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In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries numerous important revolutions and attempted revolutions took place in Europe and in Japan. After Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by the Quadruple Alliance (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia), the conquerors stationed troops in Paris for ten years. Revolts broke out in France, Italy, Prussia, Russia, and Austria, all seeking a revolution like that earlier in France in 1789.
In 1853 Napoleon III declared himself to be the new Emperor of the Second French Republic and served as a strong emperor in a constitutional government from 1852 to 1870. During his reign, Napoleon III led France into a new growth in industrialization in an attempt to catch up with the great industrial progress being made in England and the United States. For centuries Russia was considered to be the protector of Orthodox Christians living in the Holy Land and protector of the buildings sacred to the Orthodox Christians. When Napoleon became emperor of France he demanded that the Ottomans consider France as the Christian protector in the Holy Lands.This infuriated Russia. Question: Why would the Christian queen Victoria of Great Britain declare war against her blood relative, the Czar of Russia, and enter the war as an ally of the Muslim Ottoman Turks?!
Queen Victoria feared that if Russia was allowed to march through the Crimean nations unopposed, Russia would take that as a signal that it could do the same elsewhere. The war was fought on land and sea and took place primarily in the Danube Peninsula, the Black Sea, and other parts of the Crimea. The war also brought an end to the Quadruple Alliance (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) that had formed to stop Napoleon I at Waterloo.
Russia was defeated in 1856, its navy was virtually destroyed, many of its ports in the Black Sea damaged, its economy greatly weakened, and produced great political and popular embarrassment to the Czar.
Two dominant Japanese tribal leaders merged their territories and people into a new alliance in 1866 and challenged the existing ruling government of the Tokugawa Shogunate. As a result, the Japanese, seeking to enter the world economic scene, overthrew the Shogunate and enthroned the Meiji Emperor in Tokyo in 1868. Prussiaa€™s influence and power had advanced rapidly under Kaiser Wilhelm I and his prime minister, Otto Von Bismarck. Napoleon III was convinced that if France waited any longer, Prussia would attempt to pry German-speaking Alsace and Lorraine from French control and perhaps invade France itself. Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia and his prime minister, Otto Von Hindenberg, were able to unite all of the Lutheran German states in the north and even the three Catholic southern states against France. Because of the unity and German pride experienced in the Franco-Prussian War, the many Germany states determined to unite into one nation.
As a result of the war, in 1871 the French abolished the emperora€™s throne and formed a new democratic government with a parliament and a president.
Meanwhile, a great industrial revolution was taking place in Great Britain, Europe, and the USA. New inventions caused a virtual explosion in the textile industry, including the cotton gin, steam powered weaving looms and spinning machinery.
New machinery for farming, including the use of fertilizers and crop rotation, steam powered tractors and combines, greatly increased food production.
Many critics, however, upset at the conditions in the cities and the dirty conditions and long hours demanded of men, women, and children in the factories and coal mines, placed the blame on capitalism or the free enterprise system. Capitalism and the free enterprise system became the economic system especially in the USA, Great Britain, and Canada. The governments of the world should be run by the working class, not the managers and factory owners. The working class (he referred to them as a€?the proletariata€?) should take power away from the factory owners and the wealthy (he referred to these as a€?the bourgeoisea€?) and form a new workersa€™ democracy. Eventually, in a society where the wealth is redistributed by the working class, social and economic classes will disappear -- this would then be a classless society. Vladimir Lenin was in the 1890s an outspoken opponent of the Tsar in Russia and the Russian monarchy. He returned to Russia to participate in the Revolution of 1905 which was brutally defeated by the Tsara€™s army. Defeat in the Crimean War (1854-56), defeat by Japan in the Sino-Russian War in 1903, and tremendous losses during World War I, created such national embarrassment and public uproar in Russia that the Tsar abdicated in 1917.
A provisional parliamentary government was formed, Russia pulled its troops from World War I where it had been an ally of Great Britain, France, and the USA against Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire. Upon his return to Russia in 1917 Lenin quickly rose to leadership and eventually became the head of a newly installed, military backed communist government, the first in the history of the world. Stalin furthered the growth of communist power in Russia and formed the Soviet Socialist Republic, comprised of Russian and 14 neighboring nations. Economic turmoil at home and the rise of reformists in the Russian government prevented the Soviet military from responding to the uprisings in Eastern Europe. Ronald Reagan and Michael Gorbachev, the Soviet leader, held a number of peace conferences, attempting to find a peaceful solution to the Cold War. A coup in 1990 led by communist politicos and army officers attempted to reinstate a communist dictatorship.
Free elections were held and Russia, for the first time in her history, experienced her first freely held elections. France under Napoleon III invaded Prussia in 1870.A  This was an ill-fated move by Napoleon III. Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia and his prime minister, Otto Von Hindenberg, were able to unite all of the Lutheran German states in the north and even the three Catholic southern states against France.A  In fact, Bismarck deliberately prodded Napoleon to declare war using Prussian troop movements along the French borders to do so. Another claim to fame: Ita€™s believed Philipa€™s words inspired Jeffersona€™s indelible phrase a€?all men are created equala€? in the Declaration of Independence. When Francesco Mazzei was growing up, Philip was not just some dusty portrait in the stairwell of Castello di Fonteruoli, a medieval property that the Mazzei family inherited in 1435 a€” 57 years before Christopher Columbus discovered America. The American chapter of Philipa€™s life began when he was running a trading company in London that imported agricultural products from Tuscany.

Philip quickly entered political circles in Virginia, where he was welcomed for his liberal ideas and his wit and energy.
In the library of Castello di Fonterutoli, giant tomes line the walls, each with refined, spidery handwriting crawling down the leather spine.
Made with natural yeast and minimal interference, Philip is matured for 24 months in barrique, primarily American oak thata€™s about 40 percent new. For a profile of Francesco Mazzei and the winery, see a€?Keeping up with the Mazzeia€™s,a€? in the blog Living La Dolce Vita. The monarchy and King Louis Philippe were overthrown and a temporary government was installed until presidential and parliamentary elections could be held.
The Second French Republic was a constitutional monarchy, similar to that in England, but with more power entrusted to Napoleon III.
It was referred to as a€?the Sick Old Man of Europe.a€? Many of the countries that it had controlled for several hundred years were clamoring for independence. When negotiations with the Ottomans broke down, Russia invaded several of the Crimean countries long held by the Ottomans.
To maintain the balance of power in Europe, Victoria believed that Great Britain had to defend the Ottomans. Japan moved from being a feudal society and economy to a capitalist economic system and a nation determined to enter the world market rather than continue their traditional isolationism. France was easily and quickly defeated and Napoleon III was captured, jailed, and then exiled. For the first time in history the numerous German states became a unified nation in 1870 with their new capitol in Berlin and Kaiser Wilhelm I as their constitutional emperor. Factories, at first placed next to rivers for water power, were able to be relocated to cities with the invention of steam power. The cities became centers for urban blight: overcrowding, filthy streets, poor water supplies, sewers virtually non existent, disease, alcoholism, crime, prostitution, and illegitimate births. It was the free enterprise system espoused by Adam Smith in 1766 in his famous work, a€?The Wealth of Nations,a€? that was to blame. Marx wrote a widely read work, The Communist Manifesto, in 1848, the Year of Revolution in Europe. His brother was earlier hanged as an opponent of the Tsar and his sister banished to a prison. At first Russia was an ally of Nazi Germany, but after Hitler invaded Russia, Stalin suddenly became an ally of Great Britain and the Allies. First Poland, then Hungary, the East Germany revolted against their Russian-supported absolutist governments. Gorbachev knew that the Soviet economy was soon to collapse and knew that communism was a failed economic system. A strong anticommunist, Boris Yeltsin, succeeded Gorbachev, however, and his strong leadership overcame the attempted coup. He wanted to be able to place the blame on Napoleon III for the war that was intended to unite all of the German states into a unified Germany, with Prussia and its Kaiser as leaders.
If you havena€™t a clue, let me suggest a wine thata€™s fit for the occasion: Philip, named after Philip Mazzei, an intriguing, if minor, player in the formative years of the United States of America. For starters, hea€™s the one who brought the first vitus vinifera to the Colonies and planted the first commercial vineyards in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Mazzei, who wrote under the pseudonym Furioso, penned these words: a€?All men are by nature equally free and independent. His older brother Filippo (and fellow CEO) took Philipa€™s name, and the household was generally aware of their 18th century ancestora€™s exploits.
His professions included medicine, trade, horticulture, viticulture, politics, and pamphleteeringa€”vocations that took him around the globe. A friend from home, the powerful Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, asked him to acquire one of the latest modern conveniences: a metal-lined fireplace, named the Franklin Stove.
Jefferson provided the initial land for Philipa€™s venture: 193 acres on the south side of Monticello (above).
Philip the Restless became increasingly disengaged as he became more involved in the birth of the nation. He hired one of Philipa€™s vignerons to take charge of Monticelloa€™s vineyards, and thus Philipa€™s legacy lived on. Wine was always part of the equation; records show the Mazzeis made wine as far back as the 1300s. Ita€™s a delicious winea€”bursting with dark fruit, with a background of spice and cedar, offering plush tannins that give structure without being overbearing. The Mazzei winery has partnered with the Thomas Jefferson Foundation to bring Tuscan vines to Virginia, fulfilling Philipa€™s promise (right).
Youa€™ll find him very pleasant company indeeda€”whether on Presidenta€™s Day or any day of the year.
The kings and queens of Europe were not going to allow commoners like Robespierre and Napoleon upset the monarchies of Europe!
When the elections were held, Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was elected the first President of the French Republic.
But when the Civil War ended in 1865 the US sent a naval blockade against the French and eventually forced the French to leave Mexico.
The sinking of Ottoman ships by the Russians was the excuse needed by France and Great Britain to enter the war on the side of the Ottomans!
The fear was also widely held in Europe that if Russia was able to invade the rest of the Ottoman Empire and defeat it, Russia would become the major power in Europe.
It was embarrassed by and its influence greatly weakened when Admiral Perry led US naval ships in Tokyo harbor demanding that the Japanese open their ports to foreign trade. The government should stay out of production, price setting, and the trade between countries.

He also later wrote Das Kapital, a stinging critic of capitalism and an endorsement of communism.
After the war, he bullied and misled the leaders of England and America at the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam in 1945 and continued his push for worldwide communist dominion. The Communist Party was overthrown and defeated, both in the streets and at the ballot box. By April 2011 the revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia had succeeded and free elections and the adoption of new democratic constitutions were in the planning stage. After the war, he bullied and misled the leaders of England and America at the conferences at Yalta and Potsdam in 1945A  and continued his push for worldwide communist dominion. The Communist Party was overthrown and defeated, both in the streets and at the ballot box.A  Democratic governments were formed. This was in 1774 on land obtained through his neighbor, Thomas Jefferson, as well as on Jeffersona€™s own Monticello plantation. Such equality is necessary in order to create a free government.a€? Without question, the mena€™s thinking was in sync, and the two politicos were tight friends who shared progressive libertarian ideals, traded volumes of private letters, and even published writings together. He was pushy, always asking a€?I want to do this, I want to do that.a€™ So he was a bit of a pain. Philip got in touch with its inventor, Benjamin Franklin, who was then working in London as an agent for Pennsylvania and other American colonies. Philip purchased another 700 next door, named his farm Colle, and started planting on both farms. He went back to Tuscany at Jeffersona€™s request to solicit funds for the State of Virginia from his old friend the Grand Duke and to promote the Coloniesa€™ perspective. Whata€™s remarkable is how many oft-told tales of Chianti intersect with the Mazzei family history.
This wine could dress up for an elegant prime-rib dinner or go casual for a picnic of sloppy joes and BBQ.
Not surprisingly, ita€™s quite popular in the Washington DC and Virginia markets and sells like gangbusters at the gift shop in Monticello.
The idea is to add a special plot to the vineyards now on the presidential property adjoining Monticello, named Montalto. Louis XVIII (1815-1824) was succeeded by Charles X (1824-1830) and Louis Phillippe (1830-1848).
Maximillien was overthrown by a popular uprising and a democratic government installed in Mexico.
Steam ships allowed Americans to trade up and down the many rivers, including and primarily the Mississippi River. The quality of goods, the demands of the public, and the best prices should determine what goes on in the marketplace. After his release he lived in London, Munich, and Geneva where he furthered his studies of Marxism. Empty bellies and generations of ignoring the plight of the peasants led to the Tsara€™s downfall.
Russia dominated Russian-leaning communist governments in all of Eastern Europe, including Poland, Hungary, Eastern Germany, Latvia, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Yugoslavia. Russia had been spending up to 90% of its economy on military production in an attempt to keep up with the United States, its major enemy in the Cold War since 1945. There are notes of Jefferson that say, a€?This guy isa€¦a€™ a€? Francesco shakes his head with a grimace, then breaks out in a laugh. They struck up a friendship, and through Franklin, Philip met Virginia businessman and politician Thomas Adams.
To finance the operation, he created a wine companya€”Americana€™s firsta€”called the Wine Society, which was meant to produce and sell wine. The first written mention of Chianti wine, in 1398, was penned by a Mazzei: the notary Ser Lapo. It should be a free market, as opposed to the mercantilism practices in France and other European countries. Russian troops occupied most of those countries and Russia controlled their economies until the Revolution of 1989.
President Ronald Reagan called the Soviet Union, a€?The Evil Empire,a€? and vowed to bring it to its knees.
The revolutions in Syria and Libya were still in progress and were under attack by the military loyal to the Libyan and Syrian dictators. He lived in, not just went to, Tuscany, Turkey, England, Virginia, France, Poland, Russia, and back in Tuscany,a€? he says, tapping the table for emphasis.
Both Americans encouraged Philip to come up with a plan to cultivate Mediterranean vines, olive trees, citrus, and silk in the Colonies.
Thirty-one investors shelled out 50 pounds sterling per share; many prominent colonial leaders were among them, first and foremost Washington and Jefferson. Then therea€™s the legend of the Black Rooster, which recounts how Florence and Siena settled a longstanding territorial dispute through a horse race; the resulting border falls precisely at the hamlet of Fonterutoli. The owners of production should be free to take a portion of the monies earned and re invest those monies into better products, larger factories, and better wages. It was said that no town or city in England was less than an hour away from either an ocean port city or a river port city.

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