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A beautiful cuban girl is very caring and faithful when it comes to loving and taking care of their husbands. Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, consists of the island of Cuba (the largest of the Greater Antilles), the Isle of Youth and several adjacent small islands.
Cuba is perhaps the most well-known Caribbean nation due to its pivotal role in world politics in the twentieth century. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camaguey. Natural resources include cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, silica, and petroleum. The recorded history of Cuba began on October 28, 1492, when Christopher Columbus sighted the island during his first voyage of discovery and claimed it for Spain.
The coast of Cuba was fully mapped by Sebastian de Ocampo in 1511, the same year the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velazquez de Cuellar at Baracoa.
During this time the island was plagued by recurring waves of disease: cholera, malaria, and influenza. Castillo de los Tres Reyes del Morro (Morro Castle (fortress), built in 1589 to guard the eastern entrance to Havana Bay). Cuba was a Spanish possession for 388 years, ruled by a governor in Havana, with an economy based on plantation agriculture and the export of sugar, coffee and tobacco to Europe and later to North America. An English fleet under command of Lord Albermarle took control of the island in the Battle of Havana in 1762, part of the Seven Years' War, but rule was restored to Spain the following year.
An additional factor was the continuous migration of Spaniards to Cuba from all social strata, a demographic trend that had ceased in other Spanish possessions decades before and which contributed to the slow development of a Cuban national identity.
Agitation for Cuban independence from Spain revived in the latter half of the nineteenth century, leading to a rebellion in 1868 led by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, now known as the "father of the revolution," a wealthy planter from Oriente province who freed his slaves, proclaimed a war and was named President of the Cuban Republic-in-arms. Pro-independence agitation temporarily died down, but the nationalist leader Antonio Maceo and several others refused to accept the Spanish conditions.
During the 1890s, pro-independence agitation revived, fueled by resentment of the restrictions imposed on Cuban trade by Spain and hostility to Spain’s increasingly oppressive and incompetent administration of Cuba. In 1897 Spain moved to a more conciliatory policy, promising home rule with an elected legislature.
Theodore Roosevelt, who had fought in the Spanish-American War and had some sympathies with the independence movement, succeeded McKinley as President of the United States in 1901 and abandoned the 20-year treaty proposal.
Independent Cuba soon ran into difficulties as a result of factional disputes and corruption among the small educated elite and the failure of the government to deal with the deep social problems left behind by the Spanish.
In August 1933, elements of the Cuban army staged a coup which deposed Machado and installed Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, son of Cuba's founding father, as President.
In 1934, Batista and the army, who were the real center of power in Cuba, replaced Grau with Carlos Mendieta y Montefur. With the support of the communist-controlled labor unions, Batista was elected President and his administration carried out major social reforms and introduced a new progressive constitution. In 1948, Grau was succeeded by Carlos Prio Socarras, who had been Grau's minister of labor and was particularly disliked by the Communists.
Bullet-ridden truck used in the attack on the Presidential Palace in Havana by the Directorio Revolucionario and the Organizacion Autentica in 1957. The internal decay of Batista's government and resultant suffering of the population and their frustrations gave power to the opposition that brought about to his downfall, led by Fidel Castro.
Castro had been a legislative candidate for elections in 1952 that were aborted by Batista. Castro and other surviving members of his group managed to escape to an area of the rugged Sierra Maestra mountains east of Santiago where they were eventually discovered and captured. In Mexico, Castro met Argentine–born Ernesto "Che" Guevara, a proponent of guerrilla warfare. On November 26, 1956, Castro and his band of 81 rebels, mostly Cuban exiles, set out from Tuxpan, Mexico aboard the yacht Granma for Cuba. From their encampment in the Sierra Maestra mountains, the 26th of July Movement waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government.
Through 1957 and 1958, opposition to Batista grew, especially among the upper and middle classes and the students, among the hierarchy of the Catholic Church and in many rural areas. Fidel Castro became Prime Minister of Cuba in February 1959, and held effective power in the country until formally handing it over to his brother, Raul Castro, in 2008. During 1959, Castro’s government carried out measures such as the confiscation of private real estate, the nationalization of public utilities, and began a campaign to institute tighter controls on the private sector such as the closing down of the gambling industry. Summary executions of suspected Batista collaborators, coupled with the seizure of Cuban-owned businesses and the rapid demise of the independent press, nominally attributed to the powerful pro-revolution printing unions, raised questions about the nature of the new government.
Cubans began to leave their country in great numbers and formed a burgeoning expatriate community in Miami. In October 1959, Castro openly declared himself to be friendly towards Communism, though he did not yet claim to be a Communist himself, while the liberal and other anti-Communist elements of the government were purged. At the same time, the Kennedy administration authorized plans for an invasion of Cuba by Florida-based Cuban exiles, taking advantage of anti-Castro uprisings which were repressed.
In October 1962 a major confrontation occurred between the United States and Cuba which marked the closest point which the world had come to engaging in a nuclear war. During 1963, relations deteriorated again as Castro moved Cuba towards a fully-fledged Communist system modeled on the Soviet Union. In 1965, Castro merged his revolutionary organizations with the Communist Party, of which he became First Secretary, with Blas Roca as Second Secretary; later to be succeeded by Raul Castro, who as Defense Minister and Fidel’s closest confidant became the second most powerful figure in the government.
During the 1970s, Castro moved onto the world stage as a leading spokesperson for Third World "anti-imperialist" governments. Cuba’s economic dependence on the Soviet Union was deepened by Castro’s determination to build his vision of a socialist society in Cuba. Fidel Castro and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau join together in song, January 1976. The storming of the Peruvian embassy in Havana in April 1980 by 7000 Cuban citizens seeking political asylum and the resultant permission granted for them to leave the nation, led to the "Mariel boatlift" to the U.S. The two countries signed an agreement in 1987 allowing 20,000 Cubans to emigrate annually to the United States.
Castro’s popularity was severely tested by the aftermath of the Soviet collapse, which led to a cut off in aid, the loss of a guaranteed export market for Cuban sugar and the loss of a source of cheap imported oil.
In 1997, Christmas was restored as a national holiday, as the nation anticipated a visit by Pope John Paul II the following year. By the late 1990s Cuba had more or less normal economic relations with most Latin American countries and had improved relations with the European Union, which began providing aid and loans to the island. Castro maintained a firm grip on power, however, speculation grew on the state of his health, and rumors abounded. Revolution Square: Jose Marti Monument designed by Enrique Luis Varela, sculpture by Juan Jose Sicre and finished in 1958.
Following the enactment of the Socialist Constitution of 1976, which was adopted without following the procedures laid out in the Constitution of 1940, the Republic of Cuba was defined as a socialist state. Cuba's national legislature, the National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular), is the supreme organ of State power and has 609 members who serve five-year terms.
No political party is permitted to nominate candidates or campaign on the island, though the Communist Party of Cuba has held five party congress meetings since 1975. Since Cuba became a declared socialist republic in 1961, the United States Government has initiated various policy measures against Cuba which have had a considerable political and economic effect on the island; these have variously been designed to remove the leadership and to encourage Cuba to undertake political change towards a multi-party electoral process. The Cuban government has been accused of numerous human rights abuses, including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, extra-judicial executions.[21] Dissidents complain of harassment and torture. Fourteen provinces and one special municipality (the Isla de la Juventud) now comprise Cuba. The Cuban Government adheres to socialist principles in organizing its largely state-controlled planned economy. After the 1959 Cuban Revolution, citizens were not required to pay a personal income tax (their salaries being regarded as net of any taxes). In the early 1990s, the end of Communist rule in Eastern Europe meant the end of Soviet subsidies for Cuba's state-run economy.
Like some other Communist and post-Communist states following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba took limited free market-oriented measures to alleviate severe shortages of food, consumer goods, and services to make up for the ending of Soviet subsidies.
In recent years, since the rise of Venezuela's socialist President Hugo Chavez, Venezuelan economic aid has enabled Cuba to improve economically. In 2001, studies showed that the average Cuban's standard of living was lower than before the downturn of the post-Soviet period. Recently, large reserves of oil were found in the North Cuba Basin sparking interest from other nations as well as calls from politicians in the U.S. According to Cuba's official 2002 Census, the Cuban population was 11,177,743, including 5,597,233 men and 5,580,510 women. The Chinese population in Cuba is descended mostly from laborers who arrived in the nineteenth century to build railroads and work in mines. The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan area (home to nearly 20 percent of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. Cuba, which has unrestricted access to legal abortion, has an abortion rate of 58.6 per 1,000 pregnancies in 1996 compared to a Caribbean average of 35, a Latin American average of 27, and a European average of 48. Immigration and emigration have had noticeable effects on the demographic profile of Cuba during the twentieth century.
Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Its people, culture and customs draw from several sources including the aboriginal Taino and Ciboney peoples, the period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves, and its proximity to the United States.
A pawn during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear world war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. At the southeastern end is the Sierra Maestra, a range of steep mountains whose highest point is the Pico Real del Turquino at 2,005 meters (6,578 ft). In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October.
Better known smaller towns include Baracoa which was the first Spanish settlement on Cuba, Trinidad, a UNESCO world heritage site, and Bayamo.
The island had been inhabited by Amerindian peoples known as the Guanahatabey and Ciboney in the western section, with the Taino peoples in the remaining area.


Hernando Cortes' expedition utilized 400 Spaniards and 3000 Indians, depleting the population. The Spanish population was boosted by settlers leaving Haiti when that territory was ceded to France in 1697. In the 1820s, when the other parts of Spain’s empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal, although there was some agitation for independence.
This resulted in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years' War between pro-independence forces and the Spanish Army, allied with local supporters.[9] At the Convention of Zanjon in 1878, Spain promised to reform the island's political and economic system. In 1879 Calixto Garcia began another uprising, (known as "la guerra chiquita" - the little war) but received little support.
Few of the promises for economic reform made by the Spanish government in the Pact of Zanjon were kept. The writer and poet Jose Marti who had organized the war over a ten-year period while in exile in the U.S. Congress passed a resolution calling for intervention and President William McKinley was quick to comply. Instead, the Republic of Cuba gained formal independence on May 20, 1902, with the independence leader Tomas Estrada Palma becoming the country’s first president. In 1906, following disputed elections to choose Estrada Palma’s successor, an armed revolt broke out and the U.S. The Gomez administration, which lasted until 1913, set a pattern of graft, corruption, maladministration, fiscal irresponsibility, and social insensitivity—especially toward Afro-Cubans. In September, however, a second coup led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista overthrew Cespedes leading to the formation of the first Ramon Grau San Martin government.
Prio was a less principled liberal than Grau and, under his administration, corruption increased notably.
When it became apparent that Batista had little chance of winning the 1952 election, he staged a coup (March 10, 1952) and held power with the backing of a nationalist section of the army as a “provisional president” for the next two years.
As the nation grew increasingly discontent, Castro formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raul, and Mario Chanes de Armas. Guevara joined the group of rebels and became an important force in shaping Castro's evolving political beliefs. Landing at Playa Las Coloradas near the eastern city of Manzanillo on December 2, they were routed and nearly annihilated by security forces. In the cities and major towns also, resistance groups were organizing until underground groups were everywhere. Attitudes towards the Cuban revolution both in Cuba and in the United States were changing rapidly. Many were angry at Castro's revolutionary government due to its seizure of private property in Cuba and the increasing number of "paredones," the summary executions of those who opposed his government. Within six months of coming to power, he had sent agents to initiate revolutions in several Latin American countries, and established diplomatic and economic ties with leading socialist powers. On October 28, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev informed Kennedy that work on the missile sites would cease and missiles already in Cuba would be returned to the Soviet Union. Raul Castro’s position was strengthened by the departure of Che Guevara to launch unsuccessful attempts at insurrectionist movements in Congo, and then Bolivia, where he was killed in 1967. On a more concrete level, he provided invaluable military assistance to pro-Soviet forces in Angola, Ethiopia, Yemen and other African and Middle Eastern trouble spots. Tens of thousands have arrived illegally to the United States and elsewhere since the days of the revolution, with an uncounted number who died at sea.
It also caused, as in all Communist countries, a crisis in confidence for those who believed that the Soviet Union was successfully "building socialism" and providing a model that other countries should follow. China also emerged as a new source of aid and support, even though Cuba had sided with the Soviets during the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. On July 31, 2006, Fidel Castro delegated his duties as President of the Council of State, President of the Council of Ministers, First Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party, and the post of commander in chief of the armed forces to his brother and First Vice President, Raul Castro. The assembly meets twice a year, between sessions legislative power is held by the 31 member Council of Ministers. In 1997, the party claimed 780,000 members, and representatives generally constitute at least half of the Councils of state and the National Assembly.
The most significant of these measures is the United States embargo against Cuba and the subsequent Helms-Burton Act of 1996.
While the Cuban government placed a moratorium on capital punishment in 2001, it made an exception for perpetrators of an armed hijacking two years later.
Unions do not register with any state agency, and are self-financed from monthly membership dues.
These in turn were formerly part of six larger historical provinces: Pinar del Rio, Habana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camaguey and Oriente.
From 1975 until the late 1980s, massive Soviet military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities.
Most of the means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba depended on Moscow for sheltered markets for its exports and substantial aid.
These steps included allowing some self-employment in certain retail and light manufacturing sectors, the legalization of the use of the U.S. Production has fallen due to a series of hurricanes and droughts, which have devastated its crop area. Venezuela's assistance to the Cuban economy comes chiefly through its supply of up to 80,000 barrels of oil per day in exchange for professional services and agricultural products. Paramount issues have been state salaries failing to meet personal needs under the state rationing system which is chronically plagued with shortages. Cuba's major exports are sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, coffee and skilled labor. After the Industrial Revolution, many of these laborers stayed in Cuba because they could not afford return passage to China. Additionally, contraceptive use is estimated at 79 percent.[35] With its high abortion rate, low birth rate, and aging population, Cuba's demographic profile more resembles those of former Communist Eastern European countries such as Poland or Ukraine, rather than those of its Latin American and Caribbean neighbors.
Cuba is south of the eastern United States and the Bahamas, west of the Turks and Caicos Islands and Haiti and east of Mexico.
The island has a tropical climate that is moderated by the surrounding waters; however, the warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba itself almost completely blocks access to the Gulf of Mexico, make Cuba prone to frequent hurricanes. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the nation is attempting to dig out from decades under a communist and socialist system and is re-establishing relationships with free and advanced nations. The Taino, a sophisticated agricultural society, were related to the Arawakan peoples of South America who had migrated to the Greater Antilles. By 1550 the native population had been decimated mainly by European-introduced disease and maltreatment. This was partly because the prosperity of the Cuban settlers depended on their export trade to Europe, partly through fears of a slave rebellion (as had happened in Haiti) if the Spanish withdrew and partly because the Cubans feared the rising power of the United States.
During this period, the rural poverty in Spain provoked by the Spanish Revolution of 1868 and its aftermath led to an even greater Spanish emigration to Cuba. Annual trade between Cuba and the United States had reached about $100 million, but in 1894 Spain canceled a Cuban-U.S. In 1896 Spain placed 200,000 troops on the island who ushered rural residents into urban camps. By this time however, most of the population had begun to sympathize with the rebels and the war for independence continued.
Led by Evaristo Estenoz and Pedro Ivonet the African-Cuban community was organized to secure better jobs and more political patronage. This government lasted just 100 days, but engineered radical liberal changes in Cuban society and a rejection of the Platt amendment. The leader of the constitutional liberals Ramon Grau San Martin refused to support him, forcing him to turn instead to the Communist Party of Cuba, which had grown in size and influence during the 1930s. However, the majority of rural workers earned only about one-fourth this amount and lived in poverty. Together they actively plotted to overthrow Batista, collecting guns and ammunition and finalizing their plans for an armed attack on Moncada Barracks, Batista's largest garrison outside Santiago de Cuba. After having served less than two years, he was released in May 1955 due to a general amnesty from Batista who was under political pressure. Guevara's observations of the misery of the poor in Latin America had already convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution. A dozen survivors, including Castro, his brother Raul and Guevara retreated to the Sierra Maestra and began a guerrilla campaign.
He reported that the romantic revolutionary was no Communist; in fact, the local Communists opposed him.
At the same time several Cuban military commanders sympathized with the rebellion or joined it. These measures were undertaken by his government in the name of the program that he had outlined in the ''Manifiesto de Montecristi'' while in the Sierra Maestra. Many Cuban citizens who had initially supported the revolution fled the country to join the growing exile community in Miami.
These were medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles that had the capability of reaching the eastern United States within a few minutes following launch from Cuba. It is believed by political experts that this was due in large part to the humiliation suffered by the USSR during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Osvaldo Dorticos Torrado, President of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, was a figurehead of little importance. Through the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviets were prepared to subsidize all this in exchange for the strategic asset of an ally under the nose of the United States and the undoubted propaganda value of Castro’s considerable prestige in the developing world.
Cuba had been expelled from the Organization of American States in 1962 and the OAS had cooperated with the U.S. In all, over 125,000 Cubans—some of them criminals released from prisons—emigrated to the United States before the flow of vessels ended on June 15. In Cuba, however, these events were not sufficient to persuade Cuban Communists that they should voluntarily give up power. Cuba also found new allies in President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela and President Evo Morales of Bolivia, major oil and gas exporters.


This transfer of duties was initially described as temporary while Castro recovered from surgery undergone after suffering from an "acute intestinal crisis with sustained bleeding." He was too ill to attend the nationwide commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Granma boat landing on December 2, 2006, which fueled speculation that Castro had stomach cancer. In his acceptance speech, Raul Castro promised that some of the restrictions that limit Cubans' daily lives would be removed. Many believe that the Cuban government does not meet the minimal standards of a democracy, especially through its lack of multi-party contests for seats and the limitations on free speech that limit a candidate's ability to campaign.[20] The Cuban government, its supporters and other observers within and outside Cuba argue that Cuba has a form of democracy, citing the extensive participation in the nomination process at the national and municipal level.
Their supporters claim that union officers are elected on an open basis, and differing political views are found within each of the unions. The present subdivisions closely resemble those of Spanish military provinces during the Cuban Wars of Independence, when the most troublesome areas were subdivided. Since the loss of Soviet subsidies, Cuba has dramatically scaled down the numbers of military personnel, from 235,000 in 1994 to about 60,000 in 2003. The Soviets had been paying above-market prices for Cuban sugar, while providing Cuba with petroleum at below-market prices. In the last several years, Cuba has rolled back some of the market–oriented measures undertaken in the 1990s. As the variety and amount of rationed goods available declined, Cubans increasingly turned to the black market to obtain basic food, clothing, household, and health amenities. DNA studies throughout the Antilles region have suggested that the contribution of indigenous neo-Taino Nations to the local populations may be more significant than formerly believed. Since 1959, over a million Cubans have left the island, primarily to Miami, Florida, where a vocal, well-educated and economically successful exile community exists.[36] The emigration that occurred immediately following the Cuban Revolution was primarily of the upper and middle classes that were predominantly white, thus contributing to a demographic shift along with changes in birth rates and racial identifications among the various ethnic groups. The main island of Cuba constitutes most of the nation's land area (105,006 km? or 40,543 square miles) and is the 17th-largest island in the world by land area.
Cuba lies in the path of hurricanes, and these destructive storms are most common in September and October. Large areas were cleared in order to grow sugar cane, resulting in the need to import timber.
Aspects of the region's aboriginal heritage has survived, however, in part due to the rise of a significant Mestizo population.[8] By 1570, most residents were of mixed ancestry, a mixture of Spanish, African, and Indian heritages. Commercial activity had essentially ceased and news of Spanish atrocities on the island reached the U.S. The Partido Autentico put forward ex-President Grau as their candidate, but he withdrew amid allegations that Batista was rigging the elections in advance. He and a group of friends went to Mexico to prepare for the overthrow of the Cuban government.
By late 1958, the rebels had succeeded in breaking out of the Sierra Maestra and launched a general insurrection, joined by hundreds of students and others fleeing Batista’s crackdown on dissent in the cities.
The New York Times front page stories by Herbert Matthews presented Castro as a romantic and appealing revolutionary, bearded and dressed in rumpled fatigues. When the rebels captured Santa Clara, east of Havana, Batista decided the struggle was futile and fled the country to exile in Portugal and later Spain.
He failed to enact the most important elements of his reform program, however, which was to call elections under the Electoral Code of 1943 within the first 18 months of his time in power and to restore all of the provisions of the Constitution of 1940 that had been suspended under Batista. Kennedy, plans were approved to remove Castro from power (known as "Operation Mongoose" or, "The Cuban Project"). Castro introduced a new constitution in 1976 under which he became President himself, while remaining chairman of the Council of Ministers.
Although the bills for these expeditionary forces were paid by the Soviets, they placed a considerable strain on Cuba’s economy and manpower resources.
However, the efforts of the exiles to foment an anti-Castro movement inside Cuba, let alone a revolution there, met limited success.
Castro again drew international criticism when, in 1999, prominent dissidents were jailed and repressive laws were enacted. All Cuban citizens over 16 years of age who have not been found guilty of a criminal offense can vote. Other political parties campaign and raise finances internationally, while activity within Cuba by opposition groups is minimal and illegal.
However, all unions are part of an organization called the Confederacion de Trabajadores Cubanos (Confederation of Cuban Workers, CTC), which does maintain close ties with the state and the Communist Party.
The removal of these subsidies sent the Cuban economy into a rapid depression known in Cuba as the Special Period. In 1996 tourism surpassed the sugar industry as the largest source of hard currency for Cuba. Seeking to normalize migration between the two countries - particularly after the chaos that accompanied the Mariel boatlift - Cuba and the United States in 1994 agreed (in what is commonly called the 1994 Clinton-Castro accords) to limit emigration to the United States. The second largest island in Cuba is the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the southwest, with an area of 1180 square miles (3056 km?). Intermarriage was common due to the absence of women emigrants as well as the military nature of the conquest. Many of these arrived after 1820, the year that Spain and Great Britain had agreed would be the end of slave trading in the Spanish colonies. Contract workers, Mexican-Indian and Chinese, joined the labor force, taking on tasks as degrading and dangerous as the slaves faced. During the summer of 1848, President James Polk quietly authorized his ambassador to Spain, Romulus Mitchell Saunders, to negotiate the purchase of Cuba, offering up to $100 million, an astonishing sum of money at the time for one territory. During his rule, however, Cubans gained greater control over their own economy and major national development projects were undertaken. At the end of his term in 1944, in accordance with the constitution, Batista stepped down and Ramon Grau was elected to succeed him. Nevertheless Prio carried out major reforms such as founding a National Bank and stabilizing the Cuban currency. Much of the country suffered a lack of public services, as well as unemployment and underemployment. In late 1960, a trade embargo was imposed, which strengthened Castro's ties with the Soviet Union, who stepped in to buy tons of Cuban sugar. For the next several days Soviet ships which had already been en route to Cuba altered course away from the blockade zone.
It was also learned that Kennedy quietly promised the withdrawal of nuclear-armed missiles from Turkey which the U.S.
In 1993 Cuba began to legalize small family-owned businesses, such as restaurants and encouraged private employment. Though the Cuban constitution has language pertaining to freedom of speech, rights are limited by Article 62, which states that "None of the freedoms which are recognized for citizens can be exercised contrary to the existence and objectives of the socialist state, or contrary to the decision of the Cuban people to build socialism and communism. Supporters claim that the CTC allows workers to have their voice heard in government; opponents claim that the government uses it to control the trade unions and appoint their leaders. In 1992, the United States tightened the trade embargo contributing to a drop in Cuban living standards which approached crisis point within a year. Cuba has tripled its market share of Caribbean tourism in the last decade, with large investment in tourism infrastructure this growth rate is predicted to continue. Cuba has a total land area of 42,803 square miles (110,860 km?), slightly smaller than the U.S.
At the same time, the British navy attacked slave ships, and the Americans abolished slavery. His hold on power was weakened by the Great Depression, which drove down the price of Cuba’s agricultural exports and caused widespread poverty.
The influx of North American money fueled an economic boom which did much to raise living standards and create a prosperous middle class in most urban areas, although the gap between rich and poor became wider and more obvious. A number of foreign investors controlled the economy, owning a great percentage of the arable land, essential services and still–profitable sugar production. This, in turn, may have influenced Castro's movement away from the liberal elements of his revolutionary movement and increased the power of hardline Marxist figures in the government, notably Che Guevara, although this theory is open to debate.
The Soviets were forced to provide further economic assistance by buying the entire Cuban sugar crop, even though they grew enough sugar beet to meet their own needs. Both countries had hoped to foster liberalization in Cuba by allowing trade, cultural and diplomatic contacts to resume—in this they were disappointed, since there was no appreciable easing of repression against domestic opposition.
Individual vote totals, which are invariably high, are not verified by non-partisan, independent, or non-state organs and observers. Violations of this principle can be punished by law." Almost all adult Cubans participate in the community-based Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, which play a central role in daily life.
Increased US government restrictions on travel by Cuban-Americans and on the numbers of dollars they could transport to Cuba strengthened Cuban government control over dollars circulating in the economy.
The African slave trade ended in 1865, though it took another 21 years before slavery was abolished in Cuba. Cuba today does not celebrate May 20 as their date of independence, but instead October 10, as the first declaration of independence. Grau’s liberals were bitter enemies of the Communists and Batista opposed most of Grau’s program. In exchange, the Soviets supplied Cuba with all its fuel, since it could not import oil from any other source. Castro did stop openly supporting insurrectionist movements against Latin American governments, although pro-Castro groups continued to fight the military dictatorships which then controlled most Latin American countries. Nominees are chosen at local gatherings from multiple candidates before gaining approval from election committees.
These groups are designed to coordinate public projects, protect and ensure socialist ideology among the citizenry, and act as a neighborhood watchdog against "counter-revolutionary" activity.
This has led to speculation of the emergence of a two-tier economy and the fostering of a state of tourist apartheid on the island.
It has 3,735 km of coastline and 29 km of land borders—all with the leased United States territory at Guantanamo Bay, where the U.S. In the subsequent election, there is just one candidate for each seat, who must gain a majority to be elected. The Cuban independence movement bitterly opposed this arrangement, but unlike the Philippines, where events had followed a similar course, there was no outbreak of armed resistance.



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