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Madame Louis, nee Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon, was a French composer, pianist, and salonniere of considerable activity and influence. According to her husband’s biographer, Victor Marionneau, Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon was born in Marcei, department of Orne (west of Paris), in 1746. Diderot compared her work to that of Domenico Alberti, Johann Christian Bach, Johann Gottfried Eckard (Eckhardt), Johann Schobert, and other foreign composers whose music was currently admired in Paris. In 1770, on 20 June, Mlle Bayon married Victor Louis (1731–1800), an architect with important social and political connections similar to her own. A few months before the Paris premiere of Fleur d’epine, Bordeaux was the site of a great ceremony when Louis-Philippe-Joseph d’Orleans, duc de Chartres, at the invitation of Victor Louis, came to lay the first stone for the new theatre.
With the completion of the magnificent Grand-Theatre in 1780 the Louis family returned to Paris, where their residence on the rue de la Place-Vendome became a gathering place for distinguished literary and artistic figures.
With the notable exception of Fleur d’epine, Madame Louis evidently wrote and performed music principally for private gatherings. During the Revolution of 1789–92 and the even more turbulent times that followed, when the French passion for theatre, including music theatre, continued to find new means of expression, “citizen Louis” still worked in Paris. After Victor Louis died in 1800, Mme Louis remained in Paris and lived for a time in the Vandeul apartment.
Diderot’s first enthusiastic accounts appear in letters to his principal correspondent Mlle Volland. Late the year before, in 1769, Diderot had engaged a new teacher for his daughter Angelique, the theorist and pedagogue Anton Bemetzrieder (1739–ca. The next year, in 1771, Diderot published his famous account of his daughter's lessons, the Lecons de clavecin et principes d'harmonie, par M. Some idea of Madame Louis's character, her own music, and the repertoire she has taught Angelique can be derived from the dialogues.
Diderot's musical references to the current repertoire of the music lesson corroborate Madame de Genlis's naming of performers and instruments at her l767 salon.
A set of sonatas was the usual debut publication of a performer and composer already known in private circles, and typically when the composer was around 21, sometimes younger. The style of the sontatas, as can be guessed from the preceding account of contemporary keyboard repertoire, combines traditional French keyboard writing and German and Italian influences. The first movement of Sonata II is the only first movement not marked Allegro; marked Andante affectuoso, it is an expressive melody over Alberti bass and other accompaniment patterns. The three sonatas with violin accompaniment are generally of a more lyrical character than the solo sonatas, in keeping with the violin’s ability to sustain tone. In several passages the violin melody is set over only a figured bass, not an unusual scoring even at this late date.
As it was unusual for an amateur musician, let alone a woman, to have an opera-comique performed by the Comedie Italienne, it is evident that for the production of Fleur depine Madame Louis had the help of influential people. Voisenon’s friend and secretary, Mme la Comtesse de Turpin, in her edition of the Fleur d’epine libretto published in 1781, notes that it had been set once before, by the abbe Charles Gauzargues (ca. Information about the circumstances leading to performance appeared around the time of the premiere in the Memoires secrets, a collection of political, literary, and theatre news gathered by members of a salon in which Voisenon had been a colorful and noteworthy participant. The libretto was based on L’Histoire de Fleur d’epine, or The Story of May-Flower, a rather long, wonderfully rambling fairy tale by the Irish-born French writer Antoine Hamilton (1646–1720).
Voisenon used Hamilton’s main characters and ideas in his Fleur d’epine, which is described (on the title page) as a comedie melee d’ariettes—a comedy [spoken dialogue] mixed with arias [and other musical numbers].
In Hamilton’s story, Tarare rescues Fleur d’epine and carries her back to the caliph’s court on the galloping Sonnante with the luminous cap lighting the way.
The published score contains an overture and twenty musical numbers—eleven ariettes, or arias, sung by four of the five characters (Dentillon has no aria), plus two duets, two trios, ensemble finales for each act, two small chorus numbers, and a brief instrumental fanfare for Seraine’s final entrance as dea ex machina.
The Comedie Italienne was a cooperative, profit-sharing troupe; members chose the works to be performed (as noted earlier) and hired the orchestra and chorus. The first performance at the Comedie Italienne, on Thursday, 22 August 1776, was followed by performances on the next three Saturdays, Mondays, and Thursdays for a total of ten performances in August and September, and two more on 12 and 14 April 1777, a Saturday and Monday.
The first few evenings of Fleur d’epine’s run, it was preceded by a comedy of Italian origin, such as a harlequin play.
The production of Fleur d’epine attracted the attention of several Paris writers and critics. The review in the Correspondance secrete dated 31 August pronounced the premiere performance “monstrous,” especially the sight of a man playing a woman (Dentue). Diderot attended a performance, as might be expected, and pronounced the production cahin-caha, “so-so.” A substantial review appeared in the Correspondance litteraire, another chronicle of Paris literary culture, this one from Diderot’s circle.
Another prominent critic, Jean-Francois de La Harpe, declared that the libretto “falls far short of” Hamilton’s delightful story, and that “the late abbe” had been overrated. In general, the composer’s contemporaries found the music and production to be stronger than the libretto. Besides the full score, music from Fleur d’epine was published in many different arrangements for smaller, chamber forces. Correspondance secrete, politique et litteraire, ou Memoire pour servir a l’histoire des Cours, des Societes et de la litterature en France, depuis la mort de Louis XV, edited by Francois Metra.
Memoires secrets, pour servir a l’histoire de la Republique des Lettres en France depuis 1762 jusqu’a nos jours.
A few months before the Paris premiere of Fleur d’epine, Bordeaux was the site of a great ceremony when Louis-Philippe-Joseph d’Orleans, duc de Chartres, at the invitation of Victor Louis, came to lay the first stone for the new theatre.  In the princely retinue was Madame Louis’s friend, Madame de Genlis, who was a lady-in-waiting to the duchesse de Chartres. With the notable exception of Fleur d’epine, Madame Louis evidently wrote and performed music principally for private gatherings.  Her social position, both before and after her marriage, prevented her from holding a paid, professional appointment, yet it gave her considerable influence in matters of taste and style. After Victor Louis died in 1800, Mme Louis remained in Paris and lived for a time in the Vandeul apartment.  Almost nothing else is known of her life. After less than a year of lessons, Diderot no longer had much use for Bemetzrieder.  One reason, to be inferred from the Lecons, may have been Bemetzrieder's musical taste and his interest in becoming something of a public figure. A set of sonatas was the usual debut publication of a performer and composer already known in private circles, and typically when the composer was around 21, sometimes younger.  (In l769 when her op.
Saint Rocco is staring impassively at me, pointing to a plague sore festering on his thigh. Nebbiolo is most commonly associated with Piedmont and the Langhe, land of Barolo and Barbaresco.
Claiming ownership of the grape, Langhe winemakers were in for a big shock in 2006 when researchers from the University of Milan produced evidence that Nebbioloa€™s birthplace is not the Langhe, as had been widely thought, but either northern Piedmont (Alto Piemonte) or Valtellina. Nebbioloa€”called Chiavennasca in Valtellinaa€”has grown here for millennia, but the wine remains relatively unknown.
Maule also introduced narrow caterpillar tractors for pruning and helicopters for harvesting.
Sfursat a€?is the maximum expression of Nebbiolo in Valtellina,a€? Maule says, and the 2009 and 1997 vintages of 5 Stelle he poured me over dinner were special indeed: at once intense and nuanced, with layers of red fruit, spice, and minerality. Though production is smalla€”50,000 bottlesa€”theya€™ve managed to make quite a name for themselves.
Tasting with Perego at the winery, Ia€™m even more smitten with Sassella Stella Retica ($40), a reserve (named after the edelweiss) that shows more concentrated woodsy fruit, and their scrumptious late-harvest Sassella Ultimi Raggi ($36). A A A  Nebbiolo is most commonly associated with Piedmont and the Langhe, land of Barolo and Barbaresco. A A A  Claiming ownership of the grape, Langhe winemakers were in for a big shock in 2006 when researchers from the University of Milan produced evidence that Nebbioloa€™s birthplace is not the Langhe, as had been widely thought, but either northern Piedmont (Alto Piemonte) or Valtellina.
A A A  Nebbioloa€”called Chiavennasca in Valtellinaa€”has grown here for millennia, but the wine remains relatively unknown. As happened with Methodist ministers during that time period, our family moved frequently.A  We lived in several small Mississippi towns including Sumrall, Laurel, Purvis, McComb, Taylorsville, Ellisville, and Bay St.
A  Jeff and I and our children have lived in Louisiana the majority of our married life except for two years immediately after we married while we finished our mastera€™s degrees at Mississippi State University and a few too many winters in Indiana.A  Jeff is a mechanical and civil engineer and I am a pharmacist at St.
Jeff and I moved to Port Sulphur, Louisiana, after we finished our mastera€™s degrees at Mississippi State. However, if youa€™ve been to a Louisiana wedding, you know that non-alcoholic receptions are not the norm.A  (The menu included crawfish sacks, crawfish beignets, gumbo, etc.
Another difference between now and then is that I have not made an article of clothing for myself in at least a dozen years.A A  There doesna€™t seem to be time for sewing anymore.
Being the daughter of a home economics major meant the plaids all had to match, the zipper had to be perfectly straight, and the set-in sleeve could not have a single pleat.
A treasured memory of my childhood years revolves around a carved manger scene from John C.
After Mother and Daddy died, I decided to see if the school could replace a lost piece of the manger scene Daddy had bought for us when he and John traveled to Israel. Jeff and I had subcontracted our home on the Rigolets in Slidell, Louisiana, moving in September 2003. Our drug wholesaler (Morris Dickson) delivered a pallet of supplies taller than me and at least four feet wide in the wee hours of the morning Wednesday after Katrina hit on Monday.A  Those supplies rank as one of the most beautiful sights I have ever seen.
A A A  Jeff and the kids had always evacuated to Hattiesburg or Moselle and I worked at the hospital pharmacy during the various hurricanes.A  This plan was a direct result of my experience in Bay St. Our experiences have taught us that it is family and friends that are important, not your material possessions, although I still have a car packed to the max with family treasures when I evacuate to the hospital.
I have inherited a wonderful family, full of the traditions of the southern way of life and the Christian principles toi?? which my parents devoted their lives.A  I hope I can live up to the standards that have been set by the a€?brothers and sistersa€? (and the cousins) of the Walton family.
Jeff attended Mississippi State University, where he played basketball and was a member of the Academic All-SEC team and received a bachelora€™s degree andi?? a mastera€™s degree in engineering. He has been a mechanical and civil engineer in Port Sulpher, Covington, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Crown Point, Indiana. A A A  Being the daughter of a home economics major meant the plaids all had to match, the zipper had to be perfectly straight, and the set-in sleeve could not have a single pleat. A A A  Jeff attended Mississippi State University, where he played basketball and was a member of the Academic All-SEC team and received a bachelora€™s degree and a mastera€™s degree in engineering. Her principal published works are, as Mademoiselle Bayon, a collection of six keyboard sonatas, three of them with violin accompaniment, opus 1 (1769), and, as Madame Louis, the full score of her two-act opera-comique, Fleur d’epine, or “May-Flower” (the heroine’s name), scored for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. Louis sought membership in the Academie Royale d’Architecture but, owing to internal politics, was rejected, a major disappointment to him.
In August 1768, he implies that Bayon had some concern with her musical reputation outside France.
The first four sonatas—the three for solo keyboard and the first of the sonatas with violin accompaniment—are, like Alberti's sonatas, in two movements, both in the same key but with contrasting tempos and characters. Her husband specialized in the design and construction of theatres; by the time of his marriage in 1770 he had worked with some of the leading writers, composers, and directors. Hamilton’s story, which was familiar to many in the audiences at the Comedie Italienne in 1776, begins in the court of the idyllic caliphate of Kashmir and recounts the adventures of the courageous Tarare (literally, Nonsense) on his quest for the magical maiden Fleur d’epine (May-Flower) who could save the caliph’s daughter. Voisenon reduces Hamilton’s story to the plight of the two young lovers, Fleur d’epine and Tarare, a beautiful princess and her brave prince. The monsters are turned back into men, and Fleur-d’epine and Tarare can be married and live happily ever after. The Overture is in two sections, Allegro and Andante, each in Classic key-area form (sonata form). Antoine D’Origny in the Annales du Theatre Italien for August 1776 (published in 1788) reported that, while the words were sometimes funny, sometimes bizarre or in bad taste, the music had “moments of real beauty,” the most striking being a trio in dialogue, Fleur d’epine’s virtuosic aria, and her sleep aria. Victor Louis, Architecte du Theatre de Bordeaux: Sa vie, ses travaux et sa correspondance 1731–1800.
The full score of Fleur d’epine, probably published around the time of the premiere, includes a dedicatory preface to the duchesse de Chartres in which the composer employs the conventionally flattering, obsequious phrases of a courtier addressing her patron. Louis sought membership in the Academie Royale d’Architecture but, owing to internal politics, was rejected, a major disappointment to him.  He began working with the duc de Chartres on plans for extensive development at the Palais Royal, including a newly designed theatre (l’Opera du Palais-Royal). She died at the family’s country residence at Aubevoye, a rich abbey her husband had owned in the vicinity of Rouen, canton of Gaillon, department of Eure, on 19 March 1825. We performed not only some proverbs but an opera-comique for which my friend Mlle Baillon [sic] (later Mme Louis, wife of the famous architect) composed the music.  M. The woman gives Tarare a small packet of bird-salt for ruining Dentue’s brew, and he in turn presents her with a diamond, demonstrating his generosity.
Dentue has entrusted Dentillon with the all-important key, which he has attached to his boutonniere. Valtellina, a 68-mile valley on the Swiss-Italian border, remains the largest terraced vineyard area in Italy. The fact that Langhe Nebbiolo gets the glory is partly the result of Italya€™s political history. In 2007, Gambero Rosso named him Winemaker of the Year and his 5 Stelle Sfursat di Valtellina ($70)a€”an Amarone-style Nebbiolo made from semi-dried grapes, which Nino Negri was the first to commercialize in 1983a€”the Best Red Wine of Italy. Nino Negri sources its grapes from all five subzones: Inferno, Sassella, Grumello, Vagella, and Maroggia.
Founded in the 1860s, it was making 6-million bottles in 1973a€”the year Guido Pelizzatti Perego died. Guidoa€™s granddaughter, Isabella Pelizzatti Perego, relates the history as wea€™re standing on a terrace in Grumello surveying whata€™s left. I first tasted their Rosso di Valtellina ($35) at a frienda€™s behest, who got tipped off by the savvy folks at Chamber Street Wines. Since 2007, all fermentation happens in wood, and maceration is longa€”from 15 days for the Rosso to 40 or 50 days for the reserves. Perego recites the dismal numbers: a€?Vineyard territory was at 5,000 hectares at the end of 1900s.
After several torturous switchbacks on the paved road, I turn onto a weathered lane thata€™s no wider than a donkey cart. Wea€™re traipsing around a prized viticultural subzonea€”one of five in the Valtellina Superiore DOCG. It is unusual that Jeffa€™s fathera€™s first name is Walton, and Jeffa€™s middle name is Walton. Remember when a south Mississippi wedding reception was cake, punch, mints, and nuts?)A  You can imagine Tracya€™s dismay when we even considered not serving alcohol at the reception. The person I contacted at the school asked me what pieces were in our set and what the initials were on the bottom of each piece.A  It turns out that the earliest pieces of our set were carved by one of the original students at the school which was established in the Depression era. We were very fortunate that our hospital did not flood.A  We slept on the floor for the first few days until the nurses needed blood pressure medication for their own personal meds and we bartered for some mattresses. FEMA was given the same list on the same day and delivered a grand total of three cases of IV fluids two weeks later.A  It was funny that the first medicine we ran out of was Colace, a stool softener. This was finally and perfectly expressed by my father at his own funeral.A  They both had a detailed plan for their funerals which included details of the hymns and scripture to be used. As an adult, I see that church as a beautiful church with impressive stained glass, but not quite so huge.
Composed to a libretto by Claude-Henri Fusee, abbe de Voisenon (1704–1775), a leading writer and librettist, Fleur d’epine had twelve performances in Paris during the 1776–77 season by the Comedie Italienne, one of the official, privileged French theatrical companies of the ancien regime; the final performance was attended by the queen, Marie-Antoinette, and members of the royal family.
1 sonatas she refers to “the many kindnesses bestowed upon me since my tenderest infancy” by the family of Madame la Marquise de Langeron to whom the volume is dedicated. She names the actors—three men and three women, including herself and Mlle Bayon—and refers to fifteen spectators, of whom she names eleven.
In London, Johann Christian Bach (1735–1782), the composer, keyboardist, and royal chapelmaster, had suggested to two English friends that they look up his friend Diderot in Paris. The absence of a publication date is typical of eighteenth-century music, and was perhaps intended to allow music sellers to proclaim an edition to be the latest thing in subsequent years. The other two accompanied sonatas, like many sonatas of Eckard and Schobert, have three movements in the pattern fast-slow-fast; middle movements are in the dominant key. He was the protege of the duc de Richelieu who was one of the king’s Premiers Gentilshommes de la Chambre who supervised the Comedie Italienne (which performed Fleur d’epine) and the Comedie Francaise. The entry for 21 August referred to the efforts of Mme Turpin, Voisenon’s “intimate acquaintance” whom he had appointed as “his residuary legatee for his manuscripts and literary productions,” to have the play accepted for performance with music by Mme Louis, and noted that it was scheduled ahead of other plays that had been accepted earlier. The evil fairy Dentue has kidnapped Fleur-d’epine, who is the daughter of the good fairy Seraine, and has taken her far away. The energetic opening section in G Major modulates to D major and then explores D minor and other keys, with new melodic motives, before returning to the home key. A second report on 7 September noted that in a subsequent performance Fleur-d’Epine had undergone so many “corrections” that it was “tolerable enough” to continue playing. Bartlet of Duke University, who worked in Paris in 1996–97 and generously shared her extensive knowledge and understanding of eighteenth-century French operatic productions.
Extraits de sa correspondance inedite, avec son mari, avec Jacques-Henri Meister de Zurich (1746–1826) et de divers lettres et documents inedits du fonds Diderot-Vandeul aux Archives Departementales de la Haute-Marne.
One of the copies of the full score now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris bears the coat of arms of the duc de Chartres, and another that of Madame de Genlis.
Correspondence between Diderot and his daughter, Madame de Vendeul, indicates that Mme Louis devoted considerable energy to furthering her husband’s interests. 3, in F major but he plays only the keyboard part without its accompaniment of violin and two horns. This movement, unlike the first movement, has occasional piano and forte markings.  Left-hand notation in alto clef occurs here and in other sonatas in this set as well.
Fleur d’epine, left alone with Dentillon, tries to lull him to sleep so that Tarare, who is hiding in the bushes, can come and steal the key. Whata€™s caught my attention is the unique landscape behind him: row upon row of terraces that rise up a steep mountain, all sprouting grapevine hieroglyphs. On its slopes are 1,500 miles of drystone wall, built from shards hacked off the mountain and alluvial stones hauled up from the valley floor. The architects of Italya€™s unification in 1861 were from Piedmont, and they happened to be big champions of Barolo and winemakers themselves. The bottom fell out of the Swiss market, their most important, after Switzerland eliminated favored-nation tariff exceptions for Valtellina products. So any move it makes has deep ripple effects.) In the cellar, he reduced maceration times and replaced huge vats with French barrique, taking a page from Barolo modernists Elio Altare, Domenico Clerico, and Paolo Scavino. As much as the technological advances Nino Negri introduced, the Sfursat DOCG helped save Valtellina. Each has its own characteristics, and some of Negria€™s Valtellina Superiore wines play up the specific zone, such as Inferno ($25) and Le Tense Sassella ($38).
Here, the earth was pushed up in an explosion that formed the Alps, so therea€™s silex and quartz in the soil, whereas Piedmont is all alluvial,a€? having been under sea.
Though his son Arturo had worked by his side, the other heirs wanted the money, not the business, so they sold everythinga€”the brand, the wine in the cellar, the landa€”except for some vineyards. The top wines mature in oak for four years (the DOCG requires only two), then rest for three years in bottle. Yes, this goes the length of Sassella, Ia€™m told by a woman walking her doga€”and yes, ita€™s for two-way traffic.
One of the first priorities of the work was a complete examination of all previous exploration and excavation in the precinct, particularly that of Margaret Benson carried out in 1895-7. After graduating from South Jones High School, I attended Millsaps College and graduated in 1972.


Church was the center of the activity at our house.A  I still remember Mother cooking her a€?besta€? for covered-dish dinners and especially for the times when the District Superintendent came for Sunday dinner. The wedding invitations had so many a€?Waltona€? components, many people thought the printers had made a mistake.A  We have three children, Tracy Lynn, Roger (Rogera€™s middle name is also Walton), and Christy Jo.
You did not even need any bait.A  We would throw a string in the water, and the crabs would grab the string and stay on it until you pulled them out of the water. Then, the granddaughter stopped growing and I started sewing my own clothes.A  I made all my clothes until the hippie style of jeans and T shirts became the standard wardrobe of a sixties college student. A The son of this original carver is considered one of the best from the school, and he carved the wise men and shepherds.A  The baby Jesus and manger and small angel were carved by the lady who is considered the best carver of the baby Jesus and manger. Collections of musical numbers from the work arranged for unaccompanied voice were also published, as was an arrangement of the overture for keyboard with violin and cello accompaniment; other vocal arrangements appeared in music periodicals and collections from 1776 until around 1786. In the early 1770s, through the patronage of the duc de Richelieu, Louis was commissioned to design and supervise construction of the Grand-Theatre in Bordeaux, the building for which he is perhaps most famous today. In 1763, Louis had been scenic designer for a production at the Comedie Italienne under the direction of Charles-Simon Favart (1710–1795), created at the request of the government in celebration of the ending of the Seven Years War; Voisenon (librettist of Fleur d’epine) wrote the words and Francois-Andre Danican-Philidor (1726–1795) the music.
Upon Voisenon’s death in 1775, Mme Turpin had “some men of letters” read Fleur d’epine to members of the Comedie Italienne, in accordance with the troupe’s procedures for considering new plays. The influential playwright, teacher, and musician Stephanie de Genlis (1746–1830) considered her a friend.
While no new musical works by her are reported, Fleur d’epine was performed in Brussels, and in 1784 it was performed in Bordeaux.  A play by Victor Louis was performed in Paris the same year. The arias are generally in “ABA” form with a brief orchestral introduction.  Voisenon’s ariette texts that contrast two states of mind are given musical settings that contrast “A” and “B” sections in different tempos and keys.
In 1563, when this fresco was painted, those terraces would already have been hundreds of years old, ancient engineering marvels even then and a distinguishing feature of this alpine landscape. Italya€™s first Prime Minister, Count Camillo Cavour, sought to create a piemontese equivalent of Burgundy, while the King of Piedmont fell so hard for Barolo that he bought a couple of Langhe castles with vineyards to keep his cellars stocked.
In the vineyard, he upended tradition by replanting vine rows in an east-west orientation, parallel to the slope. Therea€™s simply no escaping the fact that working on these steep, narrow terraces is backbreaking. As a result, he continues, a€?our wine is not fat, round, robust, but just the opposite: nervous, angular, in need of the calm and tranquility of several yearsa€™ refinement in wood to soften. Thata€™s a lot of years, but ita€™s just what the doctor ordered to calm Nebbioloa€™s racy nervatura. I inch along, alternately terrorized by the heights (the guardrail seems no more secure than a satin ribbon) and enraptured by the terracesa€™ harsh beauty. The Grande Ecaille mine was closed two years after we moved to Port Sulphur, and the company closed the town site and we moved to Slidell.
A How did we get in and out of a car with our dresses so short that?A  Our son, Roger, did learn to sew a little bit when he took home ec in high school.A  His motivation for taking that class was more the ratio of boys to girls rather than learning to sew. You would stand with your backside to the heater for a few minutes and then run and hop in the bed.A  At some point in time, I think in the early sixties, we started using electric blankets. We received the three wise men, shepherds, and angels, a single piece each year until I was in college. The appraiser classified the manger set as a a€?national treasure.a€?A  The treasure is my memories of the excitement as the family unwrapped the new piece each year.
Calls between the affected areas in Louisiana and Mississippi were difficult to complete, but we could talk to the kids and Jeffa€™s sister Ceil in Jackson. The composer’s unpublished works, discussed during her lifetime but not yet found, include further instrumental chamber music and opera-comiques, and music for La fete de Saint Pierre, a divertissement to a libretto by Antoine-Francois Quetant (1733–1823), performed at the Chateau de la Cour-Neuve in Paris on St. In the two-movement works no repeat marks are printed but they may be assumed—at double bars at the end of each reprise and at the end of the rondo's first couplet. Louis apparently became a good friend of the prominent composer Andre Ernest Modeste Gretry (1741–1813); in late 1782 he accompanied Gretry to the composer’s native Liege, where both men were honored by the government. In the two-movement works no repeat marks are printed but they may be assumed—at double bars at the end of each reprise and at the end of the rondo's first couplet.  There are several printing errors as well—occasional wrong notes, misplaced trills, and, most often, missing sharps or natural-signs with the modulation to the dominant in the first reprise.
Fleur d’epine now sings a gentler song, her famous “sleep aria”; Dentillon falls asleep, and Tarare steals the key. This introduced shade into the viticultural toolkit; by keeping or removing leaf canopy, the amount of direct sun hitting the grapes could be precisely controlled. Since developers couldna€™t build houses on this steep stony slope, Arturo was able to buy this parcel back and start anew in 1983 with his 11 hectares of vineyards.
Though ita€™s the Alps, the sun scorches and heat radiates off the granite outcroppings and stone walls. A thirty year old semi-invalid of a distinguished English family, she had the rare good luck to ask for the concession to a site that seemed unimportant and a site that no one else wanted. That manger scene is one of the first items packed in my car as we evacuate for a hurricane. His actual daughter, Angelique, later Madame de Vandeul (1753–1824), studied harpsichord with her from about 1765 until 1769 and remained her lifelong friend and confidante. They barely even know it in Milan,a€? which is rather scandalous, given that Milan is just two hours down the highway, on the far side of Lake Como. The results were troubling: cellars full of wine that didna€™t sell, growers giving up property, vineyard acreage shrinking, terraces crumbling. Though this landscape seems so solida€”drystone on mountain, granite on granitea€”ita€™s actually a fragile place. It was assumed that even an woman amateur with no experience could do little harm at the nearly destroyed Temple of Mut, in a remote location south of the Amun precinct at Karnak.
Bach's sons Johann Christian Bach and Carl Philipp Emmanuel Bach (1714–1803), and the Mannheimer Ignaz-Franz von Beecke (1733–1803). She sings a brilliant, virtuosic aria, because Dentillon has said that music puts him to sleep—a reaction he attributes to his being a “great nobleman.” When Tarare, hidden, says something to Fleur d’epine, Dentillon half awakes and asks who was talking.
She worked there for only three seasons from 1895 to 1897 and she published The Temple of Mut in Asher in 1899 2 with Janet Gourlay, who joined her in the second season. Ferlinghetti when, at ninety years of age, he read at City Lights Books in San Francisco, and signed that very edition of the magazine for me, inspiring me all over again.A A On this website, you'll not only find photos, videos and more that have to do with my life as an author, but other things that are important to me, too. In the introduction to that publication of her work she emphasized that it was the first time any woman had been given permission by the Egyptian Department of Antiquities to excavate; she was well aware that it was something of an accomplishment. A I enjoy hearing from people who've read my work, attended one of my workshops or conferences, or whom I've met at one event or another.A  I'm always interested in people who live somewhere I don't or think differently than I do. So if we have to invest a lot to make ourselves better known, we dona€™t have enough wine to serve.a€? A dilemma indeed. As unlikely as cactus would seem at this latitude, they have other Mediterranean companions: palms, agaves, capers, rosemary.
I spend some time every day if I can on social networking sites, because the world and the people in it are all interesting. Maxwell will be deciding upon and after this illness passed we will take a look at producing these scripts into feature films or television productions. We were frankly warned that we should make no discoveries; indeed if any had been anticipated, it was unlikely that the clearance would have been entrusted to inexperienced direction.
3 A Margaret Benson was born June 16, 1865, one of the six children of Edward White Benson. Maxwell is spending this time taking care of his wife, and not in production, he has plenty of time to read scripts. Thus, this is a wonderful time to have him take a look at your script.i»?A This page is set aside to give us an opportunity to keep our visitor abreast of what is going on with Maxima Vision Films and our film school.
He was first an assistant master at Rugby, then the first headmaster of the newly founded Wellington College.He rose in the service of the church as Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, Bishop of Truro and, finally, Archbishop of Canterbury. At the same time we encourage our visitor to write us anything they feel may be of interest in film and television to our community. Many of these articles are written by our own CEO who is serious about keeping our whole community up to date with any breaking news and events we may be involved with.
Oh, well, the relationship didn't work, but I did get to see some beautiful places.Photo taken of me by a local (unknown) photographer when I was 23 years oldA Once, I was on the northern border of Greece with my twelve-year-old son during a time when it was a war zone.
In the event you write to us a story we find the community may want to know about we will post here on this page. Benson was a learned man with a wide knowledge of history and a serious concern for the education of the young. We were there because I needed to attend a very important book convention in Salonika, and didn't want to leave my son behind. These stories may be of any kind pertaining to the film and television industry, from casting calls our community may want to know about, to events in the area, to a new story ideas you come up with you think might make for a good film or television production. He was also something of a poet and one of his hymns is still included in the American Episcopal Hymnal.
The next week, a hijacker from one of the warring factions killed a young Greek passenger on the same route we'd taken only the week before. Arthur Christopher, the eldest, was first a master at Eton and then at Magdalen College, Cambridge. Randall Maxwell of Maxima Vision Films takes some of the backdrop of that particular White House, fictionalizes the story, orchestrates some look-a-likes and dramatizes a womana€™s lust for power who is willing to do whatever it takes to become the first lady president of the United States, including assassination, sex, love or war. A noted author and poet with an enormous literary output, he published over fifty books, most of an inspirational nature, but he was also the author of monographs on D. To see some really adorable ones who posed for me while reading one of my books, check out the FUN AND FREEBIES PAGEA Dancing at my engagement party.
It's fine if you think your mom's is better, but still --- this is not a boast ---- my tiramisu and salsa puttanesca are legendary.
He helped to edit the correspondence of Queen Victoria for publication, contributed poetry to The Yellow Book, and wrote the words to the anthem "Land of Hope and Glory". Most important to the study of the excavator of the Mut Temple, he was the author of The Life and Letters of Maggie Benson, 4 a sympathetic biography which helps to shed some light on her short archaeological career. He also wrote several reminiscences of his family in which he included his sister and described his involvement in her excavations.
He helped to supervise part of the work and he prepared the plan of the temple which was used in her eventual publication.
His younger brother, Robert Hugh Benson, took Holy Orders in the Church of England, later converted to Roman Catholicism and was ordained a priest in that rite.
He also achieved some fame as a novelist and poet and rose to the position of Papal Chamberlain. Her publication of the excavation is cited in every reference to theTemple of Mut in the Egyptological literature, but she is known to history as a name in a footnote and little else.A Margaret Benson was born at Wellington College during her father's tenure as headmaster.
When three unlikely but well-intentioned groups of mighty people join forces to battle the demon, they face challenges within and without.
Each career advancement for him meant a move for the family so her childhood was spent in a series of official residences until she went to Oxford in 1883. Their variegated backgrounds, including slavery, military, and commoners, must be overlooked if they are to stop Man Burnera€™s evil quest. She was eighteen when she was enrolled at Lady Margaret Hall, a women's college founded only four years before. A  A I keep in touch with many of my former pupils, some from as far back as thirty years ago.
The powerful and precious Atma stones must be kept secret if the world is to be saved.Will Man Burner be able to succeed on his quest to find the Atma stones? One of her tutors commented to his sister that he was sorry Margaret had not been able to read for "Greats" in the normal way. 5 When she took a first in the Women's Honours School of Philosophy, he said, "No one will realize how brilliantly she has done." 6 Since her work was not compared to that of her male contemporaries, it would have escaped noticed. In her studies she concentrated on political economy and moral sciences but she was also active in many aspects of the college. She participated in dramatics, debating and sports but her outstanding talent was for drawing and painting in watercolor.
This delay is expected to last a couple of months, postponing production of every film by a couple of months.The reason for this suspension is due largely to the fact of us not yet having our film school, which is attached to our production company at the point where our investment group had wanted it by summer of 2013. Another large factor is not finding a large enough pool of talent here locally who have enough professional film experience or training to allow us to completely cast four feature films per year, let alone finding enough professionally experienced crew.Thus, one of the things we are now awaiting is hiring a casting director in Hollywood to cast any remaining major speaking roles for each film we have been unable to cast thus far. Her skill was so superior he thought she should be appointed drawing mistress if she remained at Lady Margaret Hall for any length of time. This is an all out effort to raise the bar in this region of professionally trained actors as well as crew.
She began a work titled "The Venture of Rational Faith" which occupied her thoughts for many years.
At this summer feature filmA  consortium; Whether you are an aspiring producer, director, script writer, editor, animator, actor, cinematographer, or just want to learn the ins and outs of the film making industry, you may begin as early as the summer of 2013 building your working resume by participation in our Summer Feature Film Consortium!
From the titles alone they suggest a young woman who was deeply concerned with problems of society and the spirit and this preoccupation with the spiritual was to be one of her concerns throughout the rest of her life. Well, we have serious investors who share our same passions who are willing to put their money where their mouths are. In some of her letters from Egypt it is clear that she was attempting to understand something of the spiritual life of the ancient Egyptians, not a surprising interest for the daughter of a churchman like Edward White Benson. Let us commit ourselves then together to perfecting our craft of film making and television production by committing to professional training and stop spending money with so-called agencies who are simply in business to sell schools and photos, but have no real connections to even consider making even a feature film.
A In 1885, at the age of twenty, Margaret was taken ill with scarlet fever while at Zermatt in Switzerland. It is a very sad thing that so many have been lured into such scams and have been taken advantage of, but now it is time for change and a part of this change is a must, raising the bar of excellence. It is now time for us to show our investors that we are willing to invest in our future so that very soon they will allow us the opportunity that all of us can make a very good living doing what each of us love doing and that we are extremely passionate about.A This film school has always been and will continue to be always a very specialA  part of our production company and our plans for the future as a means of keeping well trained professionals continuing to come on board with our production offices, from professionally trained actors to crew. By the time she was twenty-five she had developed the symptoms of rheumatism and the beginnings of arthritis.
This keeps fresh ideas coming through the doors, but more importantly it allows us to always know we have the most highly skilled actors and crew that money can buy. Our investment group has always made the film school a stipulation on their investing in our feature films and will continue to do so. She made her first voyage to Egypt in 1894 because the warm climate was considered to be beneficial for those who suffered from her ailments. A One of the biggest concerns of our investment group is to keep from happening here what happened in Louisiana, where their film makers were at least diligent in getting their law makers to raise the incentives to entice major film production companies like Maxima to come into their state to produce films in their state. Wintering in Egypt was highly recommended at the time for a wide range of illnesses ranging from simple asthma to "mental strain." Lord Carnarvon, Howard Carter's sponsor in the search for the tomb of Tutankhamun, was one of the many who went to Egypt for reasons of health.
They were able to do this by quoting statistics which prove, when major film production companies come into your state and begin producing motion pictures, they bring with them literally millions of dollars into the local economy. In Louisiana, they experienced tremendous success in enticing these companies into their state.A Unfortunately, these companies came by the droves, however, once there they found there was not enough professionally trained talent already there to produce the number of films they wanted to produce, causing them to have to hire the bulk of their needed talent out of state.
Because these incentives are based on hiring local talent, these companies when they were forced to hire outside of state talent, they lost their incentives.
After Cairo and Giza she went on by stages as far as Aswan and the island temples of Philae.
She commented on the "wonderful calm" of the Great Sphinx, the physical beauty of the Nubians, the color of the stone at Philae, the descent of the cataract by boat, which she said was "not at all dangerous". Louisiana has since worked diligently trying to get professional instructors in their public schools and universities to train up a workforce of professionally trained film and television professionals to salvage what they can of the professional production companies who have remained and tried working with them.A At Maxima Vision Films, we have experienced the same thing in this region as far as finding sufficient professionally trained talent to do here what we had planned to do in this region. By the end of January she was established in Luxor with a program of visits to the monuments set out. When I speak of this region, I am speaking of the region of Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Louisiana.
We have two investment groups, one of which has already committed to funding four feature films or television productions per year over the next five years here in this region with Maxima. I don't feel as if I should have really had an idea of Egypt at all if I hadn't stayed here -- the Bas-reliefs of kings in chariots are only now beginning to look individual instead of made on a pattern, and the immensity of the whole thing is beginning to dawn -- and the colours, oh my goodness! We want to shoot films that matter, films which can help to shape our culture positively as opposed to negatively.
These films will be marketed directly to the Christian community, which when one considers 70% of the USA population are professed Christian, this is an enormous market. The ancient language and script she found fascinating but she was not as interested in reading classical Arabic. Her interest was maintained by the variety of animal and bird life for at home in England she had been surrounded by domestic animals and had always been keen on keeping pets.
By the time her first stay ended in March, 1894, she had already resolved to return in the fall. When Margaret returned to Egypt in November she had already conceived the idea of excavating a site and thus applied to the Egyptian authorities. We are certain if we can keep our production cost down under a million dollars the odds are in our favor of at least breaking even if not making a few dollars, especially considering telling stories that matter.
If we can keep our films under $500,000 the odds go up even further, and we know one film in 6-7 will make a substantial return.
Edouard Naville, the Swiss Egyptologist who was working at the Temple of Hatshepsut at Dier el Bahri for the Egypt Exploration Fund, wrote to Henri de Morgan, Director of the Department of Antiquities, on her behalf. Our main goal though is telling stories that matter, that might help shape our culture positively, and we can all make a decent living while doing what we are all passionate about doing. From her letters of the time, it is clear that this was one of the most exciting moments of Margaret Benson's life because she was allowed to embark on what she considered a great adventure. A To accomplish all of this though, we are going to have to raise the bar here in this Texas region as far as talent goes. A Margaret's physical condition at the beginning of the excavation was of great concern to the family. We are diligently seeking those individuals who have a real passion for film making and television productions, who are driven by this passion to do whatever it takes to one day be able to make a living in a industry that chances are very bleak in anyone getting to a point of making a living.
However, one thing is for certain, to have any chance at all, the more one is willing to do in the industry, whether it be sweeping the floors, taking coffee to the director, or being the lead role, or simply investment of time, energy, and money to keep perfecting their craft, all tends to lead to work, which gives us more exposure, that in turn leads to more work, etc, etc, etca€¦ A The point is this; we have investors, which is something, if not the one and only thing which keeps most from doing what they truly want to do in this industry! These investors are seeking individuals like yourself who are like minded, those who have a real passion for film making and television productions, but who are also just as passionate about telling stores that matter.
However, the real key is finding these like minded individuals who take this business very serious, as serious as our investors take it, those who are willing to invest into their own future, so as to help them to perfect their individual craft so that they are the very best they can become, so that as a collaborative art form we are able as a group of individuals creating a quality product. A Margaret Benson had no particular training to qualify or prepare her for the job but what she lacked in experience she more than made up for with her "enthusiastic personality" and her intellectual curiosity.
In the preface to The Temple of Mut in Asher she said that she had no intention of publishing the work because she had been warned that there was little to find.
In the introduction to The Temple of Mut in Asher acknowledgments were made and gratitude was offered to a number of people who aided in the work in various ways. The professional Egyptologists and archaeologists included Naville, Petrie, de Morgan, Brugsch, Borchardt, Daressy, Hogarth and especially Percy Newberry who translated the inscriptions on all of the statues found.


Lea), 10 a Colonel Esdaile, 11 and Margaret's brother, Fred, helped in the supervision of the work in one or more seasons. A It is usually assumed that Margaret Benson and Janet Gourlay worked only as amateurs, with little direction and totally inexperienced help. It is clear from the publication that Naville helped to set up the excavation and helped to plan the work. Hogarth 12 gave advice in the direction of the digging and Newberry was singled out for his advice, suggestions and correction as well as "unwearied kindness." Margaret's brother, Fred, helped his inexperienced sister by supervising some of the work as well as making a measured plan of the temple which is reproduced in the publication.
After he began his own recovery, he helped set up centers to help other addicts."I abandoned my old life to serve the Lord Jesus Christ," he said.
Benson) was qualified to help because he had intended to pursue archaeology as a career, studied Classical Languages and archaeology at Cambridge, and was awarded a scholarship at King's College on the basis of his work. He organized a small excavation at Chester to search for Roman legionary tomb stones built into the town wall and the results of his efforts were noticed favorably by Theodore Mommsen, the great nineteenth century classicist, and by Mr. One twin struggles with an addition to prescription drugs, while the other battles doctors whose prescription anti-psychotics are driving her sister to madness and death.a€?One is what I call a€?preachya€™ and more for the church community and affirming faith,a€? Maxwell said. Benson went on to excavate at Megalopolis in Greece for the British School at Athens and published the result of his work in the Journal of Hellenic Studies.
His first love was Greece and its antiquities and it is probable that concern for his sister's health was a more important reason for him joining the excavation than an interest in the antiquities of Egypt. 13A It is interesting to speculate as to why a Victorian woman was drawn to the Temple of Mut.
The precinct of the goddess who was the consort of Amun, titled "Lady of Heaven", and "Mistress of all the Gods", is a compelling site and was certainly in need of further exploration in Margaret's time. Its isolation and the arrangement with the Temple of Mut enclosed on three sides by its own sacred lake made it seem even more romantic. 14 When she began the excavation three days was considered enough time to "do" the monuments of Luxor and Margaret said that few people could be expected to spend even a half hour at in the Precinct of Mut. With the first type of film we will focus on films which are considered preachy and on the nose which will be marketed directly to the Christian community. A On her first visit to Egypt in 1894 she had gone to see the temple because she had heard about the granite statues with cats' heads (the lion-headed images of Sakhmet).
The second types of films we will focus on are those designed to reach the un-churched with a message of hope for a hurting world, a film with at least a redemptive message. The donkey-boys knew how to find the temple but it was not considered a "usual excursion" and after her early visits to the site she said that "The temple itself was much destroyed, and the broken walls so far buried, that one could not trace the plan of more than the outer court and a few small chambers". This investment group is especially interested in getting involved with projects where the project owner has some sort of invested interest in the project themselves or have some avenue to put together a split funded project somehow, thus splitting the risk as well.A A Thus, this investment group funded many trips around the country for Dr. 15 The Precinct of the Goddess Mut is an extensive field of ruins about twenty-two acres in size, of which Margaret had chosen to excavate only the central structure. Maxwell to travel and meet with other investment individuals, companies and groups who had expressed interest in partnerships with the films we were already in pre-production stage which were our films a€?Rachela€™s Gracea€? and a€?Sister Surrendereda€?, both of which had an estimated production budget of around $300,000. Connected to the southernmost pylons of the larger Amun Temple of Karnak by an avenue of sphinxes, the Mut precinct contains three major temples and a number of smaller structures in various stages of dilapidation. We had felt with partnering with others who could double the production budget we could add at least some actors with much experience as well as other talents.
She noted some of these details in her initial description of the site, but in three short seasons she was only able to work inside the Mut Temple proper and she cleared little of its exterior. Unfortunately, at this point, though we met many such investment groups who had expressed interest in split funding our film projects, most simply had projects themselves who they wanted our investment group to invest in their film projects and did not show us even any interest what so ever in split funding our film projects after our investment group paid travel and lodging expenses for Dr Maxwell to meet with these people. A With this being said, this has been a very expensive summer for our investment group in trying to put together split funded film projects. Serious study of the temple complex was started at least as early as the expedition of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century when artists and engineers attached to the military corps measured the ruins and made drawings of some of the statues. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the great age of the treasure hunters in Egypt, Giovanni Belzoni carried away many of the lion-headed statues and pieces of sculpture to European museums.
Champollion, the decipherer of hieroglyphs, and Karl Lepsius, the pioneer German Egyptologist, both visited the precinct, copied inscriptions and made maps of the remains.16 August Mariette had excavated there and believed that he had exhausted the site. Most of the travelers and scholars who had visited the precinct or carried out work there left some notes or sketches of what they saw and these were useful as references for the new excavation. Since some of the early sources on the site are quoted in her publication, Margaret was obviously aware of their existence. 17A On her return to Egypt at the end of November, 1894, she stopped at Mena House hotel at Giza and for a short time at Helwan, south of Cairo.
Helwan was known for its sulphur springs and from about 1880 it had become a popular health resort, particularly suited for the treatment of the sorts of maladies from which Margaret suffered. People at every turn asked if she remembered them and her donkey-boy almost wept to see her. A "On January 1st, 1895, we began the excavation" -- with a crew composed of four men, sixteen boys (to carry away the earth), an overseer, a night guardian and a water carrier.
The largest the work gang would be in the three seasons of excavation was sixteen or seventeen men and eighty boys, still a sizable number.
Before the work started Naville came to "interview our overseer and show us how to determine the course of the work". A A good part of Margaret's time was occupied with learning how to supervise the workmen and the basket boys. Since her spoken Arabic was almost nonexistent, she had to use a donkey-boy as a translator. It would have been helpful if she had had the opportunity to work on an excavation conducted by a professional and profit from the experience but she was eager to learn and had generally good advice at her disposal so she proceeded in an orderly manner and began to clear the temple. On the second of January she wrote to her mother: "I don't think much will be found of little things, only walls, bases of pillars, and possibly Cat-statues. I shall feel rather like --'Massa in the shade would lay While we poor niggers toiled all day' -- for I am to have a responsible overseer, and my chief duty apparently will be paying.
18A She is described as riding out from the Luxor Hotel on donkey-back with bags of piaster pieces jingling for the Saturday payday.
She had been warned to pay each man and boy personally rather than through the overseer to reduce the chances of wages disappearing into the hands of intermediaries. The workmen believed that she was at least a princess and they wanted to know if her father lived in the same village as the Queen of England. When they sang their impromptu work songs (as Egyptian workmen still do) they called Margaret the "Princess" and her brother Fred the "Khedive". A PART II: THE EXCAVATIONSA The clearance was begun in the northern, outer, court of the temple where Mariette had certainly worked.
Earth was banked to the north side of the court, against the back of the ruined first pylon but on the south it had been dug out even below the level of the pavement. Mariette's map is inaccurate in a number of respects suggesting that he was not able to expose enough of the main walls.
At the first (northern) gate it was necessary for Margaret Benson to clear ten or twelve feet of earth to reach the paving stones at the bottom. In the process they found what were described as fallen roofing blocks, a lion-headed statue lying across and blocking the way, and also a small sandstone head of a hippopotamus.
In the clearance of the court the bases of four pairs of columns were found, not five as on Mariette's map.
After working around the west half of the first court and disengaging eight Sakhmet statues in the process, they came on their first important find. Near the west wall of the court, was discovered a block statue of a man named Amenemhet, a royal scribe of the time of Amenhotep II. The statue is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo 19 but Margaret was given a cast of it to take home to England. When it was discovered she wrote to her father: A My Dearest Papa, We have had such a splendid find at the Temple of Mut that I must write to tell you about it.
We were just going out there on Monday, when we met one of our boys who works there running to tell us that they had found a statue.
When we got there they were washing it, and it proved to be a black granite figure about two feet high, knees up to its chin, hands crossed on them, one hand holding a lotus.
20A The government had appointed an overseer who spent his time watching the excavation for just such finds.
He reported it to a sub-inspector who immediately took the block statue away to a store house and locked it up. He said it was hard that Margaret should not have "la jouissance de la statue que vous avez trouve" and she was allowed to take it to the hotel where she could enjoy it until the end of the season when it would become the property of the museum.
The statue had been found on the pavement level, apparently in situ, suggesting to the excavator that this was good evidence for an earlier dating for the temple than was generally believed at the time.
The presence of a statue on the floor of a temple does not necessarily date the temple, but many contemporary Egyptologists might have come to the same conclusion.
One visitor to the site recalled that a party of American tourists were perplexed when Margaret was pointed out to them as the director of the dig. At that moment she and a friend were sitting on the ground quarreling about who could build the best sand castle. This was probably not the picture of an "important" English Egyptologist that the Americans had expected.
A As work was continued in the first court other broken statues of Sakhmet were found as well as two seated sandstone baboons of the time of Ramesses III.
21 The baboons went to the museum in Cairo, a fragment of a limestone stela was eventually consigned to a store house in Luxor and the upper part of a female figure was left in the precinct where it was recently rediscovered. The small objects found in the season of 1895 included a few coins, a terra cotta of a reclining "princess", some beads, Roman pots and broken bits of bronze. Time was spent repositioning Sakhmet statues which appeared to be out of place based on what was perceived as a pattern for their arrangement. Even if they were correct they could not be sure that they were reconstructing the original ancient placement of the statues in the temple or some modification of the original design. In the spirit of neatness and attempting to leave the precinct in good order, they also repaired some of the statues with the aid of an Italian plasterer, hired especially for that purpose.
A Margaret was often bed ridden by her illnesses and she was subject to fits of depression as well but she and her brother Fred would while away the evenings playing impromptu parlor games.
For a fancy dress ball at the Luxor Hotel she appeared costumed as the goddess Mut, wearing a vulture headdress which Naville praised for its ingenuity.
The resources in the souk of Luxor for fancy dress were nonexistent but Margaret was resourceful enough to find material with which to fabricate a costume based, as she said, on "Old Egyptian pictures." A The results of the first season would have been gratifying for any excavator. In a short five weeks the "English Lady" had begun to clear the temple and to note the errors on the older plans available to her. She had started a program of reconstruction with the idea of preserving some of the statues of Sakhmet littering the site. She had found one statue of great importance and the torso of another which did not seem so significant to her. Her original intention of digging in a picturesque place where she had been told there was nothing much to be found was beginning to produce unexpected results.A The Benson party arrived in Egypt for the second season early in January of 1896. After a trip down to, they reached Luxor Aswan around the twenty-sixth and the work began on the thirtieth. That day Margaret was introduced to Janet Gourlay who had come to assist with the excavation. The beginning of the long relationship between "Maggie" Benson and "Nettie" Gourlay was not signaled with any particular importance. By May of the same year she was to write (also to her mother): "I like her more and more -- I haven't liked anyone so well in years". Miss Benson and Miss Gourlay seemed to work together very well and to share similar reactions and feelings.
They were to remain close friends for much of Margaret's life, visiting and travelling together often. Their correspondence reflects a deep mutual sympathy and Janet was apparently much on Margaret's mind because she often mentioned her friend in writing to others. After her relationship with Margaret Benson she faded into obscurity and even her family has been difficult to trace, although a sister was located a few years ago.
A For the second season in 1896 the work staff was a little larger, with eight to twelve men, twenty-four to thirty-six boys, a rais (overseer), guardians and the necessary water carrier.
With the first court considered cleared in the previous season, work was begun at the gate way between the first and second courts. An investigation was made of the ruined wall between these two courts and the conclusion was drawn that it was "a composite structure" suggesting that part of the wall was of a later date than the rest. The wall east of the gate opening is of stone and clearly of at least two building periods while the west side has a mud brick core faced on the south with stone. Margaret thought the west half of the wall to be completely destroyed because it was of mud brick which had never been replaced by stone.
She found the remains of "more than one row of hollow pots" which she thought had been used as "air bricks" in some later rebuilding.
Originally built of mud brick, like many of the structures in the Precinct of Mut, the south face of both halves of the wall was sheathed with stone one course thick no later than the Ramesside Period.
During the Ptolemaic Period the core of the east half of the mud brick wall was replaced with stone but the Ramesside sheathing was retained. Here the untrained excavator was beginning to understand some of the problems of clearing a temple structure in Egypt.
Mariette's plan of the second chamber probably seemed accurate after a superficial examination so a complete clearing seemed unnecessary.
Other fragments were found and the original height of the seated statue was estimated between fourteen and sixteen feet high. The following year de Morgan, the Director General of the Department of Antiquities, ordered the head sent to the museum in Cairo The finding of the large lion head is mentioned in a letter from Margaret to her mother dated February 9, 1896, 22. In the same letter she also mentions the discovery of a statue of Ramesses II on the day before the letter was written. 23.Her published letters often give exact or close dates of discoveries whereas her later publication in the Temple of Mut in Asher was an attempt at a narrative of the work in some order of progression through the temple and dates are often lacking. About the same time that the giant lion head was found some effort was made to raise a large cornerstone block but a crowbar was bent and a rope was broken. The end result of the activity is not explained at that point and the location of the corner not given but it can probably be identified with the southeast cornerstone of the Mut Temple mentioned later in a description of the search for foundation deposits.
A Somewhere near the central axis of the second court, but just inside the gateway, they came on the upper half of a royal statue with nemes headdress and the remains of a false beard. There had been inscriptions on the shoulder and back pillar but these had been methodically erased. The lower half was found a little later and it was possible to reconstruct an over life-sized, nearly complete, seated statue of a king. The excavators published it as "possibly" Tutankhamun, an identification not accepted today, and it is still to be seen, sitting to the east of the gateway, facing into the second court.24 A large statue of Sakhmet was also found, not as large as the colossal head, but larger than the other figures still in the precinct and in most Egyptian collections. It was also reconstructed and left in place, on the west side of the doorway where it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in the temple. In the clearance of the second court a feature described as a thin wall built out from the north wall was found in the northeast corner. It was later interpreted by the nineteenth century excavators as part of the arrangement for a raised cloister and it was not until recent excavation that it was identified as the lower part of the wall of a small chapel, built against the north wall of the court. The process of determining any sequence of the levels in the second court was complicated by the fact that it had been worked over by earlier treasure hunters and archaeologists. In some cases statues were found below the original floor level, leading to the assumption that some pieces had fallen, broken the pavement, and sunk into the floor of their own weight. It is more probable that the stone floors had been dug out and undermined in the search for antiquities. A An attempt was made to put the area in order for future visitors as the excavation progressed. This included the reconstruction of some of the statues as found and the moving of others in a general attempt to neaten the appearance of the temple. Other finds made in the second court included inscribed blocks too large to move or reused in parts of walls still standing. The statue identified as Ramesses II, mentioned in Margaret's letter of February 9, was found on the southwest side of the court, near the center. It was a seated figure in pink granite, rather large in size, but when it was completely uncovered it was found to be broken through the middle with the lower half in an advanced state of disintegration. The upper part was in relatively good condition except for the left shoulder and arm and it was eventually awarded to the excavators.
A Mention was also made of several small finds from the second court including a head of a god in black stone and part of the vulture headdress from a statue of a goddess or a queen. The recent ongoing excavations carried out by the Brooklyn Museum have revealed a female head with traces of a vulture headdress as well as a number of fragments of legs and feet which suggest that the head of the god found by Margaret Benson was from a pair statue representing Amun and Mut. Another important discovery she made on the south side of the court was a series of sandstone relief blocks representing the arrival at Thebes of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I, as God's Wife of Amun.25A At some time during the season Margaret was made aware of the possibility that foundation deposits might still be in place. These dedicatory deposits were put down at the time of the founding of a structure or at a time of a major rebuilding, and they are often found under the cornerstones, the thresholds or under major walls, usually in the center. They contain a number of small objects including containers for food offerings, model tools and model bricks or plaques inscribed with the name of the ruler. The importance of finding such a deposit in the Temple of Mut was obvious to Margaret because it would prove to everyone's satisfaction who had built the temple, or at least who had made additions to it. A They first looked for foundation deposits in the middle of the gateway between the first and second courts. At the same time another part of the crew was clearing the innermost rooms in the south part of the temple. Under the central of the three chambers they discovered a subterranean crypt with an entrance so small that it had to be excavated by "a small boy with a trowel". This chamber has been re-cleared in recent years and proved to be a small rectangular room with traces of an erased one-line text around the four walls. In antiquity the access seems to have been hidden by a paving stone which had to be lifted each time the room was entered. A The search for foundation deposits continued in the southeast corner of the temple (probably the place where the crowbar was bent and the rope broken). Again no deposit was found but in digging around the cornerstone, below the original ground level, they began to find statues and fragments of statues.
As the earth continued to yield more and more pieces of sculpture, Legrain arrived from the Amun Temple, where he was supervising the excavation, and announced his intention to take everything away to the storehouse.
Aside from the pleasure of the find, it was important to have the objects at hand for study, comparison and the copying of inscriptions.




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