a tendon or something popping over something else and at the same time there is a mild choking sensation. Whether the Neanderthals could speak, and how well they could speak, depends on their hyoid, as in humans. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. With renewed resolve, she consulted with specialists, reached out to friends, and sought referrals. This procedure corrects the curve of the spine by connecting two or more of the spinal vertebrae. Larson at Mayo Clinic, they discussed a variety of possibilities, including the VBT procedure. The surgeon attaches a cord to each of the screws and then pulls and secures the cord, so the vertebrae are cinched together on one side and splayed open on the other, correcting the curve.
Shriners Hospitals for Children and Mayo Clinic have a close relationship that dates back to Mayo Clinic's founders. At this time, though, it looks to be an encouraging step forward in the scoliosis treatment choices available to teens like Camden, who is happy she had the opportunity to give it a try.
In fact, she says the heart transplant she received six years ago as a result of her condition has made her life even more fulfilling. While she had not had any symptoms of a heart problem since birth, the enlargement was significant enough that her physician at Mayo Clinic's Rochester campus suggested that a biopsy of her heart should be done right away. Over time, she became increasingly symptomatic as her heart failure worsened, and Minnesota winters were especially difficult. She is currently a medical librarian at Mayo Clinic's Florida campus, and she has been healthy and has led a fairly normal life in the six years since her transplant. She's had five craniotomies since 2001, and she has a scar from her right ear to the crown of her head as evidence.

Buckner says a genetic alteration in the tumor that was removed in Audra's last surgery showed a mutation that makes the tumor cells more vulnerable to a new drug combination. She explored the area with tours of Mayo Clinic's historical homes and buildings, a walking food and history tour, a trolley tour and concerts by the river. She was a healthy young woman, athletic, a former gymnast, and her initial chest X-ray showed what looked like pneumonia. Mayo Clinic transplants more organs than any center in the United States, and the Florida campus is one of the nation’s leading lung transplant centers.
During Reagan's lung transplant in 2004, he washed her remaining native airways with a chemotherapy solution to try to prevent any remaining cancer cells from inhabiting Raegan’s newly transplanted lung. The next year, the lung allocation system changed, and the guidelines stated that outcomes for patients with Raegan’s disease were considered too uncertain to warrant transplant of a precious donor lung. The center, now under construction, could make enough lungs available to enable transplants for people who currently don’t meet the waiting list criteria.
She had synovial cell sarcoma, a soft-tissue cancer that typically occurs near the joints in the arm, neck or leg in young patients. Despite the 250-mile distance between her home and Jacksonville, Paige chose to undergo the treatments at Mayo. According to the organization, the award is usually presented to one individual but Paige’s nomination moved the group so much that it honored everyone. And with the surgery he'd need to remove this tumor, Stewart knew that he'd lose hearing in his right ear.
That doctor detected a major difference in hearing between Stewart's ears and ordered an MRI to rule out a brain tumor. The monk had spent five years as a hermit in the mountains with very little by way of physical comfort. He advises people to then familiarize themselves with those positive emotions and train themselves to focus on those emotions. But a series of events, medical and otherwise, led her on a different path – an educational path that culminated with her sharing her surprising story at the Fiesta Bowl in Arizona on Jan. The chemotherapy cocktail was so powerful that Megan was cautioned not to kiss her new husband, as the side effects could be passed onto him.
Doctors found Megan had a rare gene that causes Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which affects only about 400 people in the U.S. Still, Megan prefers to discuss the upside of her journey -- her supportive family, friends and Mayo caregivers who have encouraged her through her trials. She has a passion for educating others about the gene that has changed her life — and she wants to be there for young adults or children who are going through the same thing. The joy of a namesake is especially sweet, because when Bridget learned her granddaughter was pregnant, she wasn't sure she would be here to meet the baby. Interestingly, the foundation of the drug's development began in a Mayo Clinic lab more than 15 years ago. Although no evidence of melanoma was left after the surgery, there was a small area on her right kidney that concerned her doctors.
She made the five-hour trip from her home in Nevis, Minnesota, to Rochester, where she met medical oncologist Roxana Dronca, M.D.
For four years, she drove to Mayo Clinic every three weeks to receive an infusion of MK-3475. Needless to say, we probably wouldn't exist in our current state without this bone, as speech is a crucial tool for civilization. The term "hyoid" comes from the Greek hyoeides, which means "upsilon-shaped." The Greek letter upsilon is shaped much like the Roman letter U. The lesser cornu are two smaller sections of the hyoid which create a second set of horns on the U, near the body of the hyoid bone. Therefore, forensic analysts often check on the condition of the hyoid in a suspicious death, especially in the event that only skeletal remains are available for autopsy, as a broken hyoid can seal the deal, as it were, providing evidence of a clear case of strangulation. These are the kinds of details that need to be given and not the random misinformation that is on other forums. The middle of the hyoid bone was removed since it wasn't known yet whether or not it was cancerous. Because if it's true we could have seen a plant or animal, including human beings of any size, changing their previous state.
Animals have specialized systems of structures that help them to do this successfully and efficiently. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. However, she began to lose strength in her early 30s and went to the doctor with her father, Paul.
But as she watched another member of her family struggle with symptoms she recognized in herself, her own condition became harder to ignore.
While eating dinner, Vivian would often have to lie down for half an hour before returning to her meal because she would become so tired and lightheaded. Finally, she received a precise diagnosis — apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a disease in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick. Schaff immediately to discuss the possibility of the procedure she had been told did not exist — an apical myectomy.
Not only will this generous gift benefit Mayo Clinic patients, but patients throughout the world, including East Asia, where the Tsai family calls home. So when doctors told her, at age 13, that she had to wear a brace for 22 hours a day to combat scoliosis, and surgery to fuse her spine was likely in her future, Camden was devastated. And her mother, Teresa Christopherson, wasn't ready to accept that a brace and fusion surgery were her daughter's only choices. She was fitted for a brace, but due to the severity of her condition, her doctors were concerned it wouldn't be enough to correct the problem. Metal screws and rods typically are used to hold the vertebrae together, so they can heal into one solid unit.
In 2015, Shriners Hospitals joined the Mayo Clinic Care Network, a national network of organizations committed to better serving patients and their families through physician collaboration.
She was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a disease in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick. Tara went into ventricular fibrillation and was taken to the hospital where an automated external defibrillator, or AED, was used to restore her normal heart rhythm. Audra is the first person at Mayo Clinic with anaplastic PXA to be treated with proton beam therapy. She also took advantage of classes offered at the Mayo Clinic Cancer Education Center, including tai chi, Reiki, nutrition, meditation and stress management.
Mayo Clinic is collaborating with United Therapeutics, which has developed technology to sustain and rejuvenate donor lungs, making previously marginal lungs suitable for transplantation and extending the time lungs remain viable.
After an exploratory surgery in 2001, doctors told her she had a neuroma, an area of increased sensitivity and pain that often develops after physical trauma to a nerve. She made a five-hour roundtrip five days a week for five weeks. “It was hard but I wanted to maintain a sense of normalcy for my family and I trusted this team … doctors who care, show compassion, and genuinely took time to know me as a patient,” she says. But Stewart, an accountant by day and violinist by night, worried that removing the tumor, an acoustic neuroma, might affect his ability to play music. He says he is impressed with Megan’s resiliency and ability to understand what her treatment program would require. Curtis were invited to watch the game from a suite at the stadium in Glendale, Arizona, and a brief video of her story was shown on the big screen.
She decided to go to Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, to see if doctors could offer any other options. It didn't appear to be related to the melanoma, and they were able to get rid of it with an ablation procedure. The work his research lab did to identify that molecule laid the foundation for the drug's eventual development. Even a fish will drown if it cannot successfully breathe underwater.Gas ExchangeThe actual exchanging of the gases is dependent upon important structures such as lungs or gills, and the principle of diffusion. Nishimura explained that she had an undiagnosed apical aneurysm, which had been present in her body for at least two years, putting her in extremely high risk for blood clots. The finding was surprising, because a year earlier, an exam showed no signs of spine problems. Because this is a new procedure that hasn't been in use long, though, Teresa wasn't ready to commit to it without doing some additional research. Together, the team conducted the procedure through five small incisions on Camden's right side. The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to pump blood throughout the body to vital organs.
Unfortunately, her heart failure was progressing rapidly, and in June 2009, she received a ventricular assist device.
She also has had three regimens of chemotherapy through the years and six weeks of radiation therapy at Mayo Clinic in 2007. Murray and Perdikis followed, reconstructing her leg with tissue and muscle grafts from her calf. Today Paige has a 14” scar but complete use of her left leg. Express concern and let the person feel that the person is really taking care of them seriously. Diffusion says that the molecules or particles will move from an area where they are very concentrated into an area where they are less concentrated. Guided by images from a tiny camera inserted through her back and using a technique called intraoperative low-dose CT computer navigation, the surgeons inserted the screws and cord into Camden's spine without needing a large incision or causing any significant muscle damage. Eventually, she had an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted to provide an immediate treatment for any future episode.
The device allowed Tara to recover and be healthy enough to be put on the heart transplant list. As shown below in a liquid model, the red dots start with a high concentration on the left, but after time they have spread out into the area on the right.
This is relevant during respiration because oxygen and carbon dioxide are often highly concentrated in opposite places, and simultaneous diffusion is how gas exchange occurs. Knowing how dangerous melanoma can be, though, Bridget began regular appointments with an oncologist and a dermatologist.
The jar on the left is separated by a semipermeable membrane, which allows the red dots to move from one side of the jar to the other slowly.
Maxwell will be deciding upon and after this illness passed we will take a look at producing these scripts into feature films or television productions. The red dots have spread out to the right side on the jar until there is an equal amount on both sides.
This is the process of diffusion when a substance moves from an area of high concentration into an area of low concentration until both areas are at an equal concentration.Gas exchange takes place in the capillaries for animals with a closed circulatory system such as birds, mammals, reptiles, and some amphibians. Maxwell is spending this time taking care of his wife, and not in production, he has plenty of time to read scripts. Remember that the capillaries are the smallest blood vessel, and they can be found near every cell in the body. Thus, this is a wonderful time to have him take a look at your script.i»?A This page is set aside to give us an opportunity to keep our visitor abreast of what is going on with Maxima Vision Films and our film school.
At the same time we encourage our visitor to write us anything they feel may be of interest in film and television to our community.
InsectsThe respiratory apparatus in insects consists of a system of tubes, called tracheae, which directly ventilate the tissues.
Many of these articles are written by our own CEO who is serious about keeping our whole community up to date with any breaking news and events we may be involved with. In the event you write to us a story we find the community may want to know about we will post here on this page.
The tubes act similarly to a closed circulatory system of blood vessels which divide and branch out into smaller and smaller tubes extending into all parts of the insect like plumbing pipes.The insect has openings called spiracles scattered throughout its body, which are the openings to the tracheae. These stories may be of any kind pertaining to the film and television industry, from casting calls our community may want to know about, to events in the area, to a new story ideas you come up with you think might make for a good film or television production. Aquatic insects must seal their spiracles when they are under the water to prevent flooding their tubes. Randall Maxwell of Maxima Vision Films takes some of the backdrop of that particular White House, fictionalizes the story, orchestrates some look-a-likes and dramatizes a womana€™s lust for power who is willing to do whatever it takes to become the first lady president of the United States, including assassination, sex, love or war.
Amazingly, some aquatic insects even have specialized spiracles that can puncture underwater plants and access their plants' oxygen storage centers. The lungs are actively ventilated via a suction-pump mechanism of inhalation and exhalation.
Breathing is dependent upon the rib muscles and the diaphragm, which is a structure located just beneath the lungs like a dome-shaped floor (or a dome-shaped roof for the intestinal cavity). Check this site out for how to make a lung model.Inhalation happens when the rib cage opens up and the diaphragm flattens and moves downward.

The lungs can then expand into the larger space that causes the air pressure inside them to decrease, and the drop in air pressure inside the lung makes the outside air rush inside. The diaphragm and the rib muscles relax to their neutral state that causes the lungs to contract. The right side shows the dome shaped diaphragm forcing the air out during exhalation.In most mammals, the first place that air enters upon inhalation is the nose. It gets warmed, moistened, and filtered by cilia and mucus membranes which can trap dust and pathogens. When three unlikely but well-intentioned groups of mighty people join forces to battle the demon, they face challenges within and without.
Air then reaches the epiglottis, which is the tiny leaf shaped flap at the back of the throat. Their variegated backgrounds, including slavery, military, and commoners, must be overlooked if they are to stop Man Burnera€™s evil quest. The epiglottis regulates air going into the windpipe and closes upon swallowing to prevent food from being inhaled. The powerful and precious Atma stones must be kept secret if the world is to be saved.Will Man Burner be able to succeed on his quest to find the Atma stones?
If the epiglottis is the gatekeeper, who's the key master?Diagram of structures of the lungs.The trachea is a long structure of soft tissue surrounded by c-shaped rings of cartilage.
Each bronchi divides into increasingly smaller branches, until they form a massive tree of tubes. The smallest branches are called the bronchioles, and each bronchiole ends with a tiny air sac (no larger than a grain of sand) called an alveolus. This delay is expected to last a couple of months, postponing production of every film by a couple of months.The reason for this suspension is due largely to the fact of us not yet having our film school, which is attached to our production company at the point where our investment group had wanted it by summer of 2013. The tiny alveoli (alveoli is the plural of alveolus) are crucial because they increase the surface area that can be used for gas exchange. Another large factor is not finding a large enough pool of talent here locally who have enough professional film experience or training to allow us to completely cast four feature films per year, let alone finding enough professionally experienced crew.Thus, one of the things we are now awaiting is hiring a casting director in Hollywood to cast any remaining major speaking roles for each film we have been unable to cast thus far.
If the lungs were just empty sacs the only area available for gas exchange would be the walls of the lungs, which in humans is approximately 0.01 meters squared. In contrast, the alveoli structures provide 75 square meters of surface area where oxygen absorption can take place. This is an all out effort to raise the bar in this region of professionally trained actors as well as crew. At this summer feature filmA  consortium; Whether you are an aspiring producer, director, script writer, editor, animator, actor, cinematographer, or just want to learn the ins and outs of the film making industry, you may begin as early as the summer of 2013 building your working resume by participation in our Summer Feature Film Consortium! Diagram of an alveolus near a capillary and the gas exchange process in the lungs.As discussed above, gas exchange takes place in the capillaries, so the alveoli are closely aligned with the network of capillaries.
This brings the blood carrying waste products into close enough proximity with fresh air for diffusion to take place. The waste is removed and the oxygen is taken up by the blood.The blood is able to carry the fresh oxygen in red blood cells because of the hemoglobin protein, which can attach oxygen molecules. Well, we have serious investors who share our same passions who are willing to put their money where their mouths are.
Let us commit ourselves then together to perfecting our craft of film making and television production by committing to professional training and stop spending money with so-called agencies who are simply in business to sell schools and photos, but have no real connections to even consider making even a feature film. It is a very sad thing that so many have been lured into such scams and have been taken advantage of, but now it is time for change and a part of this change is a must, raising the bar of excellence. When red blood cells are oxygen rich they are bright red, and when they are deoxygenated they are a deep purple.
It is now time for us to show our investors that we are willing to invest in our future so that very soon they will allow us the opportunity that all of us can make a very good living doing what each of us love doing and that we are extremely passionate about.A This film school has always been and will continue to be always a very specialA  part of our production company and our plans for the future as a means of keeping well trained professionals continuing to come on board with our production offices, from professionally trained actors to crew. When the blood reaches the systemic capillaries near the cells, the carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse in opposite directions.
This keeps fresh ideas coming through the doors, but more importantly it allows us to always know we have the most highly skilled actors and crew that money can buy.
Our investment group has always made the film school a stipulation on their investing in our feature films and will continue to do so.
Water vapor and carbon dioxide are exhaled, and the process begins again with inhalation.Just as the heart beats on its own, following sinoatrial node signals, breathing is done without conscious effort. A One of the biggest concerns of our investment group is to keep from happening here what happened in Louisiana, where their film makers were at least diligent in getting their law makers to raise the incentives to entice major film production companies like Maxima to come into their state to produce films in their state. They were able to do this by quoting statistics which prove, when major film production companies come into your state and begin producing motion pictures, they bring with them literally millions of dollars into the local economy.
They decide how fast respiration needs to take place by monitoring the level of carbon dioxide in the blood. In Louisiana, they experienced tremendous success in enticing these companies into their state.A Unfortunately, these companies came by the droves, however, once there they found there was not enough professionally trained talent already there to produce the number of films they wanted to produce, causing them to have to hire the bulk of their needed talent out of state.
Because these incentives are based on hiring local talent, these companies when they were forced to hire outside of state talent, they lost their incentives.
Additionally, the heartbeat increases because the circulatory system is required for the respiration system to function.Tidal volume is the amount of air breathed in or out during a respiratory cycle.
Louisiana has since worked diligently trying to get professional instructors in their public schools and universities to train up a workforce of professionally trained film and television professionals to salvage what they can of the professional production companies who have remained and tried working with them.A At Maxima Vision Films, we have experienced the same thing in this region as far as finding sufficient professionally trained talent to do here what we had planned to do in this region. The tidal volume and respiratory frequency vary amongst species and can also be affected by age, pregnancy, exercise, excitement, temperature, and body size. When I speak of this region, I am speaking of the region of Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Louisiana. Horses have an average respiration of 12 times per minute, but pigs breathe an average of 40 times per minute.Horses are obligate nasal breathers, which means that they must breathe through their noses.
We have two investment groups, one of which has already committed to funding four feature films or television productions per year over the next five years here in this region with Maxima. Humans and many other mammals can breathe through either their mouths or their nasal passages. We want to shoot films that matter, films which can help to shape our culture positively as opposed to negatively. It is thought that this modification allows horses to graze with their heads down while separate nasal passages breath in air and sniff for potential predators.Marine mammals breathe oxygen with lungs just like their terrestrial brethren, but with a few differences. These films will be marketed directly to the Christian community, which when one considers 70% of the USA population are professed Christian, this is an enormous market.
First of all, to prevent water from getting into their airway they have adapted muscles or cartilaginous flaps to seal their tracheas when under the water. Additionally, they exchange up to 90% of their gases in a single breath, which helps them gather as much oxygen as possible. Lastly, it can be dangerous for diving mammals to have air in their lungs when they dive to great depths. We are certain if we can keep our production cost down under a million dollars the odds are in our favor of at least breaking even if not making a few dollars, especially considering telling stories that matter.
For this reason, many marine mammals will prepare for a deep dive by taking a breath, exchanging gases in the blood, and exhaling to empty their lungs. If we can keep our films under $500,000 the odds go up even further, and we know one film in 6-7 will make a substantial return. Reptiles and AmphibiansReptiles and amphibians both have lungs and exchange gases in the capillaries like mammals, but there are some differences in how they ventilate their respiratory systems. Reptiles do not typically breathe the same way as mammals since many reptiles lack a diaphragm. Our main goal though is telling stories that matter, that might help shape our culture positively, and we can all make a decent living while doing what we are all passionate about doing. A To accomplish all of this though, we are going to have to raise the bar here in this Texas region as far as talent goes. We are diligently seeking those individuals who have a real passion for film making and television productions, who are driven by this passion to do whatever it takes to one day be able to make a living in a industry that chances are very bleak in anyone getting to a point of making a living.
However, one thing is for certain, to have any chance at all, the more one is willing to do in the industry, whether it be sweeping the floors, taking coffee to the director, or being the lead role, or simply investment of time, energy, and money to keep perfecting their craft, all tends to lead to work, which gives us more exposure, that in turn leads to more work, etc, etc, etca€¦ A The point is this; we have investors, which is something, if not the one and only thing which keeps most from doing what they truly want to do in this industry! Throat muscles then pump and move the floor of the mouth up in a way that Is visible from the outside. These investors are seeking individuals like yourself who are like minded, those who have a real passion for film making and television productions, but who are also just as passionate about telling stores that matter. However, the real key is finding these like minded individuals who take this business very serious, as serious as our investors take it, those who are willing to invest into their own future, so as to help them to perfect their individual craft so that they are the very best they can become, so that as a collaborative art form we are able as a group of individuals creating a quality product. Apart from their capillaries, amphibians can also perform gas exchange directly through their highly vascularized skin. Since the blood vessels are close to their permeable skin surface, diffusion can take place right through the skin.
In fact, some salamanders have no lungs at all, and they get all of their oxygen through their skin.
We wouldn't recommend a staring contest, either.BirdsThe respiratory system of birds is similar to that of mammals. After he began his own recovery, he helped set up centers to help other addicts."I abandoned my old life to serve the Lord Jesus Christ," he said. This progression of air through the bird means that the lungs are compressed during inhalation and expand during exhalation.
It also takes two full inhalations and exhalations to move one gulp of air through the bird.
In humans, this is not the case since there is only one pathway to the lungs and it is used for both entry and exit. During flight, air sacs and lungs are continuously filled with oxygen rich air which provides maximal air to be absorbed into the blood stream, which is necessary for the high metabolism needed for flight.Aquatic RespirationIn fish, respiration takes place in their gills. One twin struggles with an addition to prescription drugs, while the other battles doctors whose prescription anti-psychotics are driving her sister to madness and death.a€?One is what I call a€?preachya€™ and more for the church community and affirming faith,a€? Maxwell said.
Each filament is lined with rows of lamellae, and the gas exchange takes place as water flows through them. The frills and flaps increase the surface area to allow more gas exchange to take place, just as the alveoli do in the lungs.Fish utilize a countercurrent exchange pathway (except for cartilaginous fish), which means that their arteries are arranged so that blood flows in the opposite direction of water movement against the gills. By having their respiration pathway in this orientation, maximum gas exchange can take place. If the blood and the water were moving in the same direction, the blood would always be next to the same bit of water which would soon be depleted of oxygen.
With the first type of film we will focus on films which are considered preachy and on the nose which will be marketed directly to the Christian community. By setting up a countercurrent pathway, the blood is always passing water that still has oxygen. The second types of films we will focus on are those designed to reach the un-churched with a message of hope for a hurting world, a film with at least a redemptive message. This allows the blood to gather as much oxygen as it can hold.Since water must be flowing over the gills to provide a continual source of oxygen, fish have developed several ways to keep them ventilated.
This investment group is especially interested in getting involved with projects where the project owner has some sort of invested interest in the project themselves or have some avenue to put together a split funded project somehow, thus splitting the risk as well.A A Thus, this investment group funded many trips around the country for Dr.
Maxwell to travel and meet with other investment individuals, companies and groups who had expressed interest in partnerships with the films we were already in pre-production stage which were our films a€?Rachela€™s Gracea€? and a€?Sister Surrendereda€?, both of which had an estimated production budget of around $300,000. Other fish have a special flap called an operculum, which is used to force water across the gills. We had felt with partnering with others who could double the production budget we could add at least some actors with much experience as well as other talents. Unfortunately, at this point, though we met many such investment groups who had expressed interest in split funding our film projects, most simply had projects themselves who they wanted our investment group to invest in their film projects and did not show us even any interest what so ever in split funding our film projects after our investment group paid travel and lodging expenses for Dr Maxwell to meet with these people. A With this being said, this has been a very expensive summer for our investment group in trying to put together split funded film projects. Similarly, there are also certain land crabs that use gills to breathe outside of the water.
Image from here.Brain SnackDid you know that in mammals fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin does?
In order to compete with the mother's blood, fetuses have a special form of hemoglobin that binds oxygen better and can compensate for the disadvantage of the placental barrier.
The fetal hemoglobin lasts in the infant's brain until approximately six months after birth.

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