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The Greek peninsula was originally settled by the Minoan people who originated in Egypt and came to the mainland via the island of Crete on the south, by the Achaeans who settled in the Peloponnese, and by the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians who entered over the mountains from Europe in the north. The name comes from the ruins at Mycenae where a large palace and many graves were discovered. The values that emerged from Homera€™s epic tales became the basic values of Greek culture and formed the basis for Greek education.
Excellence (arete) -- doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments.
Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. Glory (kleos) -- glory one achieves for parents, family, and polis through great deeds of excellence, honor, bravery. Impermanence of human life -- everything in life is impermanent, but glory (kleos) never fades.
After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil wars and their defenses became weakened. This period extended from the beginning of the wars with Persia up to the death of Alexander the Great in 336 B.C. The ideal Greek man was considered to be a brave warrior during war time and an excellent athlete in peace time. The olympic site at Olympia still contains the actual fields, large dirt berms where spectators sat, the tunnel through which the contestants ran onto the fields, and remnants of many statues to the gods.
Persia, a major power that developed to the northeast of the Fertile Crescent, expanded through military power into present-day Turkey (Anatolia) and into the western areas of the Black Sea, just to the north of Greece. The Greeks had established colonies in Troy, Ephesus, and other locations along the eastern edge of the Aegean in present day Turkey. Every modern marathon is exactly the same distance, whether it is run in London, Tokyo, or Boston. Xerxes is also well known to Christians and Jews because he was the husband of Queen Esther, a Jewish young woman who lived during the Babylonian Captivity of Judah. Xerxes took his time -- four years -- to assemble a huge army of 2 million men and 1200 ships to attack Greece. The Persians marched to a point to the north of Athens, burning and pillaging Greek villages along their path.The goal was to conquer Athens and burn it to the ground in retaliation for Dariusa€™ previous defeat at Marathon. The Persians were like a herd of elephants attempting to crawl inside the neck of a Coke bottle. The Athenians meanwhile began evacuating all the citizens of Athens to Salamis, an island south of Athens, which was separated from the mainland by the Bay of Salamis. Why was the Athenian army not present at Thermopylae if the goal of Xerxes was to destroy Athens?
Why did Leonidas not dismiss the Thespians from the battle, as he did the other Greek troops?
What can be learned from the example of how Leonidas chose Thermopylae to fight the superior forces of the Persians?
By the time the Persians entered Athens, the entire city had been evacuated except for some priests and priestesses who were supposedly given the job of defending the sacred temples on the Acropolis. Why did Xerxes not head immediately into the Peloponnese to deal with Sparta, the hometown of Leonidas, who had angered him at Thermopylae? When the Persian ships entered the Bay of Salamis they were quickly surrounded by the more maneuverable Greek ships.
The Athenians went on to build the worlda€™s largest navy and a merchant fleet that trading throughout the Mediterranean, while the Spartans developed the worlda€™s most powerful army. After the Persian wars Athens and Sparta continued to develop two radically different cultures. The Peloponnesian League attacked Athens, but the outmanned Athenians under Pericles gained allies in the Peloponnese, thus damaging Spartaa€™s supply lines, and encouraged the Spartan helots (slaves) to flee to the Athenian allied city-states for safety and freedom.
Athens had built large stone walls from the city down the rocky slopes about 8 miles to Piraeus, its port on the Aegean.
Eventually in following years Athens proved to be the city with the most resiliency, vitality, and potential. What two confederations were set up in Greece in view of disputes and bad attitudes between the various city-states? Pericles was the leader of Athens following the Persian Wars and led Athens in its war against Sparta. Socrates lived during the Peloponnesian Wars that racked Greece and brought Athens and Sparta to exhaustion.
Socrates sought through his philosophy to teach a better way, and to do so through the education of the youth of Athens. Socrates was upset by an earlier group of Athenian thinkers, the Sophists, who maintained that there were no universals or absolutes in life. The elders of Athens were very disturbed by Socrates questioning tradition and teaching his students to do the same. Socrates was held in deep respect by his students, but resented by the leaders of the polis. In the Apology of Plato (Dialogues 32, 41) when asked how he felt about his soon death, Socrates is reported by Plato to have replied that he had no feelings or emotions about death. What does Socrates believe about the soul that leads him to conclude that everything a person needs to know already exists in his mind, and merely needs to be allowed to come out? Since Socrates never wrote any of his teachings down, what is one source of his teachings that we can consult to discover what Socrates believed and taught? Early in life Plato wandered around the Mediterranean and was at one point captured by pirates. In The Cave, Plato describes several people chained inside a cave who have never viewed what lies on the outside of the cave. But if there are real Forms of chairs and trees and red apples, then there are real Forms of humans, also. It was Platoa€™s emphasis on the upper story that appealed to people in Northern Europe during the Renaissance and during the Protestant Reformation, as opposed to the man-centered humanism of Aristotle which was favored in the Italian Renaissance. How is this expressed in the statement by Plato to his teacher: a€?a€?And what, Socrates, is the food of the soul?
Aristotle was the son of a physician who had served the grandfather of Alexander the Great. An educated mind is able to listen to and entertain a thought without blindly accepting it. Aristotle departed from his teacher, Plato, by maintaining, as did Confucius and Buddha, that there is not enough time in this life to worry about a life to come. Aristotle was a pioneer biologist in observing and classifying the plants, trees, and animals of Greece.
Aristotle, in similar fashion to Plato his teacher, saw two energies or components of the soul -- desire and reason. At the close of the middle ages, many Italians began to discard the traditions of the Roman Church. All three of these philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, emphasized human reason as the major force of life.
In Christianity there is the important matter of the necessity of being born again, having our minds made new, of submitting our minds and wills to God, in trusting Him for wisdom and understanding. Some speculate that the gods and goddesses in Greek mythology were heroes from the earliest Mycenaean periods of Greeks history, preceding even Troy and Homer. This speculation comes from a careful study of Greek pottery, art, and sculpture, which gives, in the opinion of some historians, evidence that the gods and goddesses may have been the glorification by the early Greeks of major characters from the line of Cain who lived prior to the flood.
For instance, Zeus could possibly be Nimrod, the first of the great warriors and the founder of the first city according to Genesis. Thus Greek mythology, maintains Johnson, is a corrupted version of biblical history, a twisted memory. To understand the whole story that underlies the stories contained in Greek mythology, one must be aware of the clash between the older Titans and the younger Olympians. In other pieces of Greek art there is a continuous emphasis on capturing and grasping the tree that contains the fruit of knowledge and mysteries.
If Johnson is correct in his interpretations of the many scenes depicted in Greek pottery, Greek mythology deifies the pre-flood line of Cain and depicts Zeus as triumphant over Noah and his God for rule on the earth. Athena is consistently represented in Greek art as not only the patron of Athens but the goddess who possesses knowledge, wisdom, and access to the mysteries. At the wedding feast celebrating Philipa€™s marriage to Cleopatra, her father made a toast, asking the gods for the birth of a son to become heir to the throne, obviously discounting Alexandera€™s legitimacy.
In the melee that followed, one of his bodyguards, a friend of Alexander, stabbed Philip to death.
It is interesting to note that about 700 years later when a Roman general demanded that all of his troops sacrifice to the Emperor to confirm their loyalty, the same Thebian elite unit, now comprising a legion of 6,000 men, refused to sacrifice and the entire legion was put to death. Alexander invaded Anatolia, conquered Syria and Palestine, became the only one in the history of Afghanistan to conquer it, and conquered mighty Egypt. His goal was to unite the entire known world under one leader, speaking one language, and possessing one culture.
Before you read the following account, please read the story of Paula€™s visit to Athens as described by Luke, Paula€™s companion, in Acts 17:16-34. The Athenians developed a complex mythology in an attempt to make sense out of human existence. By the time of Christ there were literally several thousand gods and goddesses in the religious system of Athens.
Monuments and altars to the many gods and goddesses lined the highway from Piraeus, the port, to the center of the city of Athens.
Paul stopped in Athens on his way to Corinth, waiting for companions to arrive from Thessaloniki.
In describing Paula€™s reaction to the Athenian idolatry, Luke, the companion of Paul, uses the Greek word paroxysm from which we get paroxsymal. Epicureans taught that the basis of human life was to a€?eat, drink, and have a good time, because tomorrow we will die.a€? There are no moral absolutes.
Sophists were an itinerant group of philosophers who emphasized the intellect as the basis of human success.
Paul was invited to climb up to Mars Hill, a large hill inside Athens about 300 yards from the Acropolis. Some have suggested that Paul made a mistake by resorting to philosophy and logic in an attempt to be accepted by the Areopagus.
They asked the oracle at Delphi, what had they done to cause this plague, and most importantly, what could they do to end it? Further, the Oracle said, the Athenians must travel to the Island of Crete, to Knossos, a traditional enemy of Athens, to seek out the legendary prophet, Epimenides. Upon arriving at Athens, Epimenides noticed the hundreds of altars and monuments dedicated to the scores of Athenian deities.
According to Plato, he states in his Laws, since the deity sacrificed to was unknown to the Athenians and unknown to Epimenides, the sites were named in honor of Agnosto Theo, the unknown god who had been appeased and who had lifted the plague. Plato further noted that Epimenides prophesied that in ten years Persia would again attempt to invade Athens but would be frustrated and turned back.
Within ten years, Persia, under Darius, attempted to invade Athens, just as Epimenides predicted, but was defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon. Lest we become too enamored by Epimenides, however, he also claimed that Zeus was immortal. The refusal of the people of Crete to adore Zeus as the Immortal One caused Epimenides to make that classic statement, a€?All Cretans, liars!a€? This quote is cited by Paul in Titus 1:12. In the book, Peace Child, Don Richardson describes how the Gospel seemed to be a concept beyond the ability of the Asmat tribe in New Guinea to understand. Likewise, in the Ekari tribe of New Guinea the loss was lamented of the knowledge of Ajii, a place where the dead could go after death, where there was the absence of war, illness, sadness. In this same way, Paul used the bridge of the agnosto theo to enable the Athenians to understand the Gospel. Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were later revered by the rest of the world, they were not well received during their lifetimes in Athens. What truths did Epimenides declare about the true God when he made his four suggestions about the agnosto theo?
What can we learn from this story to help us in talking with other people about the Good News of Jesus?
Although Rome conquered Greece, Greece in its religion, philosophy, and language conquered Rome. The Christian faith grew rapidly in Greece, including such famous Christian communities as those in Corinth, Athens, Philippi, and Thessaloniki.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453, most of Greece in 1460 fell to the Ottomans.The Ottoman Turks were mountain people from the north of Persia who invaded and conquered present-day Turkey by the 12th century. Facing Russian troops sent by the Christian tsar of Russia at the walls of Constantinople in 1829, the Sultan of the Ottomans finally recognized Greek independence. In the 20th Century Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II, and a communist government was elected shortly after the war.
Greece is important and of interest to Western Christians because it was the birthplace of the Christian Church in Europe.
Greece is also the civilization that served as a bottleneck, preventing the domination of Islam in Europe. What is not laudable, is the religious darkness that existed in Greece prior to the arrival of the Gospel. What are the differences between the limited democracy of Athens and democracy as practiced in the United States?
What evidences are there for humane treatment of girls and women in the ancient Greek civilization? It is said that the Romans capture the Greeks, but in reality the Greeks captured the Romans. The classical civilizations of Greece established institutions and defined values and styles that endured for many centuries and that continue to influence our lives today. Alongside of these religions developed two divinely revealed religions: Judaism and Christianity. The first Greek civilization was the Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, with Knossos as its main community. The migration into the Greek mainland from the north by the Mycenaean people, and their subsequent invasion of Crete, resulted in a common language. Troy was a city-state strategically located at the Hellespont, where it controlled traffic to and from Europe and Asia Minor. Athens served as one of the models for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but as a direct democracy functioned very differently than the representative democracy established in the United States.
While Athens was experimenting with a direct democracy, Israel had received from Jehovah through Moses a form of democratic, representative government. Israel, even though embracing a limited monarchy, considered itself a theocracy, with Jehovah at its center and the temple and sacrificial system centered in Jerusalem.
The story of the plague at Athens and the wisdom of Epimenides led to the worship of the a€?Unknown Goda€? and to the eventual entrance of the Gospel to Athens and Greece.
Persia became the feared enemy of the Greek city-states, resulting in three major battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis. Ironically, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia, was Esther, a Jewish woman whose family had been takenA  to Babylon in the Babylonian Captivity of 566 BC. The refusal of Athens to share its democratic dream with the other city-states, as well as jealousy and rebellion on the part of the other city-states, resulted in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). Macedonia under Philip the Great conquered all of Greece and established the Macedonian empire. The values contained in The Iliad and The Odyssey that permeated Greek culture and Western Civilization.
The difference between a direct democracy, like that of Athens, and a representative republic, like that of the United States of America. The battles in the Persian-Greek wars at Thermopylae, Marathon, and Salamis, included the reasons why the numerically smaller Greek forces were able to ultimately defeat the vast forces of Persia. 1.Excellence (arete) --A  doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. 2.Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments.
3.Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. 4.Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. The materials consist of Power Point slides with activities, information, handouts and links to resources online. For the first time in more than 50 years, the government has published a white paper on culture. According to the charity’s 2015 impact research, 81 per cent of all students at the WEA are involved in more cultural activities, which include reading, following their participation in a WEA class - regardless of the subject. British politician and academic Lord David Blunkett delivered the keynote speech at the evening reception. Events such as these serve to reiterate the value of adult education – it is something which we must strive to protect given its life-enhancing and life-changing effect.
Gender parity is the theme for this year and individuals and groups are being urged to take action in order to accelerate equality for all.
As Christine Lagarde, chief executive of the IMF, said in the 2014 Dimbleby Lecture, women “face discrimination at birth, on the school bench, in the boardroom. Carolyn Fairbairn, director general of the CBI, reminds us that far too few women run FTSE 100 companies and the pipeline of talent gets blocked by men who, more obviously, fit in. A survey carried out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 2013 ranked England and Northern Ireland 14th for adult literacy and 16th for adult numeracy. According to the charity Go ON UK, nearly a quarter of the adult population lack basic digital skills, a phenomenon that affects women more than men, given time taken out because of childbirth. Which is why the WEA helps thousands of working people and those in the poorest communities to return to education, whatever their age or income. Leading an organisation was something that I thought was beyond my grasp when growing up in a small Welsh mining town in the 1960s. My accent wasn’t right and the first time I was invited out for dinner I turned up at midday. Working in such a male dominated industry in the 1970s was no picnic and, despite coal being in my blood, career opportunities were non-existent for women.
The majority of our students are women and many of them use courses as a means to reskill or retrain. The importance of this was recently confirmed by the Centre for the Modern Family, a think-tank established by Scottish Widows.
Globalisation has the potential to open up opportunities and to encourage wider participation – and global organisations need seriously to address widening and deepening the talent pool if they want to continue to be successful. Governments need to take tough action where human values of respect and dignity are compromised and we need to tackle head-on the biggest temptation of them all: to set our sights too low and quit the field when the battle is not yet won.
Almost one in four UK workers are willing to take a pay cut in exchange for more flexible working hours as pressure builds on employers struggling to live up to employees’ expectations. Whilst the study of 2,000 adults and 500 businesses found that almost a third (32%) of employees with children felt their employer provided equal support for all, only 20% without children agreed, and a similar proportion (21%) of those without children claimed that parents received better support. The findings showed employers’ responses reflected this perception, with more than half (51%) offering flexibility for mothers with young children. Whilst businesses appear to be taking steps towards meeting the needs of parents in the workplace, varying barriers still exist when it comes to extending those policies to support employees more widely. The study found that medium-sized businesses struggle the most – with almost a quarter (23%) saying they do what is legally required of them in terms of flexibility for families, but not any more than this for other employees. Almost three quarters of medium-sized businesses (72%) would never consider offering full-time working from home, compared to half (51%) of micro and two-fifths (40%) of enterprise businesses. Half of medium businesses also said they would not consider offering part-time working from home, compared with 16% of enterprise and 22% of large businesses for the same reasons. Almost a fifth of businesses (17%) have called for clearer information around the business benefits of flexible working – rising to a quarter (24%) in large businesses. However, employees feel it is the employer’s responsibility to offer solutions, and many are keen to see changes in the workplace. Join us for the WEA biennial conference, which will be held on 11th and 12th March 2016 in Sheffield.
If your costs are being met by a WEA Region or Association Services, you can register online here. Ed Mayo is Secretary General of Co-operatives UK, the national business association for co-operative and mutual enterprises. Debate the future of Conference and the sutainability of the WEA - the latest agenda is available here. Current WEA Deputy President, Lynne Smith, is set to become President of the Association following an all member vote.
Ruth Spellman, Chief Executive and General Secretary commented: "I am sure that members, staff, volunteers and supporters of the WEA will join with me in congratulating Lynne Smith on her election as President of the WEA.
Wessex Archaeology and the Workers’ Educational Association have forged a new partnership to promote and deliver educational outreach with heritage at its heart.
Wessex Archaeology Chief Executive Chris Brayne and Ruth Spellman, Chief Executive of the WEA, will be signing a memorandum of understanding at the Omega Centre in Portsmouth today.
Lord Mayor of Portsmouth, Councillor Frank Jonas is attending to speak about the Mary Rose and WEA students will be there to help show that heritage themes can support the teaching of Stem (science, technology, engineering and maths) subjects and literacy.
Yesterday, Liberal Democrat peer Baroness Sharp led a debate in the House of Lords on the role of adult education and lifelong learning in strengthening the UK economy. Speaking at the debate, Lord Watson of Invergowrie, noted the results of the WEA’s latest impact report which assessed the effect of our provision against our four curriculum themes. Lord Hennessy of Nympsfield, Lord Hunt of Chesterton, Lord Shipley and Baroness Garden of Frognal all referenced the charity and its role in ensuring that everyone has a chance to return to education. The WEA is pleased to see this issue raised in parliament, and through the work of the APPG, will continue to champion the importance of lifelong learning to individuals, communities and wider society.
The UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) has published its 2015 Employer Skills Survey which reports that, despite a surge in job openings, the number of positions left vacant because employers cannot find people with the skills or knowledge to fill them has risen by 130% since 2011. In our experience, ESOL students are hardworking and diligent, committed to contributing to their communities and wider society.


Election for the post of PresidentSince two nominations have been received for the post of President, a ballot among WEA members will now decide which candidate will be elected to the post. If you were a registered member by 12 September 2015, you will be able to vote in the election. Elections of WEA Association Officers are supervised by the Standing Orders Committee appointed at the previous Association Conference.
In order to be able to vote, members are required to have joined the WEA in England and Scotland on or before 12 September 2015. WEA London Region is looking for experienced, knowledgeable, flexible and creative adult educators for inclusion on our Tutor Panel. You should ideally have experience of working with educationally or socio-economically disadvantaged adults across a range of community settings. The report demonstrates that adult learning has an enormous impact on individuals and communities. The Autumn edition of WEA News is now available, including stories on our Save Adult Education campaign, Conference 16, the new All Party Parliamentary Group for Adult Education and much more.
Molly Morgan was a WEA volunteer who was tragically murdered on her way to a WEA course in 2009.
As the WEA leads the campaign to save adult education across England, colleagues in WEA Scotland give their support and solidarity, whilst reflecting on some key differences in Scotland.
An award winning adult education student and a fashion tutor from Tower Hamlets joined shadow minister and Newcastle MP, Chi Onwurah, to deliver a petition of over 10,000 names to 10 Downing Street as part of a campaign to save adult education. Adult education, which is funded by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, represents only six per cent of the department’s spending devoted to education and training. With the government expecting that 13.5 million jobs will be created over the next 10 years but only 7 million young people coming into the workforce, there is a concern the loss of adult education services will mean that older workers will not be able to update their skills while employers will face a shortage of workers.
On Thursday, 29 October 2015, the Higher Education Policy Institute (HEPI) published It’s the finance, stupid! This collection of essays explains the catastrophic fall in part-time student numbers, which is harming the economy and limiting people’s ability to transform their lives, and proposes a range of options for tackling the problem. A study, published in the Royal Society’s Open Science journal, looked at how a series of adult education classes grew closer over seven months. Dr Eiluned Pearce, from Oxford’s Department of Experimental Psychology led the research. To test the theory, the researchers worked with charity the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), the UK’s largest voluntary sector provider of adult education. Those attending the classes were given surveys before and after individual sessions in the first month, just before the break and at the end of the seven month course. We are sad to announce the recent death of Peter Quigley, who played an active role in the WEA for many years. I learned Peter Quigley had passed away on the evening of Tuesday 13th October in hospital following an operation, whilst I was attending a WEA Regional Heads Meeting in London. Peter had also represented WEA Scotland nationally on the WEA Council and more recently on the Standing Orders Committee. On the wider stage of life, Peter was a former English teacher, and Union Representative and this often meant that he was called on to represent members in disciplinary procedures.
Knowing of my literary aspirations, Peter had chatted to me a couple of times about writing a book himself, though, ever cautious, he never revealed the plot.
A forthright individual, Peter always challenged what he did not agree, but with a good heart and there are few who would not say that he sought to improve the WEA and its place in the world. WEA Scotland would wish to extend to Peter’s family and friends our sincere condolences.
Please consider for a few moments Peter Quigley’s contribution to our lives and the life and success of the WEA.
Labour MP Holly Lynch has voiced support for the WEA's Save Adult Education campaign after meeting with our students and tutors last week.
The Halifax MP, part of the 2015 intake, was invited to a screening of a campaign video produced by learners which captures the many reasons why adult education should be protected and supported. Commenting on the campaign, Holly said: "Adult education is essential in ensuring that people have the skills and the confidence to make the most of the opportunities available to them, either in employment or in life. New WEA tutor Tracey Kettridge is interviewed in this month’s Prima magazine in a feature on inspirational women. In September, Tracey fulfilled another of her ambitions – to become a tutor with the WEA. Organisations from the education, business and employment sectors have joined forces to shine a spotlight on the hundreds of thousands of students studying part-time around the UK. The two largest providers of part-time higher education: The Open University and Birkbeck, University of London. Unionlearn – the learning and skills organisation of the TUC who last year who have helped over 220,000 people access training and development. Workers' Educational Association (WEA) – the UK's largest voluntary sector provider of adult education. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) – the national voice for lifelong learning.
National Union of Students (NUS), which represents the voices on 7 million students including part-time and mature students. CBI, whose 190,000 members employ nearly 7 million people, about one third of the private sector-employed workforce. With more than two million students currently settling into new university courses, a fifth of these will be studying part-time whilst juggling work and family responsibilities. These part-time students are largely 'invisible' – they may not identify themselves as being a student, and are often overlooked in media and government reports in favour of reporting on the participation of younger, full-time students.
The Government is currently preparing its Spending Review for the next 5 years and will announce its plans on November 25.
Less than 6 per cent of Government spending on education and training is devoted to adult further education and skills.
Putting this in context, over the next 10 years there will be 13.5 million more jobs but only 7 million young people coming into the workforce.
Over the next few weeks we are hoping to reach thousands of students, members and supporters of the WEA as well as a vast range of partners and friends who share our concerns. I am deeply concerned that the cuts suggested for the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) will have a serious impact on the sustainability of adult education across England. As a supporter of the Workers’ Educational Association (WEA), I have experienced the impact adult education can make. Please add in a personal statement of what the WEA means to you whether as a student volunteer or tutor.
The group has been formed to raise the profile of adult education, and in particular, the vital role it plays in providing high-quality educational provision to the most disadvantaged members of society. The group will be established as an All-Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) shortly after the launch.
The launch event will be at 11am on Friday 18 September at Westgate Community College in Newcastle. Created as part of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, the SDIs offer a vast range of adult education courses for over 130,000 students across Britain each year, providing educational opportunities for every community in the country.
MembershipMembership will consist of a group of MPs and Lords from all sides of the house and the secretariat will be provided by the SDIs. Working MethodsThe APPG will adopt a shared learning approach which will deliver three reports and one research paper led by the WEA research department over the course of the parliament, detailing key issues and recommendations for adult education and their impacts on society. The APPG will aim to launch in November 2015 with subsequent events in February and May and will hold these months moving forward as key target dates.
Today marks the first day of the trip, which will see students discuss their views with parliamentarians, activists and union members. An exciting itinerary has been scheduled, with speakers from the European Economic and Social Committee and SOLIDAR (a European network of NGOs working to advance social justice on an international scale) discussing diverse topics from the future of the EU to workers’ rights.
The WEA project, headed by Jol Miskin, WEA Regional Education Manager, was established earlier this year to help local people feel empowered to participate in and engage with European politics. A group of WEA workplace learners from Falkirk have taken part in the Scottish Book Trust’s annual writing competition. The authors’ learning journey began when they expressed an interest in building their confidence and communication skills in response to a WEA article in a local council publication. Arrangements were made for the class to run in Denny Community Centre, following approval from Falkirk Council.
As is often the case, once engaged, participants developed a passion for learning and wanted to continue to write in their own voice.
Ita€™s most famous ruler was the legendary king Minos who established the capitol city of Knossos. It was a warrior culture mentioned by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, describing the events that took place during the Trojan Wars between the Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece and Troy on the western shoreline of Anatolia (present-day Turkey).
They were carried into Roman culture by Virgil, were embraced by the Byzantines, and were carried into Italy during the Renaissance.
Art, pottery, sculpturing, and architecture developed, establishing the foundation for much of the Classical period.
Athenian democracy developed under Pericles and the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis in Athens in worship of Athena.
It derived its name from the goddess Athena who in Greek myth competed with Poseidon to be the patron of the city. The Isthmus games were held every two years at the narrow isthmus of Greece, located near Corinth. He was most angered by Athens and Sparta, because when his father Darius sent messengers to those two cities to offer them the opportunity to surrender prior to the Battle of Marathon, they killed Dariusa€™ emissaries by throwing them down into deep wells. The Persians arrived at a narrow, rocky pass, Thermopylae, which overlooked the rocky shoreline below -- a 50-foot wide narrow pass which only permitted a limited numbers of troops to squeeze through the pass at a time. King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the pass with 300 Spartans and 400 soldiers from other city-states. A Greek traitor, however, revealed a hidden pass through the mountains that would by-pass Thermopylae and allow the Persian to attack Leonidas from the rear. He sent a messenger to Xerxes with the message that many of the Greeks were terrified, that they would not fight, and that if Xerxes sent his ships into the Bay of Salamis they could easily wipe out the Athenian navy. This would not bode well for the future of peace between the two city-states, however, and ultimately resulted in the Peloponnesian Wars. During the Peloponnesian War Athens suffered from a plague, which took the life of Pericles. Pericles led a number of major building projects in Athens including the rebuilding of the Parthenon, constructing a large statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and rebuilt the acropolis.
Socrates maintained that the universe and life below here on earth pointed to a different reality. In the dialogue, Meno, Socrates set forth the idea that when a person is born it is a reincarnation of the eternal soul which contains all knowledge.
He argued that the soul is eternal, lives on after the death of the physical body, and existed before the physical body. Although he disagreed with some of his teachings, Plato memorialized Socrates in his work, the Apology of Plato. In it he describes the ideal form of government and society comprised of three classes of people: producers (craftsmen, farmers, builders), warriors, and guardians (rulers). The goal is to follow the lead of the rational and spiritual portions of the soul and to make them masters over the appetite. They can only speculate and guess, based upon the shadows they see moving across the floor and walls of the cave.
Plato seemed to these North European Christians to be saying that reality is above where God is. After his education in Athens, Aristotle was hired by King Philip of Macedonia to be the personal tutor of this son, the future Alexander the Great in Macedonia. Too many good things go unaccomplished because of either a bad beginning or not beginning at all. During the Reign of Terror in France all Christian symbols were removed from the cathedral in Paris and a statute of the Goddess of Human Reason was placed in the cathedral. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence, some speculate, that many of the Greek gods and goddesses were reminder remnants of Biblical history prior to the Flood of Noah. Eve may be the prototype of Athena, because invariably when depicted in Greek sculpture Athena is pictured with a snake at her one side and a sword at the other. Access to its snowy peaks was very difficult, it was shrouded in mystery, and was supposed by the Greeks to be the home of the Twelve Olympians. He is the son of Gaea and then became her husband; together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans. Because Atlas led the Titans in the battle, he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and was condemned to hold up for eternity the world on his back. Earth (Gaia) presents the new-born child to Athena, who represents the reborn serpent-friendly Eve after the Flood. In Section One of the Cycle of Rebirths in Buddhism, the gods and demigods are continually engaged, as here with the Greek deities, in a struggle over who will obtain the magic fruit of the tree that dispenses wisdom and eternity. To depict this, Athena is usually accompanied by one or several snakes -- the symbol to the Greeks of hidden wisdom. As the story goes, Olympia, a mystical follower of the god Dionysus, often slept with a giant snake in her bed as both a pet and a spiritual symbol of Zeus. Olympia immediately feared that Cleopatra would produce a son who would become the legitimate heir to Philipa€™s throne. When he ran from the banquet, two of Alexandera€™s other friends caught him and killed him.
When a boy baby was later born to Cleopatra, Alexandera€™s mother Olympia arranged to have Cleopatra and the child killed to prevent a challenger to Alexandera€™s throne.
In Egypt he left behind a Greek, General Ptolemy, who became the first of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Wherever he went he left behind Greek soldiers to intermarry with the population and in this way to capture the local culture. In other words, Paul was a€?deeply shaken.a€? he had a a€?sudden attacka€? or a€?deep disturbance,a€? and felt impelled to make a statement. He informs them about the unknown God, the Creator, who is near to each one of us, the one whom they worship but whose identity is a mystery to them. The Greeks, whether from Sparta, Athens, or Thebes, would never think of going to war, embarking on a new project, or taking a long trip, without consulting with the Oracle. The Oracle's advice disturbed them -- an Unknown God was the cause of the plague, she said, who intended to punish the Athenians for having violated many years before an ancient Greek code of conduct against another city-state.
The grateful citizens wanted to reward Epimenides, but he declined any payment, asking merely for a treaty of peace between Athens and his home city, Knossos. He spent the majority of his time in front of them filling that empty concept of the unknown god with truth about the God they worshipped as the agnosto theo. That is, until he discovered the exchange of little children made between warring clans for the purpose of making peace.
The Roman gods, for example, were for the most part simply re named Greek gods from Greek mythology.
It impacted the entire culture of Greece and the population were almost entirely Christianized by the middle of the second century. They destroyed most of the ancient Christian communities in Turkey, like Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamum, and other churches listed in the New Testament. The long struggle of Greece to resist Islam and to serve as a guard for the rest of Christian Europe against the Islamic Ottomans was at last over. It is interesting to travel through Greece to see white crosses placed virtually every hilltop to celebrate their independence from Ottoman rule. Churches at Corinth, Ephesus, Thessaloniki, and Philippi all had New Testament letters addressed to them. Many school children in America study Greek mythology in school, thinking of it as some sort of fairy tale, cartoonish system, not realizing its demonic roots and total domination of the Greek culture.
Thomas Jefferson seemed to have favored implementing a certain form of limited democracy in the United States.
How might they have been modified and re directed after the Greeks embraced the Christian faith?
They drove many of the Mycenaean people to the Ionian coast, and intermarried with the remaining Mycenaeans to form the Greek people.
700 B.C), authored two important epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the oldest known European literature. There is some indication that this mythology was the deification of a€?heroica€? men and women of old, who, before the Flood, composed the line of unrighteous persons. This was in stark contrast to the polytheism and idolatry practiced by its neighbors, including Greece and Rome. Of the students taking part, 22 per cent were from black or ethnic minority backgrounds and 41 per cent had a disability. In addition, the study found that 36 per cent of all students valued the arts, music or literature more than they had previously whilst 35 per cent had a greater understanding of other cultures.
Tutors, students, members, volunteers and colleagues from across the country were in attendance, with vigorous discussion around sustainability (the theme of the 2016 conference) and the future of the charity. He has been instrumental in developing a wide range of renewable energy systems and is now leading on the ground-breaking Zero Carbon Britain research.
Speaking from personal experience, Lord Blunkett told the audience of the challenges he faced when returning to education and of the ultimate gain.
I was privileged to hear from a variety of wonderful speakers and educational practitioners and felt honoured to share the success stories of the WEA Awards recipients. Women’s lives have been transformed by technology, changes in our economy and in social attitudes so that women expect to compete on equal terms. The adult education charity has been going for more than a century and it is as badly needed today as it was in 1903. This low level of adult skills inevitably impacts on the success of the economy as a whole.
People like my grandfather, who left school at 11 but who enrolled on a WEA course and eventually won a trade union scholarship to Ruskin College, Oxford, and another to Peterhouse at Cambridge. When I read economics at Cambridge I was intimidated by the cutglass accents and the seemingly easy social confidence of my fellow students. It is a vicious cycle that affects many women, which is why we have to do more to support mothers in the workplace.
Last year, the WEA launched a campaign focusing on the importance of education and lifelong learning, to enable women to overcome the disadvantages they face in society. Its latest report, published last week, revealed that one in four UK workers would sacrifice pay for greater flexibility.
According to the World Economic Forum it is now ranked 18th out of 145 countries in terms of the gender gap, an improvement from the 26th place ranking it achieved last year. According to the report no country in the world has achieved gender equality but I think there are lessons we can learn from those at the top of the league table: Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
According to the World Economic Forum, it will take another 117 years until the pay gap between men and women is closed.
We also need to recognise and reward good practice wherever we see it, learn from our own experience and the experience of other countries and cultures. However, far fewer are supportive of fathers with young children (35%), older workers (26%) and other employees (34%) who may have additional responsibilities such as elderly or unwell relatives to care for, charity and volunteering responsibilities, or a desire to attend additional training or classes outside of work. Over half (52%) of medium-sized employers said this would be logistically too difficult to implement, whilst over a third (35%) worry it would impact negatively on the business.
Almost a third of employers (31%) place the onus on employees – saying they would be encouraged to reconsider their decisions if employees would consider taking cuts in return for more flexible working hours. A quarter (24%) of employees think employers should offer flexible shift patterns, and almost a quarter (23%) would be willing to be paid less in return for working fewer hours if this were an option. Our economy depends on a skilled and motivated workforce that functions productively – and our best hope of achieving this is through encouraging employers to adapt to the evolving needs of the workforce. This year the theme of the conference is sustainability, with an event on the Friday of national significance with a great line up of speakers and workshops along with the Association Dinner. He has a track record of innovation and impact in his work to bring together economic life and social justice. He chaired the Jubilee 2000 campaign and was part of the team that founded the Fairtrade Mark. Standing Orders Committee has therefore confirmed that Lindsay Pearson is duly elected to the post of Deputy President. It encourages intellectual curiosity and lifelong opportunities to learn which we are passionate about in the WEA. Since 2010, we have witnessed a drastic reduction in the ESOL budget of almost 50 per cent.
By creating a more cohesive ESOL strategy, the Government could help thousands of people across the country unlock their potential and contribute to the economy.
Standing Orders Committee therefore confirms that Lindsay Pearson is duly elected to the post of Deputy President.
Before voting you should read the supporting statements from the cadidates and the role description for the post of President below. You will have either recieved an email from Electoral Reform Services or a ballot paper by post providing security details for the election. Further information about the regulations of governance of the WEA can be found in our Governing Document. Applicants should hold a First Degree or equivalent in their subject(s) or have significant, demonstrable professional knowledge and skills.
Our work transforms outcomes for people in deprived communities; it reduces social exclusion, increases social mobility and enables families to break the cycle of deprivation.
Without continuous opportunities to learn throughout our lives, the economic potential of many citizens will be lost and our productivity levels will continue to lag behind other competing countries. While this is welcome, we believe there needs to be more investment in adult learning alongside a rebalancing of our education and skills policies to reflect the fact that productivity improvements will be driven by those who are already in the labour market. From now on, everyone is going to be thinking about how to continuously increase skills through life.
During her life, she gave so much of her time to the charity and had volunteered with us for over 25 years before her death at the age of 81.
The formation of a Scottish Parliament Cross Party Working Group on Adult Learning has backed this up - testament to the shared belief that adult learning benefits people and communities throughout Scotland.
An effective vehicle for economic and social justice, a strong adult learning sector is key to the future of Scotland. Chief Executive of the WEA, Ruth Spellman and WEA Director of Education Joanna Cain, joined the group to highlight the importance of adult education to communities throughout England.


This year alone, the Adult Skills Budget has already had cuts of 24 per cent and 3.9 per cent, and many students are concerned that further cuts will have a devastating impact on a service which provides skills, confidence and support to disadvantaged communities across the country. Adult education is important because it helps individuals and their families break cycles of deprivation and forge better lives themselves.
Thousands of people have joined the WEA in saying this is a vital service for our economy and our society.
There are other challenges too, such as the future of the research environment, how to assess the quality of teaching and dealing with the effects of marketisation. Part-time numbers have fallen more in England than other parts of the UK with lower (or no) fees, but it is not the sole cause. Now, research from the University of Oxford has shown that singing is a great ice-breaker and can get groups of people to bond together faster. The conclusion – singing groups bonded quicker than those taking part in other classes.
At the end of the seven months, all the classes were reporting similar levels of closeness. Indeed he represented my Cousin, Bill Bald and successfully defended him in a case of wrongful dismissal. It is for this and the many other unrealised potentials that we always regret the passing of a life, the achievements stand as testament, the intentions and possibilities as feasible conjecture. Tracey is a former beautician who, five years ago, decided to change career and study counselling and hypnotherapy after years of being a shoulder to cry on for family, friends and clients. She will be empowering those with low self-esteem to recognise their worth and talents by teaching a confidence course with us.
The sector is calling for greater recognition of the value of part-time education and is asking students, past and present, to share why they love part time study. The Department for Business Innovation and Skills, which funds the WEA and other adult learning institutions like ourselves in England, has been asked by the Chancellor to suggest cuts of 25% and 40%. Further cuts, on top of the 24 per cent and 3.9 per cent cuts to the Adult Skills Budget already announced this year, will have a devastating impact on a service that is life-changing for many people. At the same time employer investment in skills and training has declined by 2.5bn since 2011.
Our aim is to raise awareness, make the case for adult education and to give adult learners a voice. Individual letters or emails to your local MP and the Chancellor will make a difference and make sure that adults are not forgotten when cuts are being made.
Please click here to download a template of what you might consider writing - the suggested text is also below. Further cuts, on top of the 24 per cent and 3.9 per cent cuts to the Adult Skills Budget already announced this year, will have a devastating impact on a service that is life-changing for many people and communities across the country. The group will aim to start a wider debate about the future of adult education in this country. Learning can change people’s lives and improve not just their skills and job prospects but also their confidence and health.
APPGs have members from all the main political parties in Parliament and the Adult Education APPG will be supported by the WEA and other specialist adult education institutions. Our aim is to engage key stakeholders, organisations within the FE sector, parliamentarians and other major influencers in a debate about the future of adult education. It is proposed that the group agree a subject for investigation, followed by a call for evidence, with at least one oral evidence session held each year to engage students, parliamentarians and other stakeholders in the discussion. They will also have the opportunity to visit the key historic landmarks associated with European democracy. This demonstrates that workplace education is a valuable route into learning and removes barriers to participation.
He probably did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey because handwriting was not discovered in Greece until about 400 years after the time Homer was said to have lived.There were Greek colonies all along the Ionian coastline. The philosophic schools of Socrates and Plato developed.The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was fought between Athens and Sparta and their allied city-states.
Darius and the Persians invaded Greece with over 100,000 troops but were defeated by 20,000 Greek hoplites in the famous battle at Marathon just north of Athens. Her story is recorded in the Book of Esther and through her efforts a major slaughter of the Jews was averted. When a spy told them that the Persians were so numerous that when they shot their arrows they blocked the sun, Leonidasa€™ response was, a€?Good!
Xerxes sent about 400 Persian triremes into the bay where the larger Persian ships, loaded with soldiers who could not swim, were faced by 300 smaller, sleeker Greek ships built to sail from island to island and were much more maneuverable. These wars involved virtually all of the Greek city-states who allied themselves with either Athens or Sparta. He was so important to the life of Athens that his period of leadership is called the Age of Pericles (5th century).
He is also known for his contribution to the further development of democracy in Athens, which also provided salaries for magistrates and limited eligibility for public office to those who were born to two Athenian-born parents. Confucius was the result of the Warring States period in Chinese history and he sought employment as a civil servant in order to sell his ideas to the rulers. Therefore, each child, upon physical birth, is a reincarnation of that eternal soul and hence possesses that ancient knowledge. When he was ransomed by his friends they purchased a small property for him so that he could settle down. But we are trapped in our human bodies and cannot conceive of those Forms other than by observing their shadows down here in the lower story where we live. We only see his reflections down here but one day we will be fully enlightened when we go to heaven to be where he is. For example, it is okay to laugh at a joke during lunch time, but probably is a bad idea in the middle of your grandmothera€™s funeral.
They knew nothing about a personal God who lies outside of us, who communicates with us, and who has set out for us ideas and principles that are absolutes by which we are to live. Hera represents the serpenta€™s Eve before the Flood, and Athena represents the rebirth of the serpenta€™s Eve after the Flood. The ruler of the Titans was Cronus (or Chronos, from which we get the words a€?chronologya€? and a€?chronometera€?). Gaea seems to have been an earth-mother who was worshipped before the Indo-European invasion into Greece that lead to the Hellenistic civilization.
His rule ended when his son Cronus, encouraged by Uranusa€™ mother-wife,Gaea, castrated him. 190 BC), Nereus, the Greek Noah, standing in the rear to left, is the only one among the many other figures who is not actively engaged in the battle.
The figure to the left of Gaia and the child is Hephaistos, the eldest son of Zeus and Hera, the deified Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. Is it possible that Athena, as with the other Greek deities, is a flashback to a pre-flood person -- possibly, Eve? Later she convinced the young Alexander that when she conceived him in her womb, she had become pregnant, not by Philip, but by Zeus, king of the gods. When Philip, drunken from wine, stumbled over a table in his attempt to strike Alexander, Alexander taunted Philip in front of all the guests by exclaiming, a€?Look! The most famous of his descendants was Cleopatra, lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony. He also created several cities which he named Alexandria, the most famous becoming the capitol of Egypt under the Greek Ptolemaic pharaohs.
As each group of invaders swept into Greece, parts of their mythologies and deities of their religions were incorporated into the Greek religion. On the top of the Acropolis in Athens stood the Parthenon, the temple devoted to the worship of Athena. Luke tells us that Paul attracted the attention of the Epicureans and the Stoics, the two main schools of Athenian philosophy at the time. They even founded a debating forum called the Areopagus, a unique Athenian group, at one time the ruling institution of Athens. Paul was a master at meeting people where they were, moving them in the direction of truth, and then explaining to them the Gospel. Every year a woman from a local village was selected to spend the entire year sitting on a stool at Delphi, next to an open crevasse created by one of the many earthquakes in the region. All of the known gods either dona€™t hear us or are incapable of helping you with this plague. It was in this condition that the Apostle Paul found the Athenians when he visited them in the first century A.
When one of the warring clans wanted peace, they would take one of their own baby boys and, traveling under a truce to the enemy village, would offer the little boy as a peace offering. Letters in the New Testament were written to Greek churches at Corinth, Thessaloniki, Philippi, and Ephesus.
When Constantine built the new Roman capitol at Constantinople, Greece became the host-area for the Byzantine Empire. Christian monasteries in mountainous Greece became the safe havens for the Christian scriptures and other Christian literature. Many buildings in the United States imitate great architecture with their large marble pillars, built during the a€?Greek revivala€? in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Half of the students were on means-tested benefits and 28 per cent from disadvantaged postcodes. If he had not secured his O-level qualifications by attending evening classes, he would not have been able to attend university and subsequently forge a career in national politics.
Award-winning journalist Nadine Dereza hosted the event, which highlighted the fantastic work of the students, tutors and staff that make the WEA special. After my third was born I had to deal with redundancy and the serious illness of my husband.
On Saturday, the formal business of the conference will take place with debates on some of the key issues affecting the WEA and adult education. It was entitled Changing Lives and revealed the extent to which adult learning impacts on so many areas of an individual’s life. In order to help people fully integrate into their communities and boost active citizenship, we believe more should be done to encourage and facilitate English language learning for those who need it.
An effective ESOL programme has the potential to promote community cohesion, fair access to services, social mobility and can enable students to access the labour market.
Applicants should also hold a Level 4 teaching qualification (minimum) or be willing to work towards this. Unless we have accessible and affordable education and skills provision economic growth will stall, our productivity levels will continue to be below the G7 average, and five million adults will continue to struggle without basic literacy and numeracy skills. Alongside the petition, hundreds of WEA students who have benefited from adult education have been writing to their MPs to protest against potential cuts in the Spending Review. Singing is found in all human societies and can be performed to some extent by the vast majority of people. Each course, made up of two-hour sessions, was run over seven months with a two-week break in the middle. It was a difficult feat considering that she had four children (her youngest at the time was one years old) and it meant leaving behind the security of a profession which she was thriving in.
Please help us maintain this vital service for generations to come by highlighting the importance of adult education to the Chancellor and BIS over the coming months. Alongside students, speakers at these events might include other providers of adult education such as The Open University, non-SDI colleges, LEPs, employers, local authorities as well as ministers and opposition spokespeople.A report would then be developed in consultation with the group for launch at the annual AGM. The group has continued to produce exciting prose and poetry and have plans to publish an anthology of their work in the autumn. The Iliad and the Odyssey were memorized by the Greeks and became essential components of Greek thought and culture. It is proposed by some that writing developed in Greece shortly after Homer in order to record his epics. It was in response to the aftermath of this war and the defeat of Athens by Sparta that Socrates (469-399 BC) grew to prominence in an attempt to bring order out of the chaos that developed. Pressure from Greecea€™s traditional enemy, Persia, prevented the idea of limited democracy from developing further and it was forgotten until much later under the leadership of Pericles (c. The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympia, in south-west Greece in the Peloponnese.
Darius, king of Persia, was furious to learn that Athens had aided the Greek colonies in their rebellion. A bad taste was left in the mouths of the Athenians because the promised military assistance from Sparta never materialized.
The troops were recruited (usually by force) from all of the Persian colonies throughout the Middle East. Hearing that the entire army and navy of Athens was on the nearby island of Salamis, Xerxes decided to postpone his march through the isthmus and to first annihilate the Athenians. Xerxes, who was overlooking the battle from a high cliff, watched in dismay as the Greeks used oars, spears, and heavy clubs to kill the Persians when their triremes were overturned. The job of the teacher is simply to induce it to come out by asking wise, guiding questions. He named the property Academus -- Academy -- because he quickly turned it into the site for a school, following the pattern of his mentor, Socrates. Each has its own area of specialization and should not intrude into the areas of the other two classes.
It is okay to eat a doughnut, but probably not a good idea to eat a dozen doughnuts, especially just before you go to bed or just before running a race. For instance, even though every village and town had its own favorite god or goddess and each had its own temple or sacred place, there was one goddess to whom it was permissible to make sacrifice, and none of the other gods and goddesses would be offended.
To insure his safety and superior position, when each of his children were born, he ate them!
The sculptors have placed him as a mute witness to the Greek godsa€™ defeat of the Giants (Nereusa€™ Yahweh-believing sons) signifying the end of Greek faith in Noaha€™s God. Heracles, the Nimrod of Genesis, demands to know something that only the Salt Sea Old Man can tell him.
Philip, King of Macedonia, assembled a powerful military and was intent on conquering Persia as payback for Persiaa€™s earlier invasions of Greece and, in his day, its current ongoing threat to the well-being of Greece. However, he died prior to completing the second step, his planned invasion of Anatolia and Persia. This divine parentage elevated Alexander to be a god in the flesh, on a par with the noblest heroes of Greek mythology. Did Olympia and Alexander assassinate Philip prior to any chance of Philip fathering a son with Cleopatra? Beyond the beauty of the sites visited, however, Paul was deeply disturbed by the rampant idolatry.
While Paul seemed to them to be an ignorant babbler, still, it was new and interesting information he was babbling about! By the time of Paula€™s arrival it had become more like a breakfast club that gathered to hear all the latest ideas, fads, and philosophies. His approach at Athens was not a new tactic and did not result in a rejection of the Gospel.
Assemble also teams of stone masons and have ready a large supply of stones.a€? The next morning 100 goats arrived together with teams of masons and loads of stones.
Second, if there is an unknown god, that god must have the ability and the inclination to hear us when we sacrifice to him or her. The Greeks resisted conversion by the Muslim Ottomans and maintained a strong Christian culture, even in the face of frequent persecutions. That survey found that more than half of those aged under 60 gave improving communication skills as a specific skill developed on a WEA course. Whilst we can’t guarantee tutors work, inclusion on our Tutor Panel ensures that you will be considered when suitable courses arise. Any solution is likely to rest upon innovative delivery methods and other ways of improving access as much as relying on tweaks to the entitlement for financial support. There were two early forms, one a derivative of hieroglyphics in Egypt, and the other from the Phoenicians.
Famed military heroes and kings of the polis from the Mycenaean Age were included as gods in the growing mythology of the Greek religion.
A two-tiered class system developed based upon onea€™s personal wealth, with the greatest power going to those at the top of the ladder; the lowest classes, however, were free from taxation. When they arrived at the Hellespont, Xerxes filled the channel with ships and built bridges over the decks of the ships so that the men and supplies could pass over into Greece. He did not dismiss the Thespians because not trusting their loyalty, he wanted to keep his eye on them. Furthermore, the Athenians, Corinthians, and other Greek ships were highly motivated because they were fighting for the survival of Greece. Not only could the Persians not swim but their long robes became water-soaked causing most to drown. Athens was viewed by many as the big, bad, prosperous wolf of Greece and potentially dangerous to the other city-states. His three principle featuring filial piety, he believed, would bring harmony and order to political, economic, and family life. This meant that it was not to the gods or the elders that we should run when seeking answers but through contemplating about onea€™s life, about what produces good, harmony, and happiness in this life. From Socratea€™s death comes the expression, a€?Pick your poison.a€? He chose to drink a beverage made of a lethal poison, hemlock.
The rightful goal of every person is to faithfully live out the role assigned to him by nature and should not seek to do any other business or seek another other role. They probably would not believe him because what he saw and then reported to them would not necessarily conform to what they sightlessly imagined it to be. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished in defeat to Tartarus in the underworld.
This worked fine until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of the newborn Zeus. Herakles demands to know from Nereus, who is a living connection to the pre-Flood world, where he can find the enlightenment of the serpent. He wondered how the Athenians, who had developed their special brand of democracy and produce philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, could fall for such pagan concepts of spirituality. As she sat there on her stool, breathing in those toxic and perhaps hallucinogenic fumes, it was believed that she could predict the future. Rubbing his sleepy eyes, Epimenides said, a€?Now, turn the goats loose and allow them to graze wherever they choose.
Third, in order to help us this unknown god or goddess must have the ability and power to actually do something about the plague. In this way the two warring clans were related together in one confederacy by the presence of this one a€?peace child. After the Ottomans failed in their 1683 attempt to conquer Vienna, Austria, Christian troops from Venice and Austria invaded Greece, attacked the Ottomans in Athens, and greatly weakened Ottoman rule in Greece, By the late 1700s, however, Ottoman rule was re established until the Greeks won their independence, region by region from the Ottomans. The Mycenaeans were adventurers, traveling to and trading with peoples in Anatolia, Europe, and throughout the Mediterranean. It was a a€?limiteda€? democracy because it only allowed adult males (not women!) (1) to vote and hold office, (2) but only if they were born in the city of Athens, (3) and if they owned land.
The teachera€™s role is to encourage that knowledge to come out by use of proper questions. Therefore, ethics is personal and autonomous (determined by onea€™s own thoughtful insight and not something received from others). We see the shadow of the Real Chair, the Real Tree, the Real Red Apple by looking at their shadows down here on earth.
During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets and their names remained attached to the planets when the Romans adopted much of Greek mythology.
Zeus revolted against Cronus and the other Titans, defeated them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld. While on his death bed, lying in a tent in Baghdad, his troops filed past in a huge procession to honor their great leader.
Since it is early morning, none of the goats will normally lie down, but will eat their full after a night with no food. And fourth, this unknown god or goddess will understand that it is in ignorance that we do not know his or her name and will forgive us for our ignorance.a€? With those words, the sacrifices were offered up to the unknown god.
Greek honor guards at the presidential palace today in Athens have 450 pleats in their native uniforms, signifying the 450 years that Greece was subjugated to the Ottoman Turks.
Because of this the Athenians developed a€?overseasa€? colonies in order to grow wheat and other grains.
To the women and to those who moved to Athens from other areas, this was hardly a democracy. A soldier, Pheidippides, was sent running back to Athens, 26 miles to the south, to announce the good news of the victory. Zeus and his wife (first known as Dione and then Hera) are deifications of Adam and his wife Eve.a€? (Johnson, The Parthenon Code 2004, p. The New Testament was not written in Aramaic (the language of Jesus and the apostles) or in Latin (the language of the Roman conquerors) but was written in Greek, the most widely spoken language. They invaded south to Crete where a blending of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures took place.
Some historians state that the United States acquired its concept of democracy from Athens.
The area with its moderate climate was ideal, however, for the development of olive groves, vineyards, almonds, and apples.
The Saducees were hellenized Jews, and thus denied the reality of the resurrection of the dead. In his honor and memory (his kleos) the Greeks established the marathon of 26 miles, exactly the distance of the modern marathon race. Kronos (Chronos), the father of time in Greek mythology, a€?could very well be,a€? says Johnson, a€?Greek religiona€™s equivalent of Yahweh, the Lord of Tome. They constructed gymnasiums and athletic stadiums in Palestine, to the horror of the traditional and legalistic Pharisees.



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