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09.06.2015


Building greenhouse plans, You know, building your own greenhouse just makes economical sense. Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures. The diphenoxide (Na2(OC6H4)2CMe2) reacts with phosgene to give a chloroformate, which subsequently is attacked by another phenoxide. Unlike most thermoplastics, polycarbonate can undergo large plastic deformations without cracking or breaking. Polycarbonate is mainly used for electronic applications that capitalize on its collective safety features. A major application of polycarbonate is the production of Compact Discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs. In the automotive industry, injection-molded polycarbonate can produce very smooth surfaces that make it well-suited for sputter deposition or evaporation deposition of aluminium without the need for a base-coat. So-called "theft-proof" large plastic packaging for smaller items, which cannot be opened by hand, is uniformly made from polycarbonate. Polycarbonate, being a versatile material with attractive processing and physical properties, has attracted myriad smaller applications.
Polycarbonate is commonly used in eye protection, as well as in other projectile-resistant viewing and lighting applications that would normally indicate the use of glass, but require much higher impact-resistance. The light weight of polycarbonate as opposed to glass has led to development of electronic display screens that replace glass with polycarbonate, for use in mobile and portable devices. Polycarbonate is also used as a printing substrate for nameplate and other forms of industrial grade under printed products. Many polycarbonate grades are used in medical applications and comply with both ISO 10993-1 and USP Class VI standards (occasionally referred to as PC-ISO).
Polycarbonates were first discovered in 1898 by Alfred Einhorn, a German scientist working at the University of Munich.[19] However, after 30 years of laboratory research, this class of materials was abandoned without commercialization.
Also in 1953, and one week after the invention at Bayer, Daniel Fox at General Electric in Schenectady, New York, independently synthesized a branched polycarbonate.
Once patent priority was resolved, in Bayer's favor, Bayer began commercial production under the trade name Makrolon in 1958 and GE began production under the name Lexan in 1960.
More than 100 studies have explored the bioactivity of bisphenol A derived from polycarbonates.


An analysis of the literature on bisphenol A leachate low-dose effects by vom Saal and Hughes published in August 2005 seems to have found a suggestive correlation between the source of funding and the conclusion drawn. Wallpaper that displayed are from unknown origin, and we do not intend to infringe any legitimate intellectual, artistic rights or copyright. Polycarbonates used in engineering are strong, tough materials, and some grades are optically transparent. A balance of useful features, including temperature resistance, impact resistance and optical properties, positions polycarbonates between commodity plastics and engineering plastics.
Low molecular mass grades are easier to mold than higher grades, but their strength is lower as a result. As a result, it can be processed and formed at room temperature using sheet metal techniques, such as bending on a brake. Being a good electrical insulator and having heat-resistant and flame-retardant properties, it is used in various products associated with electrical and telecommunications hardware.
These discs are produced by injection molding polycarbonate into a mold cavity that has on one side a metal stamper containing a negative image of the disc data, while the other mold side is a mirrored surface. The use of injection molded drinking bottles, glasses and food containers is common, but the use of BPA in the manufacture of polycarbonate has stirred serious controversy (see Potential hazards in food contact applications), leading to development and use of "BPA-free" plastics in various formulations.
Such displays include newer e-ink and some LCD screens, though CRT, plasma screen and other LCD technologies generally still require glass for its higher melting temperature and its ability to be etched in finer detail. Research resumed in 1953, when Hermann Schnell at Bayer in Uerdingen, Germany patented the first linear polycarbonate. Bisphenol A appeared to be released from polycarbonate animal cages into water at room temperature and it may have been responsible for enlargement of the reproductive organs of female mice.[23] However, the animal cages used in the research were fabricated from industrial grade polycarbonate, rather than FDA food grade polycarbonate. If you are the legitimate owner of the one of the content we display the wallpaper, and do not want us to show, then please contact us and we will immediately take any action is needed either remove the wallpaper or maybe you can give time to maturity it will limit our wallpaper content view.
Therefore, a hard coating is applied to polycarbonate eyewear lenses and polycarbonate exterior automotive components. The toughest grades have the highest molecular mass, but are much more difficult to process. Due to its low weight and high impact resistance, polycarbonate is the dominant material for making automotive headlamp lenses. These grades are sold as UV Stabilised Polycarbonate to Injection Moulding and Extrusion companies.


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The cyclohexane is used as a comonomer to suppress crystallisation tendency of the BPA-derived product. The characteristics of polycarbonate compare to those of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic), but polycarbonate is stronger and will hold up longer to extreme temperature. This makes it valuable in prototyping applications where transparent or electrically non-conductive parts are needed, which cannot be made from sheet metal. However, automotive headlamps require outer surface coatings because of its low scratch resistance and susceptibility to ultra violet degradation (yellowing).
Windscreens in small motorized vehicles are commonly made of polycarbonate, such as for motorcycles, ATVs, golf carts, and small planes and helicopters.
Other applications including Polycarbonate sheet may have the anti-UV layer added as a special coating or a coextrusion for enhanced weathering resistance.
Polycarbonates do not have a unique Resin identification code (RIC) and are identified as "Other", 7 on the RIC.
Polycarbonate is highly transparent to visible light, with better light transmission than many kinds of glass. Stress from fasteners, plastic welding and molding render polycarbonate susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when it comes in contact with certain accelerants such as salt water and plastisol. Polycarbonate is also known by a variety of trademarked names, including Lexan, Makrolon, and others.
It can be laminated to make bullet-proof "glass", although "bullet-resistant" is more accurate for the thinner windows, such as are used in bullet-resistant windows in automobiles. The thicker barriers of transparent plastic used in teller's windows and barriers in banks are also polycarbonate.



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