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COMBINED MACHINE ATTACHMENTS With the above machine we can furnish several extra Attachments.
Perhaps one of the most well recognized of the commercial grade foot powered machines with its distinctive “tractor style” seat is the Velocipede #2 scroll saw.
The adjustable seat and the convenient table height and position make sawing very easy on the operator.
When first introduced, the #2 used a round belt like other early Barnes machines as a means of connecting the big pedal driven wheel to the smaller flywheel. When Barnes obtained a patent for “Belt Gearing” in 1886 (# 354,849), they introduced what is commonly called the flat belt version of the #2. From the beginning, the #2 had a 24 inch swing (maximum distance from the edge of the work to the furthest place the blade could cut) and could take blades up to 7 inches long.
To get the proper tension on the blade, the Barnes instructions said to adjust the top arm via the turnbuckle (wing nut on the early machines) at the rear of the arms to where the top of the saw blade when in the bottom blade holder just touched the bottom of the top arm. When comparing the #2 saw to the other commercial grade scroll saw Barnes produced, the #7, there were four attachments that were only available for the #2 that clearly differentiated the two machines and really made it into a true multi-machine. This option was offered during the entire time the saw was produced with only a minor design change.
You could also buy the arms and table top of the # 1 amateur scroll saw shown in the catalog cut to the right and mount it to the bottom of the #2 after removing the normal top as with using the former attachment.
The top part of the grinding or polishing machine was also offered as an option on the round belt models.
A much needed feature on a scroll saw is some type of dust blower to get the saw dust away so the operator can see what they are doing. It appears that the tables and arms on these saws as well as the pitman arm were all made of hard maple.
Pedal styles started out as the “oval” shape (see first picture of the #2 above) and they transitioned to the “square shape” shown here and them back to the oval shape. The tractor seat and stem used on the #2 is the same as the one used on the early round belt formers. At 90 pounds and easily taken apart into a base, table top with arms and a seat, the #2 can very easily be loaded into a car or truck and transported or they can be packed for shipping. Here are a few catalog cuts advertising the Barnes #2 scroll saw from various catalogs Barnes sent out. Shopsmith woodworking lathe, Free woodworking lathe turning information from your friends at shopsmith. Wood turning by hand is a lot of fun but first you need either a spring pole lathe or a treadle lathe.
Ever since my first trip to colonial williamsburg i have been fascinated with foot powered lathes. Shopsmith woodworking lathe, Free woodworking lathe turning information friends shopsmith. As we wait for final electrical approval for our new shop, we can’t help but consider alternatives to 220 volts.
If you want to see some of these old machines in action, take a visit to Blue Ox Millworks in Eureka, Calif.
As kids we had a Hobbies treadle fretsaw in the shed and, next to the firewood axe, it was our favourite thing. We have exact replicas of many of these tools at the Steppingstone Museum up in Havre de Grace, MD too. Christopher Schwarz has helped many of us solve some pretty frustrating problems over the years. While CNC machines have been embraced by many, including some environmentalists who say the technology can be more sustainable, it's important to consider the very high energy use of digital machine tools.
Machine tools are stationary operating machines that perform the geometric shaping of workpieces. Machine tools can process different materials, but today most of them are used for the shaping of metal parts.
Lathes or turning machines are similar to milling machines but they are used to shape cylindrical workpieces. More sophisticated, foot-driven wood lathes, which had many of the essential features of modern turning machines, appeared in the middle ages. These industrial mills were stationary, complex machines using non-human power sources, and thus fit the modern definition of machine tools. The evolution of machine tools continued throughout the twentieth century, though most improvements were now made to the operation of the process. For example, in a milling machine, motors only ran the drill and mechanized the x-axis bench movement. These so-called "manual" machine tools are still in use, but they're becoming increasingly rare.
Most machine tools built after 1985 are CNC machines, but considering the long life expectancy of machine tools means the switch to CNC machines is still on-going.
It's obvious that the switch from human- and water-powered tools to fossil-fuel powered tools has made manufacturing less sustainable. A comparison of the maximum power requirements by three CNC milling machines (from 1988, 1998 and 2000) and one hand-operated milling machine (from 1985), all cutting a similar workpiece, revealed that the digital machines require 2.5 to 67 [sic] times more power than the manual machine.
The authors of this widely cited paper, Jeffrey Dahmus and Timothy Gutowski, show that the large difference in power use between several types of CNC milling machines is mainly due to different automation levels.
In the case of the most automated CNC milling machine, the power used handling the workpiece and tools is less than 15% of the total power required. In all four of the milling machines analysed by Dahmus and Gutowski, the power required to actually cut the material is the same, assuming operating parameters, materials properties, and tool characteristics remain constant. On the other hand, because of a higher production rate, the high power required for maintaining the CNC machine tools in a "ready" position can be divided over a larger amount of parts. The fully automated milling machine, on the other hand, requires 39 kJ per cubic centimetre of material removed, and is thus at least five times less efficient per unit of material removed than the other machines.
When idling times increase, the energy use per cubic centimetre of material removed increases significantly for digital machines, and much less so for the hand-operated machine tool. Secondly, depending on the automation level, energy costs are only 1 to 6% of total machining costs. Larger cost savings can be achieved by increasing the production rate rather than by using more energy efficient machine tools, so there is little to win by concentrating on energy use -- especially when energy saving measures are in conflict with higher production rates. Further increasing the production rate of digital machining tools will save money, but energy savings are less certain. A machine that works ten times faster also produces ten times more parts and needs as much more raw materials.
Increasing the production rate of machine tools lowers the specific energy used per produced part. Lowering the specific energy consumption of CNC milling machines by increasing the production rate thus leads to an important increase in total energy use.
For a given operation, the machining time was reduced from 100 minutes at the beginning of the twentieth century to one minute using modern CNC machine tools.
The rise of CNC machine tools is not the only high-energy trend in manufacturing technology. Many non-conventional machine tools rely on thermal processes instead; electrodischarge or spark erosion machining (an alternative to milling), laser beam machining, plasma arc machining, and electron beam machining (all alternatives to cutting). Originally, non-conventional machine tools were developed specifically for workpiece materials that are difficult or impossible to shape using traditional processes. However, some non-conventional machine tools have found extensive use in machining of common materials, because they offer added benefits to traditional machine tools. Compared to conventional machine tools, laser cutters offer a higher degree of precision and quality of finish. Nobody has bothered to measure the power use of a hand-controlled (electrically powered) shearing machine, but looking at power requirements of similar machine tools, this must be less than 5 kW.
When used for cutting sheet metal, laser cutters are most often used for making complex shapes instead of straight cuts. Higher power consumption can result in lower energy use per part if the production rate is high enough, but there seems to be no comparison of the energy use of laser cutters and CNC punching or shearing machines available. Nevertheless, from the scattered data I could gather, it seems unlikely that laser cutters are fast enough to compensate for their higher power requirements for most metal cutting jobs. A crucial advantage is that a laser cutter needs just one tool, no matter how complex the design of the workpiece. The maximum power requirements of fibre lasers are thus about two to three times lower than those of a CO2-laser. Furthermore, fibre laser cutters cannot replace CO2-laser cutters for all applications, at least not yet.
By looking at two of the most important machining processes -- metal milling and cutting -- it becomes clear that our manufacturing methods are becoming more energy-intensive. Automated machine tools can never become as energy efficient as their hand-controlled counterparts.
Some CNC machine tools are now available in desktop sizes, with prices that bring them within reach of richer western customers. There is quite some difference between desktop CNC machines and the CNC machines used in industry. When billions of people are just a click away from getting factories to work for them, whether in the cloud or on their desktops, this does not bode well for sustainability.
If control and maintenance overhead is a major factor in the energy use of CNC tools shouldn't you include the energy cost for the care and feeding of 3 shifts of human operators for manually-operated machine tools?
Part of the problem is that we don't pay the true cost of energy, especially electricity.
I don't see how a CNC milling machine would reduce raw material usage in a significant way compared to a manual milling machine, or how a laser cutter would reduce raw material usage in a significant way compared to a CNC punching machine.
By the way, you could use exactly the same software program to calculate the optimal layout on a rectangular sheet of metal, and then cut it out using a manual machine, no?
This rings close to home, as my tiny company builds an open hardware book scanner using CNC techniques. Do you happen to know about organisations that offer broad eco-analysis for small companies on a budget? Woodworking lessons perth – ric woodwork williams, Ric woodwork williams woodworking lessons perth woodworking in construction, carpentry and cabinetmaking woodworker factory public domain and can be downloaded free. Self-centering mortising base router – fine, Learn how to build a custom router base for simple, centered mortises. Hand peeled logs sale - peeled poles - firewood, I can produce hand peeled logs or poles of just about any size. Woodgears.ca reader projects once in a while, people send me photos of their woodworking projects. Hand peeled logs sale - peeled poles - firewood, I produce hand peeled logs poles size.
The lathe spindle is back geared for increased power and the 20” flywheel and cone pulley, driven by a 1” leather flat belt, offers three speeds.
Delivery may be possible since the lathe easily breaks down for transport in a car or for carrying up and down stairs. Barnes introduced this machine very early in their product line (about 1876) and continued producing them up into the 1930’s.
This makes it a very effective “means of converting motion” that can be used to power a scroll saw or lathe. This “Belt Gearing” was simply the use of a flat leather belt with slightly oblong holes punched in it that went over a sprocket tooth pulley. Barnes claimed that the #2 could cut up to 3 inches of pine and proportionately cut hardwoods.
They used a pin through both ends of the blade that simply rested in a small indentation in the top and bottom blade holders.
Then just depress the top wooden arm down and slip the top blade pin into the top blade holder. The drill was connected to a small pulley made as a part of the small flywheel via a small round leather belt. Since these drills had a tendency to drop down unexpectedly when sawing because of the vibration, they were likely removed and they tended to become separated from the saw itself. In fact, the former was originally called the “Foot Powered Former #2” and if you bought it as a stand alone machine, it actually came on the same base as the #2 saw. This $10 option was available to those that had a #2 scroll saw base and did not want to spring for the price of a complete grinder at $20. Very early catalogs state “tables of hardwood” while later ones clearly state the table is made of hard maple. When the transition occurred to the flat belt style, a slightly different stem was introduced for the former (Marked “Former” on the side) but it still will work on the #2 saw. This pin striping tended to follow a theme and basically outline the edge of the machine but we must keep in mind that this was done by artists that likely did use some “poetic license” in their work. In the late 1800s and early 1900s there were many non-electric choices, including lathes, table saws, scroll saws and combination machines.
It is cleverly built with a offset weight in the flywheel so that the bit rotates in the proper clockwise direction with the first push. Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine tools can convert a digital design into an object with the click of a mouse, which means the production process is completely automated.
Compared to the earlier generation of human-controlled machine tools, CNC machines use much more power, and the potential to improve their energy efficiency is very limited. As such they are indispensable for the production of nearly all modern technology, be it cars, planes, household appliances, computers, solar panels, wind turbines, or other machine tools.
Milling machines have become the most common metal shaping tools in the mechanical manufacturing industry.
Most milling machines have three axes, with a table that moves along the x-axis which sits on a saddle that moves along the y-axis.
In a milling machine the workpiece remains (relatively) stationary while material is removed by moving tools heads.
The Romans already had water-powered sawmills for cutting marble, but most automatic machines only appeared in the middle ages.
However, from the 1850s onwards, machine tools were increasingly powered by steam engines, and today almost all machine tools are powered by electricity. With CNC machines, human input is limited to the creation of a digital design on a computer, which is then automatically converted into a physical object by the machine tool. For example, in a milling machine, apart from the positioning and powering of the tool, auxiliary functions such as machine lubrication, tool changes, chip handling, tool break detection, or the loading and unloading of workpieces can all be set in automatic code, but they can also be operated by hand. There are now milling machines with four, five or more axes which also support rotation around one or multiple axes, while 3-axis milling machines can only cut away material horizontally and vertically. What's surprising, however, is that the switch from human-controlled machine tools to computer-controlled machine tools has much larger consequences for energy use. The 2000 machine, which operates in a car factory, is fully automated, while the other two digital machines only have their basic milling operations controlled by computers. The remaining 85% of the power used by the machine is constant, even when no action takes place.
If you calculate the energy used per unit of material removed, then the two less automated CNC milling machines have a similar efficiency as the manual machine.
If the two least automated milling machines are kept idling all night, their specific energy consumption would be much larger than that of the manual machine. For instance, engineers have designed alternatives to coolant and lubrication systems, as well as kinetic energy recovery systems. According to the Fraunhofer Institute, "there is no single option with a large environmental improvement potential, and moderate savings of 3-5% can be realised only with the implementation of several individual options".
The main obstacle is the extent to which machine tool builders are willing to integrate energy-saving technologies.
And that's detrimental from an energy-saving perspective, because material production completely dominates industrial energy consumption. The problem is that it implies an increase in material production, which increases total energy demand.
This effect would not exist if one CNC machine replaced four manually operated milling machines and total production would remain at the same level.
Other non-conventional machine tools rely on mechanical processes that don't use shearing as their primary source of energy, such as ultrasonic machining (an alternative to milling) and waterjet machining (an alternative to cutting). Being CNC machines, they require substantial power for computer control and auxiliary functions.
This makes them an alternative to punching machines, rather than to shearing or guillotining machines. To my knowledge, the power use of punching machines hasn't been researched, but the maximum power requirements indicated by manufacturers are between 6 and 11 kW.
Figuring out the production rate of these machines is complicated, because it depends on many factors: material properties, material thickness, design complexity, positioning system, and so on. CNC shearing machines are faster than laser cutters for cutting straight lines, and CNC punching machines are faster than laser cutters for many common metal-cutting jobs. On a CNC punching machine you need to load the right selection of tools for each specific design, and possibly introduce tool changes along the way. This market will grow because as laser cutters spread they will raise the standards of production. This comes close to the maximum power use of a CNC shearing machine (16 kW), but it is still double that of a CNC punching machine, and about 10 times higher than the power output of a hand-controlled (electrically powered) nibbling machine.
This is remarkable, because there are many reasons to believe that we should move in the opposite direction. Instead, they aim to promote making automated machine tools as efficient (and safe) as possible. For example, you can now find a desktop CNC milling machine for less than € 5,000, and a desktop laser cutter for about € 12,000. A desktop CNC milling machine can only mill wood or aluminium, and a desktop laser cutter only cuts thin wood, plastics or cardboard. It has a control panel and a digital readout, but the operator is in control of all movements. However, this consumer-driven digital maker revolution is just as unsustainable as the digital fabrication revolution in large factories. If consumers can use fast manufacturing machines, total material production will likely increase, similar to what is happening in factories. We'll create even more stuff, and each product will cost much more energy than if produced with conventional methods. Contrary to cars, which cannot get infinitely larger and faster because they have to adapt to road sizes and traffic laws, there is no upper limit when it comes to building larger and faster machine tools.
I know that sounds a bit crass, but in commercial operations that cost is a huge consideration. They had a program that would take a set of part designs and optimize the layout on a rectangular sheet of metal.
In all the studies I consulted, material use efficiency was not mentioned as an advantage of CNC or non-conventional machine tools. Round belts (essentially a larger version of what is used on a sewing machine) tended to slip as there was less contact between the belt and the flywheel when compared with the later flat belt drive with the sprocket and holes in the belt. This made for easy installation and removal of blades as well as allow for adjustments for blades of differing lengths.
To use the drill, the operator simply pushed the drill down to tension the belt and drill holes in the work.
To use the former attachment, you had to remove the scroll saw top and insert the former top into the base of the saw. Not really sure why this was offered as an option as the #2 could do everything the #1 could do and even more. Barnes, however, offered a very simple blower that was no more than a small piece of wood with a slit in it that was mounted under the top arm and near the blade.
The base color of the early models was a burnt red and later models were predominately gray. Back in 1973, Eric Hollenbeck started a salvage logging company that grew to include a millwork shop that specializes in authentic Victorian era details, a living history park and a hands-on educational program in conjunction with the local school. The use of digital machine tools has spread rapidly in factories over the last two decades, and they have now become cheap and user-friendly enough to bring them within reach of workshops and makers.
Secondary processes provide the final shape and size with tighter control on dimension and surface characteristics.
They are so fundamental to manufacturing that the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) defines "industrialisation" as the capacity to produce machine tools.
There is a great diversity in specialized machine tools, but common examples are sawing and cutting machines, drilling machines, grinding machines, turning machines (lathes) and milling machines.
Milling is a process of cutting away material by feeding a workpiece past a rotating cutting tool. Woodworking hand tools with the same kinematic motions as modern machines, such as the cord lathe and the bow drill, were developed in ancient times. The Europeans used sawmills, boring mills, turning mills, grinding and sharpening mills, polishing mills, and metal slitting and rolling mills that were powered by water, wind or animals. The cutting tool itself was powered by steam engines or electricity, but workers shaped the workpiece and took care of all auxiliary actions. Data was fed into the machine on punched tape, which allowed the machine tool to work independently.
To achieve this, the digital design is fed into software that converts it into a set of symbolically coded instructions arranged in a proper sequence. This power is required whenever the machine is turned on, independent of whether or not a part is produced.
As a consequence, the masses of the machine structure, such as moving machine components, have to be increased. This would be even more so for the fully automated CNC machine, but Dahmus and Gutowski note that these types of machines are often operated 24 hours per day and are idling less than 10% of their total life time. Further energy savings could be achieved by using lightweight but strong materials, more efficient motors, more flexible machines, a transition to power saving modes during stand-by periods, and so on.
For instance, when taking into account the large power use during idling, it's obvious that a power saving mode during stand-by periods could be as useful on a machine tool as it is on a laptop.
The more fundamental problem, however, is that an increase of the production rate also implies an increase in material use.
For example, the manufacture of a one kilogram steel part takes approximately 3 MJ for milling and 27 MJ for steel production. Conventional machining processes (such as milling and turning) remove material by applying forces on the material with a cutting tool that is harder than the material. For example, waterjet machining uses mechanical energy, but material is removed by erosion. In the first case, conventional machining is inadequate because it's time-consuming and leads to unacceptable tool wear.
Contrary to milling, a three-dimensional process, laser cutters operate in only two dimensions.
Cutting and drilling can be achieved with no force applied to the workpiece, avoiding damage. Apart from that, they also make use of a more energy-instensive cutting "tool" than the machines they replace. Just like a laser cutter, a punching machine can cut free forms in 2D sheet metal through the process of nibbling, but compared to laser cutters they have lower resolution and produce parts with a rougher finish.
The unique selling point of the laser cutter lies less in speed and more in accuracy, product quality, and flexibility.
This means that the more complicated the design is, the faster and more advantageous a laser cutter becomes compared to a punching machine. Precisely because of the availability of laser cutters, products will get more complex, more accurate, more qualitative, and more flexible. While the CO2-laser is the most commonly used technology in sheet metal industry, the more efficient fibre laser source technology is an emerging alternative.
For sheet metal thicker than 4 to 6 mm, CO2 lasers are still the best choice regarding energy efficiency, working speed and cutting quality. Our dependence on non-renewable energy sources has created tough challenges, like climate change, peak oil, safekeeping nuclear waste, environmental degradation, and geopolitical conflicts. This strategy will spur economic growth, but won't prevent the increase of energy consumption in manufacturing. Likewise, improvements in energy-efficiency pave the way for ever larger and more powerful machines, as machine tools keep growing in size, speed and complexity. However, some fab labs and makerspaces have been introducing industry-scale machine tools lately, and the general expectation is that the possibilities of desktop manufacturing tools will improve quickly. We've been able to produce everything locally for decades using hand-controlled machine tools. This might be achieved with more complex part designs that are difficult for a human operator to produce, but trivial to a computer reading a 3-D model.
In some states downwind of a lot of coal plants the health cost is more like 10 times retail. Quick question: what if, with renewable energy, we are able take the energy consumption out of the equation?
I know of one woodworking shop where thousands of house windows were manufactured using only Barnes foot powered machines. Once Barnes began manufacturing the flat belt model #2 scroll saw, the method of powering the former changed and that necessitated a change in the design of the former as well. The first place to look for information about old woodworking machinery is VintageMachinery.org. Among the highlights is a great collection of pancake-powered woodworking tools, with photos available online.
The computer of the CNC machine then executes the program step by step by moving the machines slides and the tool head accordingly. Run-time operations include the power required for positioning the workpiece and loading the tools. This, in turn, require motors with high torque output which are able to increase the forces needed during acceleration and deceleration. CNC machine tools are used precisely because they can produce higher quantity of components in a shorter time and at lower costs.
Such forces induce plastic deformation within the workpiece leading to shear deformation and chip formation. In the second case, conventional machining falls short because the tool bit can cause surface cracks and residual stresses in brittle materials. They have become popular for cutting common sheet metal, at the expense of more traditional technologies such as punching, blanking, and guillotining. There is only a small heat-affected zone, which reduces the chances of warping the material (a problem with machine tools based on thermal energy). A laser cutter works by melting or evaporating material, which is energy-intensive compared to shearing or punching. If we plan a switch to a manufacturing industry based on renewable energy, we would be smart to evolve to less energy-intensive machine tools instead.
So, choosing fewer automated manufacturing technologies should be at least part of the solution.
Furthermore, there isn't a strict separation between the digital revolution inside and outside factories. I still feel there could be real opportunity for repair, remanufacturing, creating goods with higher value etc.
Consumers can already send digital designs to "cloud manufacturers", which use industrial-scale digital machine tools to produce whatever you can design on your computer. Secondly, the technology becomes available and cheaper fast, environmentalist have a task of helping to find the most useful applications (and preventing a new wave of gadget-culture). For screw-cutting, a pair of lead screws, turning in opposite directions, are selected by a lever which positions a half nut on one or the other screw for forward or reverse movement of the carriage.
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