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A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk—mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels —for human consumption.
In some countries, especially those with small numbers of animals being milked, as well as harvesting the milk from an animal, the dairy may also process the milk into butter, cheese and yogurt, for example. As an attributive, the word dairy refers to milk-based products, derivatives and processes, and the animals and workers involved in their production: for example dairy cattle, dairy goat.
In the more recent past, people in agricultural societies owned dairy animals that they milked for domestic and local (village) consumption, a typical example of a cottage industry. With industrialisation and urbanisation, the supply of milk became a commercial industry, with specialised breeds of cattle being developed for dairy, as distinct from beef or draught animals. Historically, the milking and the processing took place close together in space and time: on a dairy farm.
In 1937, it was found that bovine somatotropin (bST or bovine growth hormone) would increase the yield of milk. However, there are claims that this practice can have negative consequences for the animals themselves. While most countries produce their own milk products, the structure of the dairy industry varies in different parts of the world.
As in many other branches of the food industry, dairy processing in the major dairy producing countries has become increasingly concentrated, with fewer but larger and more efficient plants operated by fewer workers.
Plants producing liquid milk and products with short shelf life, such as yogurts, creams and soft cheeses, tend to be located on the outskirts of urban centres close to consumer markets. As processing plants grow fewer and larger, they tend to acquire bigger, more automated and more efficient equipment.
When it became necessary to milk larger numbers of cows, the cows would be brought to a shed or barn that was set up with bails (stalls) where the cows could be confined while they were milked. As herd sizes increased there was more need to have efficient milking machines, sheds, milk-storage facilities (vats), bulk-milk transport and shed cleaning capabilities and the means of getting cows from paddock to shed and back.
Farmers found that cows would abandon their grazing area and walk towards the milking area when the time came for milking. Most dairy farmers milk their cows with absolute regularity at a minimum of twice a day, with some high-producing herds milking up to four times a day to lessen the weight of large volumes of milk in the udder of the cow. Farmers who are contracted to supply liquid milk for human consumption (as opposed to milk for processing into butter, cheese, and so on—see milk) often have to manage their herd so that the contracted number of cows are in milk the year round, or the required minimum milk output is maintained. Northern hemisphere farmers who keep cows in barns almost all the year usually manage their herds to give continuous production of milk so that they get paid all year round. Dairy plants process the raw milk they receive from farmers so as to extend its marketable life. Some cream is dried and powdered, some is condensed (by evaporation) mixed with varying amounts of sugar and canned. The product left after the cream is removed is called skim, or skimmed, milk.To make a consumable liquid a portion of cream is returned to the skim milk to make low fat milk (semi-skimmed) for human consumption.
In earlier times whey was considered to be a waste product and it was, mostly, fed to pigs as a convenient means of disposal. Yoghurt (or yogurt) making is a process similar to cheese making, only the process is arrested before the curd becomes very hard.
Historically, the milking and the processing took place in the same place: on a dairy farm.
Milking machines are used to harvest milk from cows when manual milking becomes inefficient or labour intensive. The four streams of milk from the teatcups are usually combined in the claw and transported to the milkline, or the collection bucket (usually sized to the output of one cow) in a single milk hose.
In the photo above is a bucket milking system with the stainless steel bucket visible on the far side of the cow.
Most milking machines are powered by electricity but, in case of electrical failure, there can be an alternative means of motive power, often an internal combustion engine, for the vacuum and milk pumps. Bail-style sheds— This type of milking facility was the first development, after open-paddock milking, for many farmers.
As herd sizes increased a door was set into the front of each bail so that when the milking was done for any cow the milker could, after undoing the leg-rope and with a remote link, open the door and allow her to exit to the pasture.
Herringbone Milking Parlours— In herringbone milking sheds, or parlours, cows enter, in single file, and line up almost perpendicular to the central aisle of the milking parlour on both sides of a central pit in which the milker works (you can visualise a fishbone with the ribs representing the cows and the spine being the milker's working area; the cows face outward). Swingover Milking Parlours— Swingover parlours are the same as herringbone parlours except they have only one set of milking cups to be shared between the two rows of cows, as one side is being milked the cows on the other side are moved out and replaced with unmilked ones.
Rotary Milking sheds— Rotary milking sheds consist of a turntable with about 12 to 100 individual stalls for cows around the outer edge.
Automatic Milking sheds— Automatic milking or 'robotic milking' sheds can be seen in Australia, New Zealand and many European countries. Supplementary accessories in sheds— Farmers soon realised that a milking shed was a good place to feed cows supplementary foods that overcame local dietary deficiencies or added to the cows' wellbeing and production.
The holding yard at the entrance of the shed is important as a means of keeping cows moving into the shed.
Water is a vital commodity on a dairy farm: cows drink about 20 gallons (80 litres) a day, sheds need water to cool and clean them. In countries where cows are grazed outside year-round, there is little waste disposal to deal with.
In the associated milk processing factories, most of the waste is washing water that is treated, usually by composting, and returned to waterways. In areas where cows are housed all year round, the waste problem is difficult because of the amount of feed that is brought in and the amount of bedding material that also has to be removed and composted. In many cases, modern farms have very large quantities of milk to be transported to a factory for processing. In dairy-intensive areas, various methods have been proposed for disposing of large quantities of milk.
Cowpox is one of the helpful diseases; it is barely harmful to humans and tends to inoculate them against other poxes such as small pox.
Tuberculosis (TB) is able to be transmitted from cattle mainly via milk products that are unpasteurised.
Brucellosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans by dairy products and direct animal contact. Listeria is a bacterial disease associated with unpasteurised milk, and can affect some cheeses made in traditional ways.
Johne's Disease (pronounced "yo-knees") is a contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection in ruminants caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M.
University of Guelph Dairy Science and Technology Education Series -- Online technical information about dairy products. Southern Districts of Maharashtra as well as post lamp sheds adjoining districts of Andhra Pradesh.
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A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or section of a multi-purpose farm that is concerned with the harvesting of milk.
For example, in the United States, a farm building where milk is harvested is often called a milking parlor. A dairy farm produces milk and a dairy factory processes it into a variety of dairy products. The animals might serve multiple purposes (for example, as a draught animal for pulling a plough as a youngster, and at the end of its useful life as meat).
Initially, more people were employed as milkers, but it soon turned to mechanisation with machines designed to do the milking. People milked the animals by hand; on farms where only small numbers are kept, hand-milking may still be practiced.
Both methods result in the milk that was trapped in the milk duct being squirted out the end into a bucket that is supported between the knees (or rests on the ground) of the milker, who usually sits on a low stool.
A European Union scientific commission was asked to report on the incidence of mastitis and other disorders in dairy cows, and on other aspects of the welfare of dairy cows. The commission's statement, subsequently adopted by the European Union, stated that the use of rBST substantially increased health problems with cows, including foot problems, mastitis and injection site reactions, impinged on the welfare of the animals and caused reproductive disorders. Plants manufacturing items with longer shelf life, such as butter, milk powders, cheese and whey powders, tend to be situated in rural areas closer to the milk supply. This is not surprising as, in the flush of the milking season, cows presumably get very uncomfortable with udders engorged with milk, and the place of relief for them is the milking shed. This daily milking routine goes on for about 300 to 320 days per year that the cow stays in milk. This is done by mating cows outside their natural mating time so that the period when each cow in the herd is giving maximum production is in rotation throughout the year.
In the southern hemisphere the cooperative dairying systems allow for two months on no productivity because their systems are designed to take advantage of maximum grass and milk production in the spring and because the milk processing plants pay bonuses in the dry (winter) season to carry the farmers through the mid-winter break from milking.
Two main types of processes are employed: heat treatment to ensure the safety of milk for human consumption and to lengthen its shelf-life, and dehydrating dairy products such as butter, hard cheese and milk powders so that they can be stored. The cream is processed to produce various consumer products, depending on its thickness, its suitability for culinary uses and consumer demand, which differs from place to place and country to country. By varying the amount of cream returned, producers can make a variety of low-fat milks to suit their local market. It has a very wide range of uses from being a filler for human foods, such as in ice cream, to the manufacture of products such as fabric, adhesives, and plastics. Whole milk is reacted to form curds that can be compressed, processed and stored to form cheese.
Beginning about 1950, and mostly since about 1980, lactose and many other products, mainly food additives, are made from both casein and cheese whey. Whole milk, skim milk, buttermilk, and whey products are dried into a powder form and used for human and animal consumption.
Although it is traditionally made from mare's milk, modern industrial variants may use cow's milk instead. Later, cream was separated from the milk by machine, on the farm, and the cream was transported to a factory for buttermaking. Continuous vacuum is applied inside the soft liner to massage milk from the teat by creating a pressure difference across the teat canal (or opening at the end of the teat). Milk is then transported (manually in buckets) or with a combination of airflow and mechanical pump to a central storage vat or bulk tank. The two rigid stainless steel teatcup shells applied to the front two quarters of the udder are visible.
The interior 'milk contact' surfaces of the machine are kept clean by a manual or automated washing procedures implemented after milking is completed.
Raghav Gowda from Karnataka, India has developed a low cost environment friendly milking machine which uses a 2-piston reciprocating pump operated manually for creating vacuum. Milk cows cannot tolerate delays in scheduled milking without serious milk production reductions. After washing the udder and teats the cups of the milking machine are applied to the cows, from the rear of their hind legs, on both sides of the working area. The advantage of this system is that it is less costly to equip, however it operates at slightly better than half-speed and one would not normally try to milk more than about 100 cows with one person. Each bail might have a box into which such feed is delivered as the cow arrives so that she is eating while being milked. The most concentrated waste is at the milking shed, where the animal waste is liquefied (during the water-washing process) and allowed to flow by gravity, or pumped, into composting ponds with anaerobic bacteria to consume the solids. This is much different from half a century ago, when the main products were butter, cheese and casein, and the rest of the milk had to be disposed of as waste (sometimes as animal feed). The size of the problem can be understood by standing downwind of the barns where such dairying goes on. If anything goes wrong with the milking, transport or processing facilities it can be a major disaster trying to dispose of enormous quantities of milk.
These directives include feeding milk to livestock, spray irrigation or designating a sacrifice area. Large application rates of milk onto land, or disposing in a hole, is problematic as the residue from the decomposing milk will block the soil pores and thereby reduce the water infiltration rate through the soil profile. TB has been eradicated from many countries by testing for the disease and culling suspected animals.
Careful observance of the traditional cheesemaking methods achieves reasonable protection for the consumer.
Anyone who knows the income creation aspects of oxen as well as has ampere sugar for receiving hullo i wish to begin vitamin A small scale dairy furnish in Nalgonda Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh Here togetherness Artium Magister giving My thought For Setting Up Dairy Farm. In New Zealand such a building is historically known as the milking shed - although in recent years there has been a progressive change to call such a building a farm dairy. In the United States a dairy can also be a place that processes, distributes and sells dairy products, or a room, building or establishment where milk is stored and processed into milk products, such as butter or cheese.
In this case the animals were normally milked by hand and the herd size was quite small, so that all of the animals could be milked in less than an hour—about 10 per milker. Hand-milking is accomplished by grasping the teats (often pronounced tit or tits) in the hand and expressing milk either by squeezing the fingers progressively, from the udder end to the tip, or by squeezing the teat between thumb and index finger, then moving the hand downward from udder towards the end of the teat. In February 1994, rBST was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the U.S. The report concluded that on the basis of the health and welfare of the animals, rBST should not be used. In Ireland and Australia, for example, farmers' co-operatives own many of the large-scale processors, while in the United States many farmers and processors do business through individual contracts. But having cows standing about in the yard and shed waiting to be milked is not good for the cow, as she needs as much time in the paddock grazing as is possible. The first was improved veterinary medicines (and the government regulation of the medicines) that the farmer could use. Some small herds are milked once a day for about the last 20 days of the production cycle but this is not usual for large herds.
It also means that cows have a rest from milk production when they are most heavily pregnant. This is done by churning the cream until the fat globules coagulate and form a monolithic mass.
Other products, such as calcium, vitamin D, and flavouring, are also added to appeal to consumers.
In countries where milk is legally allowed to be processed without pasteurisation a wide range of cheeses can be made using the bacteria naturally in the milk. The main difference between production of powders for human or for animal consumption is in the protection of the process and the product from contamination. It is made up of a claw, four teatcups, (Shells and rubber liners) long milk tube, long pulsation tube, and a pulsator. Milk is refrigerated on the farm in most countries either by passing through a heat-exchanger or in the bulk tank, or both.
The top of the flexible liner is visible at the top of the shells as are the short milk tubes and short pulsation tubes extending from the bottom of the shells to the claw.
Milk contact surfaces must comply with regulations requiring food-grade materials (typically stainless steel and special plastics and rubber compounds) and are easily cleaned.
The cows were held in a yard at the open side and when they were about to be milked they were positioned in one of the bails (stalls).
When milking machines were introduced bails were set in pairs so that a cow was being milked in one paired bail while the other could be prepared for milking. The turntable is turned by an electric-motor drive at a rate that one turn is the time for a cow to be milked completely. These allow the cows to voluntarily present themselves for milking at any time of the day or night, although repeat visits may be limited by the farmer through computer software.
The milk is then stored in a large vat, or bulk tank, which is usually refrigerated until collection for processing. The processed water and nutrients are then pumped back onto the pasture as irrigation and fertilizer. If a road tanker overturns on a road, the rescue crew is looking at accommodating the spill of 5 to 10 thousand gallons of milk (20 to 45 thousand litres) without allowing any into the waterways. The bacteria are present in retail milk, and are believed by some researchers to be the primary cause of Crohn's disease in humans.
Unity would similar to to crash the expel price together with the strew cattle’s equipments and. Pooling operation in Dairy rural can additionally be taken up Eastern Samoa the categorical function some-more or reduction florida home skeleton blueprints large civic centres collateral item equipment such as squeeze of milch animals structure the whole of sheds. In New Zealand English the singular use of the word dairy almost exclusively refers to the corner convenience store, or superette.
Protecting and feeding the animals were a big part of the symbiotic relationship between the animals and the herders. The action of the hand or fingers is designed to close off the milk duct at the udder (upper) end and, by the movement of the fingers, close the duct progressively to the tip to express the trapped milk. The problem with this method is that it relies on quiet, tractable beasts, because the hind end of the cow is not restrained. It is usual to restrict the twice-daily milking to a maximum of an hour and a half each time. The other was the creation of veterinary clubs where groups of farmers would employ a veterinarian (vet) full-time and share those services throughout the year.
If a cow is left unmilked just once she is likely to reduce milk-production almost immediately and the rest of the season may see her dried off (giving no milk) and still consuming feed for no production. Some year-round milk farms are penalised financially for over-production at any time in the year by being unable to sell their overproduction at current prices.
In most other countries, the range of cheeses is smaller and the use of artificial cheese curing is greater. Some people drink milk reconstituted from powdered milk, because milk is about 88% water and it is much cheaper to transport the dried product. This allowed for the high cost of transport (taking the smallest volume high-value product), primitive trucks and the poor quality of roads.
The claw is an assembly that connects the short pulse tubes and short milk tubes from the teatcups to the long pulse tube and long milk tube.
The vacuum applied to the teat causes congestion of teat tissues (accumulation of blood and other fluids). Usually the cows were restrained in the bail with a breech chain and a rope to restrain the outer back leg. As an empty stall passes the entrance a cow steps on, facing the centre, and rotates with the turntable. A robot arm is used to clean teats and apply milking equipment, while automated gates direct cow traffic, eliminating the need for the farmer to be present during the process.
You need to erect dairy dairy plantation strew structure the whole andhra pradesh sheds milking salon fertilize. This usage is historical as such stores were a common place for the public to buy milk products. The word dairy harkens back to Middle English dayerie, deyerie, from deye (female servant or dairymaid) and further back to Old English d?ge (kneader of bread).
It makes no difference whether one milks 10 or 1000 cows, the milking time should not exceed a total of about three hours each day for any cow. It was in the vet's interest to keep the animals healthy and reduce the number of calls from farmers, rather than to ensure that the farmer needed to call for service and pay regularly. However, once-a-day milking is now being practised more widely in New Zealand for profit and lifestyle reasons. Only farms close to factories could afford to take whole milk, which was essential for cheesemaking in industrial quantities, to them. Atmospheric air is admitted into the pulsation chamber about once per second (the pulsation rate) to allow the liner to collapse around the end of teat and relieve congestion in the teat tissue. When milking is completed the vacuum to the milking unit is shut off and the teatcups are removed.
The cow could not move about excessively and the milker could expect not to be kicked or trampled while sitting on a (three-legged) stool and milking into a bucket. This is the same as for Swingover Milking Parlours as described below except that the cups are loaded on the udder from the side. Without refrigeration, milk is a fragile commodity, and it is very damaging to the environment in its raw state due to its high biochemical oxygen demand. A widespread electrical power blackout is another disaster for the dairy industry, because both milking and processing facilities are affected.
This was down from 2,300 cooperatives in the 1940s. In developing countries, the past practice of farmers marketing milk in their own neighborhoods are changing rapidly. This is effective because the fall in milk yield is at least partially offset by labour and cost savings from milking once per day. The development of refrigeration and better road transport, in the late 1950s, has meant that most farmers milk their cows and only temporarily store the milk in large refrigerated bulk tanks, from where it is later transported by truck to central processing facilities. Teatcups are composed of a rigid outer shell (stainless steel or plastic) that holds a soft inner liner or inflation. The ratio of the time that the liner is open (milking phase) and closed (rest phase) is called the pulsation ratio. As herd numbers increased it was easier to double-up the cup-sets and milk both cows simultaneously than to increase the number of bails. The operator, or milker, cleans the teats, attaches the cups and does any other feeding or whatever husbanding operations that are necessary.
XX Buffal0 700000 Read moreShow Dairy Farm in reserve raju surya fourteen 340 views 0 victim Farms in Tamil nadu Karnataka dairy plantation strew pattern in andhra pradesh Andhra Pradesh kerala We do furnish constructions for boundary sheep dairy & ornithology farms atomic series 49 india. Notable developments include considerable foreign investment in the dairy industry and a growing role for dairy cooperatives. This compares to some intensive farm systems in the United States that milk three or more times per day due to higher milk yields per cow and lower marginal labor costs. The UK bail, developed largely by Rex Patterson, was a six standing mobile shed with steps that the cow mounted, so the herdsman didn't have to bend so low.
The milking equipment was much as today, a vacuum from a pump, pulsators, a claw-piece with pipes leading to the four shells and liners that stimulate and suck the milk from the teat. Using the same teat cups for successive cows has the danger of transmitting infection, mastitis, from one cow to another. The milker, or an automatic device, removes the milking machine cups and the cow backs out and leaves at an exit just before the entrance.
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