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The continental shelf is the relatively shallow area (down to 200 metres below current sea level) around the coast of New Zealand. Deposition and erosionDebris carried out to sea by rivers, flows onto the continental shelf and beyond to the continental slope.
This computer generated image of the continental margin near to East Cape shows an enormous rock and mudslide that occurred about 170 000 years ago.
Ice ages and sea level changeRiver sediments remain on the continental shelf when the sea level is relatively high (like now) following the melting of ice caps after an ice age. At some point in your elementary school career, you were likely taught that the Earth has seven continents. Add important lessons to your Custom Course, track your progress, and achieve your study goals faster.
The 16 fishery experts who assembled in Alesund during March have an average of 25 years of seafaring experience. Fishery experts Finn Hansen (left) and Roy Sebulonsen took a stroll along the Alesund waterfront during a break in the course. The training session for and with fishery experts is one of a number of measures intended to create orderly working conditions for the fishing and oil industries on the NCS. Lessons still remain to be learnt and the independent role of the fishery expert has become clearer, acknowledged several of the people who took part in the three-day Alesund programme.
They were among almost 100 fishing personnel who took part in the mandatory fishery expert courses this spring, which were also held in Bergen and Tromso. That can be a lonesome role, which calls for an understanding of two different industries and cultures.
Four centuries of combined experience from fishing and shipping were assembled when I sat in on the course in an Alesund hotel.
The 16 men – because being a fishery expert is a male preserve – explained their backgrounds, which encompassed different types of vessel and varieties of fishing. They included fishermen, mates, masters and shipowners, and had sailed on many of the world’s seas. A fishery expert can be compared with a pilot, in that both serve as an advisor to the vessel’s master. He notes that the idea of giving way to fishing can be a bit difficult for certain foreign crew members to grasp. During the part of the programme given over to discussion between the course participants, various experiences were swapped and one wish in particular emerged. During a break, Roy Sebulonsen from Troms and Finn Hansen from Vesteralen discussed the challenges faced during surveys on the basis of eight and six years respectively as fishery experts.
How do you find being a fishery expert – is pressure from the oil industry and fishing at an unacceptable level?
Anders Solheim, Hustad Master for more than 30 years, one trip as a fishery expert “Things went very well on the first outing.
Kurt Skjong, Valderoy Fisherman for 40 years, master for 30, fishery expert “With 30 years of experience as a skipper, I’ve been involved in a lot and ought to be able to tackle contact between oil and fishing.
Alexander Elvegard, Tromso Ten years as a master and mate, three as a fishery expert “I haven’t experienced any problems over the past few years.
Lindy Arild Hatlebakk, Elnesvagen Fisherman for 35 years, own boat, fishery expert for four years “There’s always a certain amount of pressure, perhaps most from the fishermen.
Frank Eivindsen, Langevag Fisherman for 17 years, now mate on a purse seiner, one season as a fishery expert “I was in the Barents Sea, and we only saw a single fishing vessel. Bengt-Are Korneliussen, Skjervoy Fisherman since 1976, owns two vessels, fishery expert for 12 years “I don’t experience this as pressure. Perry Urkedal, Brattvag Fisherman since 1969, master since 1981, fishery expert for two years “I have experienced one episode when I was misunderstood. Oskar Pedersen, Hafrsfjord Fishing for 35 years, has owned his own boat, one year as a fishery expert “We must be able to communicate with both sides. But the fishery experts would welcome more response to one aspect of their job – the reports they write after a possible conflict of interest between fishing and seismic vessels. These accounts are sent to the Directorate of Fisheries, the NPD, the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research, the Norwegian Fishermen’s Association and the relevant oil company. After the course, he felt more confident about getting through to the authorities, and knew who to call at the various bodies to secure advice and replies. That enhanced his sense of security in the job, but he sees no reason to dramatise how demanding the role is.
In a phone call after the course, Mr Sebulonsen says that the programme was very acceptable overall and that the organiser had clearly prepared well.
During the first part of the course, a silent listener sat at the back and made the occasional note to provide the basis for comments on the second and third days.
Psychologist Hugo Smith-Meyer offered no cut-and-dried answers, but heard afterwards that the participants were satisfied and found the programme useful. He calls his contribution “mutual understanding and exercise of roles”, a topic he believes the fishery experts know a good deal about. The course aimed to give the experts an insight into the regulations and a better grasp of an industry they must know intimately, Mr Smith-Meyer explains. He believes that the programme enhances their sense of security in a role which places them in many respects “in another man’s home”. Regulations have been adjusted Easier access to the regulations via the web Better information about seismic survey plans.
Improved definition of data-gathering area Courses for fishery experts Closer cooperation between the Directorate of Fisheries, the NPD and the Coastguard Tracking of seismic survey vessels Efforts to improve rationalisation of seismic acquisition above the 62nd parallel (Norwegian and Barents Seas) Better follow-up of non-conformities. The experts, Roy Sebulonsen (left) and Finn Hansen thinks that there should be two of them on each survey ship. Thick deposits of unstable sediment can build up over tens or hundreds of years.These get released by earthquake shaking, sending huge, dense debris flows down canyons and channels far across the ocean floor to distances of up to 2000 km from the source area. It is over 60 km across and involved the collapse of about 3500 cubic kilometres of material! However, during glacial periods, with sea level roughly 130 metres lower, the shallower parts of the continental shelf were cold, wind-swept coastal plains. But even the most experienced felt the course they were on provided them with a better understanding of their role ahead of the seismic shooting season. Even in stressful conditions, the person concerned must serve as a channel of communication between fishing vessels and seismic survey ships. The aim is also to elevate the expert’s role so that everyone on a survey ship understands it. But the desire for duplication is based not only on insufficient sleep, but also on the thought that two are stronger than one in the event of disputes. We’re between the devil and the deep blue sea, but that’s our job and we must just deal with it. The important thing is to inform fishing personnel – not all of them know what seismic surveying actually involves.
They are out on an expedition for several weeks at a time, and must be available around the clock. The rivers carved valleys across them and deposited their sediments directly onto the continental slopes. I’ve heard of, but haven’t personally experienced, oil companies who point out how much it costs to divert. Dense flows of sediment rich water descended down submarine canyons on these slopes, or settled out to form unstable deposits on them that would later break loose, often triggered by earthquakes, to move rapidly down to the deep-ocean floor.
However, an exception is the Hikurangi Channel, a huge submarine valley that marks the actual collision boundary of the Australian and Pacific plates.
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